Full Issue


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Conference Proceedings

object(Publication)#157 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5860) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-10-29" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-11-19 10:21:32" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7171) ["sectionId"]=> int(105) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(5736) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(4371) "Age UK (2021). Information about coronavirus (COVID-19). Online: https://www.ageuk.org.uk/information-advice/coronavirus/coronavirus-guidance/coronavirus/ Arutz Sheva (2021, August 8). Arab Minister Issawi Frej: Arab-Israelis are faking COVID documentation. Online: https://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/311361 Ben Zion, I. (2021, January 18). Israel trades Pfizer doses for medical data in vaccine blitz. Medical Press. Online: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-01-israel-pfizer-doses-medical-vaccine.html Bonotti, M. & Zech, S. T. (2021). Recovering Civility During COVID-19 (Palgrave-Macmillan Open Access). Cohen, M. (2019, December 4). Life expectancy continues to rise: Modiin Illit at the top of the list, Arab communities at the bottom. Maariv. (Hebrew). Online: https://www.maariv.co.il/news/health/Article-733318 Cohen, M. (2021, August 29). The third-dose vaccination campaign will be open to everyone; Exemption from full isolation for vaccinated people returning from abroad. Walla. (Hebrew). Online: https://news.walla.co.il/item/3457109 Corona virus (2021, August 29). A million have not been vaccinated at all yet, 37,000 received the booster yesterday. (Hebrew). Online: https://bit.ly/3CuJa3w Drukman, Y. (2020, September 6). Israel sees coronavirus infection rate spike to worrying 10%. Ynet. (Hebrew). Drukman, Y. (2021, March 12). More than 4 million Israelis are vaccinated in two doses, and morbidity is declining. Ynet. (Hebrew). Globs (2021, August 24). Only a third of Arab society got vaccinated? The mistake of Nachman Shai. (Hebrew). Online: https://www.globes.co.il/news/article.aspx?did=1001382604 Harel, A. (2020, August 20). Israel is having difficulty reducing its morbidity among the ultraorthodox and Arabs and is approaching another closure. Haaretz. (Hebrew). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (2018). Israel’s Population by Religion and Self-Determination of Degree of Religiosity. (Hebrew). Online: https://bit.ly/3ErowBH Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (2020, December 3). Increase in total mortality in Israel during the corona period: data until the end of October 2020. (Hebrew). Online: https://bit.ly/3mEdUrT Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (2021). General information. (Hebrew). Online: https://www.cbs.gov.il/he/Pages/default.aspx Johns Hopkins (2021). Coronavirus Resource Center. Online: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality Leshem, E. & Wilder-Smith, A. (2021, May 5). COVID-19 vaccine impact in Israel and a way out of the pandemic. The Lancet. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01018-7 Miller, E. (2020, March 16). How is Israel Dealing with Coronavirus? Honest Reporting. Online: https://honestreporting.com/how-israel-dealing-coronavirus/ Ministry of Health (2021a). Coronavirus in Israel – An Overview. (Hebrew). Online: https://datadashboard.health.gov.il/COVID-19/general Ministry of Health (2021b). Information on receiving a third vaccine against Corona. (Hebrew). Online: https://govextra.gov.il/ministry-of-health/covid19-vaccine/covid19-vaccine-3rd-dose/ MivzakLive (2021, August 23). Ministry of Health: 1,482,503 received third-dose vaccination. (Hebrew). Online: https://www.mivzaklive.co.il/archives/471517 Pilot, A. (2020, September 6). They let the IDF defeat the corona – but it was too late. Ynet. (Hebrew). Online: https://www.ynet.co.il/article/rJ9W31fEP#autoplay PressNewsAgency (2020, November 13). Netanyahu says Israel signed agreement with Pfizer for coronavirus vaccine. Online: https://pressnewsagency.org/netanyahu-says-israel-signed-agreement-with-pfizer-for-coronavirus-vaccine/ Shraki, Y. (2020, June 2). Special project: The ultraorthodox world’s dealing with the corona plague. N12. (Hebrew). Online: https://www.mako.co.il/news-israel/2020_q2/Article-65cb8314c367271027.htm Sokol, S. (2021, August 11). The Israeli Graphs that Prove COVID Vaccines Are Working. Haaretz. Times of Israel (2019, May 3). Israel’s population tops 9 million, including 45% of world Jewry. Online: https://www.timesofisrael.com/israels-population-tops-9-million-including-45-of-world-jewry/ Times of Israel (2021, February 3). Israel expands vaccination drive to anyone over the age of 16, starting Thursday. 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This paper considers Israel’s response to the challenges raised by the Covid-19 pandemic with a specific focus on the invoked public policies and the related political, economic and legal concerns. I first provide some background information. Then, I outline the keys for the initial success in confronting the coronavirus pandemic. Three factors contributed to the initial Israeli success, namely: the government’s swift and effective reaction to the pandemic; the close cooperation and coordination between the organisations that were mobilised to counter the pandemic, and the effective implementation of governmental policies. However, mistakes were made during the second wave of the pandemic.

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object(Publication)#159 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5862) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-10-29" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-11-19 10:22:35" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7173) ["sectionId"]=> int(105) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(5738) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(5915) "Bayer, L. (2020, April 1). 13 countries “deeply concerned” over rule of law. Politico. Online: https://www.politico.eu/article/viktor-orban-hungary-13-countries-deeply-concerned-over-rule-of-law/ Council of Europe (2011). Report on the rule of law adopted by the Venice Commission at its 86th Plenary Session. Online: https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/default.aspx?pdffile=CDL-AD(2011)003rev-f Council of the European Union (2014a). Press release nr. 16936/14, 3362nd Council meeting, General Affairs. Brussels, 16 December 2014. Online: http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-16936-2014-INIT/en Council of the European Union (2014b). Opinion of the Legal Service, Communication from the Commission on a new EU Framework to strengthen the Rule of Law – compatibility with the Treaties. Online: http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-10296-2014-INIT/en Déclaration sur l’identité europenne (Copenhague, 14 décembre 1973). Online: https://www.cvce.eu/obj/declaration_sur_l_identite_europeenne_copenhague_14_decembre_1973-fr-02798dc9-9c69-4b7d-b2c9-f03a8db7da32.html de Combles de Nayves, P. (2020, March 22). Ne rajoutons pas l’arbitraire à la catastrophe sanitaire. Dalloz. Online: https://www.dalloz-actualite.fr/node/ne-rajoutons-pas-l-arbitraire-catastrophe-sanitaire#.YXvBaJ5BzIU European Commission (2014). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. A new EU Framework to strengthen the Rule of Law. Online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:caa88841-aa1e-11e3-86f9-01aa75ed71a1.0023.02/DOC_1&format=DOC European Commission (2017). Follow up to the European Parliament resolution with recommendations to the Commission on the establishment of an EU Mechanism on Democracy, the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights, adopted by the Commission on 17 January 2017. Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/spdoc.do?i=27630&j=0&l=en European Commission (2019). Communication from the European Commission of 17 July 2019. Strengthening the rule of law within the Union. A blueprint for action. Online: https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2019/EN/COM-2019-343-F1-EN-MAIN-PART-1.PDF European Parliament (1992). The Maastricht Treaty. Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/about-parliament/hu/in-the-past/the-parliament-and-the-treaties/maastricht-treaty European Parliament (1997). Treaty of Amsterdam. Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/about-parliament/hu/in-the-past/the-parliament-and-the-treaties/treaty-of-amsterdam European Parliament (2013). Resolution of 3 July 2013 on the situation of fundamental rights: standards and practices in Hungary (pursuant to the European Parliament resolution of 16 February 2012). Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-7-2013-0315_HU.html?redirect European Parliament (2016). Resolution of 25 October 2016 with recommendations to the Commission on establishing an EU mechanism on democracy, the rule of law and fundamental rights. Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P8-TA-2016-0409+0+DOC+XML+V0//HU European Parliament (2020a). Agenda of the European Parliament plenary session of 14 May 2020. Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/OJQ-9-2020-05-14_HU.html European Parliament (2020b). Resolution of 17 April 2020 on coordinated EU action to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences. Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-9-2020-0054_HU.html Ferraro, F. & Carmona, J. (2015). Les droits fondamentaux dans l’Union européenne. Le rôle de la Charteaprès le traité de Lisbonne. Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2015/554168/EPRS_IDA%282015%29554168_FR.pdf Gát, Á. B. (2019). Küzdelem az Európai színtéren – a Magyarországgal szembeni „jogállamiság”-kritika feltáratlan összefüggései. Közép- és Kelet-európai Történelem és Társadalom Kutatásért Alapítvány. Hassenteufel, P. (2011). Sociologie politique: l’action publique. Armand Colin. Online: https://doi.org/10.3917/arco.hasse.2011.01 Juncker, J.-C. (2014, July 15). A new start for Europe. Opening statement in the European Parliament plenary session. Online: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/hu/SPEECH_14_567 Letter from the German, Dutch, Finnish and Danish Foreign Ministers to the President of the European Commission, 6 March 2013. Online: https://www.eerstekamer.nl/eu/documenteu/_brief_nederland_duitsland/f=/vji8oh6slx9o.pdf Magyar Nemzet (2020, May 12). Jött a válasz Brüsszelből: Varga Judit nem kap szót az Ep-ben. Hírtv. Online: https://hirtv.hu/hirtvkulfold/jott-a-valasz-brusszelbol-varga-judit-nem-kap-szot-az-ep-ben-2501170 Mandiner (2020, March 23). Cseh EP-képviselő tiltakozik a magyar veszélyhelyzetet meghosszabbító törvényjavaslat ellen. Online: https://mandiner.hu/cikk/20200323_cseh_ep_kepviselo_tiltakozik_a_magyar_veszelyhelyzetet_meghosszabbito_torellen Mathieu, B. (2017). Le droit contre la démocratie ? LGDJ. Szájer, J. (2020, April 6). Rule of law and the functioning of the European Parliament under the coronavirus pandemic – how to restore the lawful operation. Fidesz-eu. Online: https://fidesz-eu.hu/en/rule-of-law-and-the-functioning-of-the-european-parliament-under-the-coronavirus-pandemic-how-to-restore-the-lawful-operation/ Téglási, A. (2014). Az emberi jogok védelmének nemzetközi rendszere. In Zs. Bende & I. Halász (Eds.), Összehasonlító alkotmányjog. Fejezetek az alkotmány, az állam, az államszervezet és az alapvető jogok témaköréből. NKE Közigazgatás-tudományi Kar. Varga, A. Zs. (2019). From Ideal to Idol? The Concept of the Rule of Law. Dialóg Campus. Online: https://nkerepo.uni-nke.hu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/12507/web_PDF_From_Ideal_to_Idol.pdf;jsessionid=EDB476C4E8617752010B6B1EDD215CC2?sequence=1 " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(444) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "19-33" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.1.3" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(2337) "

The issue of the rule of law has been on the European Union’s (EU) agenda since the beginning of the 2010s. The legal history of the EU shows that the EU’s approach to the topic of the rule of law underwent significant changes. Initially, the Member States called for guarantees of fundamental rights in EU institutions. This trend began to change in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when the possibility of European rule of law control over Member States and the predecessor of the current Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) were introduced by the Treaty of Amsterdam. However, the idea that the EU institutions can constantly monitor the Member States in the name of the rule of law has only emerged and started dominating the European political agenda since the early 2010s. Over the last decade, the EU institutions have continuously expanded their toolkit for monitoring Member States in this regard.
Following calls from some Member States and the European Parliament, in 2014 the Commission set up the new EU framework to strengthen the rule of law. In the same year, the European Council introduced an annual rule of law dialogue. In 2016, the European Parliament proposed the establishment of an annual rule of law report that monitors all Member States. At first, the European Commission was reluctant to accept this idea, but finally it introduced an annual rule of law report in 2020. However, the EU’s policy on the rule of law suffers from fundamental shortcomings, which were especially visible during the first wave of the coronavirus crisis in the spring of 2020. In the pandemic situation, it has become even more apparent that the EU’s policy on the rule of law raises a significant issue of EU institutions exceeding their competences and stands on a questionable legal basis.
Criticisms formulated against Hungary during the pandemic have revealed that the EU institutions do not provide sufficient guarantees for an objective examination of the situation of the rule of law in the Member States. The situation brought about by the coronavirus has also raised a number of questions regarding the lawful functioning of EU institutions, which shows the need for a rule of law mechanism capable of verifying that the EU institutions themselves also properly respect the rule of law.

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Dósa, Á., Hanti, P. & Kovácsy, Zs. (2016). Kommentár az egészségügyi törvényhez. Wolters Kluwer. Drinóczi, T. & Bień-Kacała, A. (2020). COVID-19 in Hungary and Poland: extraordinary situation and illiberal constitutionalism. The Theory and Practice of Legislation, 8(1–2), 171–192. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/20508840.2020.1782109 EU Commission Press (2021). State aid: Commission approves €478 million Hungarian scheme to support small and medium-sized enterprises affected by coronavirus outbreak, 01 February 2021. Online: http://www.pubaffairsbruxelles.eu/state-aid-commission-approves-e478-million-hungarian-scheme-to-support-small-and-medium-sized-enterprises-affected-by-coronavirus-outbreak-eu-commission-press/ Fazekas, M. (2020). Az Ákr. hatálya. Az Ákr. tárgyi hatálya: a hatósági ügy. In M Fazekas (Ed.), Közigazgatási jog. Általános rész III. ELTE Eötvös Kiadó. Fazekas, J. (2014). Central administration. In A. Patyi & Á. 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Nemzeti Népegézsésgügyi Központ (2020). Az országos tisztifőorvos tiltó és kötelező határozata a járványügyi helyzetre tekintettel, 26 March 2020. Online: https://koronavirus.gov.hu/cikkek/az-orszagos-tisztifoorvos-tilto-es-kotelezo-hatarozata-jarvanyugyi-helyzetre-tekintettel Potěšil, L., Rozsnyai, K., Olszanowski, J. & Horvat, M. (2021). Simplification of Administrative Procedure on the Example of the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary (V4 Countries). Administrative Sciences, 11(1). Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010009 Rozsnyai, K., Hoffman, I. & Bencsik, A. (2021). Üres kagylóhéjak? – Az általános eljárási szabályok. Jogtudományi Közlöny, 76(7–8), 309–318. Szente, Z. (2020). A 2020. március 11-én kihirdetett veszélyhelyzet alkotmányossági problémái. MTA Law Working Papers, 9. Vörös, I. (2020). A felhatalmazási törvénytől az egészségügyi válsághelyzetig és tovább. In F. Gárdos-Orosz & V. O. Lőrincz (Eds.), Jogi diagnózisok. A Covid-19 világjárvány hatásai a jogrendszerre. L’Harmattan Kiadó. Legal sources Act CLIV of 1997 on Health Care. Act CXXX of 2010 on Legislation. Act CXXVIII of 2011 on Disaster Management. Act CL of 2016 on the Code of General Administrative Procedure. Act XII of 2020. Act LVII of 2020 on the termination of the state of danger. Act LVIII of 2020 on transitional rules related to the termination of the emergency and on epidemiological emergency. Act CIX of 2020. Fundamental Law of Hungary (25 April 2011). Government Decree no. 282/2000 (17 June 2020). Government Decree no. 40/2020 (11 March 2020). Government Decree no. 283/2020 (17 June 2020). Government Decree no. 408/2020 (30 August 2020). Government Decree no. 176/2002 (15 August 2002). Government Decree no. 245/2010 (6 October 2010)." 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The Hungarian administrative law has been significantly impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic. Several rules – which were introduced during the state of danger based on the epidemic situation – have been incorporated into the Hungarian legal system. The administrative procedural law has been influenced by the epidemic transformation. However, the rules on e-administration have not been reformed significantly (due to the digitalisation reforms of the last years), but the rules on administrative licenses and permissions have been amended. The priority of the general code on administrative procedure has been weakened: new, simplified procedure and regime have been introduced. The local self-governance has been impacted by the reforms. The transformation has had two, opposite trends. On the one hand, the Hungarian administrative system became more centralised during the last year: municipal revenues and task performance have been partly centralised. The Hungarian municipal system has been concentrated, as well. The role of the second-tier government, the counties (megye), has been strengthened by the establishment of the special economic (investment) zones. On the other hand, the municipalities could be interpreted as a ‘trash can’ of the Hungarian public administration: they received new, mainly unpopular competences on the restrictions related to the pandemic. Although these changes have been related to the current epidemic situation, it seems, that the ‘legislative background’ of the pandemic offered an opportunity to the central government to pass significant reforms. From 2021 a new phenomenon can be observed: the state of danger has remained, but the majority of the restrictions have been terminated by the Government of Hungary. Therefore, the justification of the state of danger during the summer of 2021 became controversial in Hungarian public discourse.

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Implications of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health. Online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/67345 World Health Organization (2021a). Coronavirus Disease Vaccines. Online: https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-vaccines World Health Organization (2021b). Director-General’s Opening Remarks at 148th Session of the Executive Board. Online: https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-148th-session-of-the-executive-board Yu, Z., Razzaq, A., Rehman, A., Shah, A., Jameel, K. & Mor, R. S. (2021). Disruption in Global Supply Chain and Socio-Economic Shocks: A Lesson from COVID-19 for Sustainable Production and Consumption. Operations Management Research. pp. 1–16. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12063-021-00179-y" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(444) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "51-63" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.1.5" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1125) "

The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted multiple facets of our lives and created a number of legal and ethical dilemmas. One of the greatest challenges at present is the production and distribution of the Covid-19 vaccine. Refusing to supply Covid vaccines widely could affect millions worldwide, and the pandemic may last for a long time. The competition authorities’ monitoring of the health sector in many countries has been subject to changes in the
current crisis. The question is whether we can force the Covid-19 vaccine manufacturers, legally and ethically, to sell their products and share their information with their competitors. Furthermore, what are the post-pandemic consequences of policies adopted during the pandemic? This paper employs a descriptive-analytical method to examine the importance of competition and intellectual property policies as they relate to Covid-19. It concludes that instead of focusing on individual rights in a crisis, public rights need to be emphasised. However, we should not underestimate the post-pandemic consequences of policies adopted during the Covid-19 pandemic.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(13) "Hosseini Mina" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(125) "A Covid Competition Dilemma: Legal and Ethical Challenges Regarding the Covid-19 Vaccine Policies during and after the Crisis" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#878 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7157) ["email"]=> string(23) "mina.hosseini@gmail.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5847) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "IR" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0202-3156" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(81) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:55:"Assistant Professor, University of Science and Culture,";}" ["hu_HU"]=> string(81) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:55:"Assistant Professor, University of Science and Culture,";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(8) "Hosseini" ["hu_HU"]=> string(8) "Hosseini" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(4) "Mina" ["hu_HU"]=> string(4) "Mina" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(8) "COVID-19" [1]=> string(15) "Competition Law" [2]=> string(14) "Vaccine Policy" [3]=> string(6) "Ethics" [4]=> string(21) "Intellectual Property" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#895 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(20305) ["id"]=> int(4650) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5847) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#844 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5818) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-10-29" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-11-19 10:24:45" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7123) ["sectionId"]=> int(105) ["seq"]=> int(5) ["submissionId"]=> int(5694) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3782) "Agamben, G. (2004). Ausnahmezustand. Suhrkamp. Csink, L. (2017). Mikor legyen a jogrend különleges? Iustum Aequum Salutare, 13(4), 7–16. Online: http://ias.jak.ppke.hu/hir/ias/20174sz/01b_Csink_IAS_2017_4.pdf Fődi, K. (2020, April 10). Nekem kéne feláldozni magam, vagy mások áldozzák fel magukat értem? 444. Online: https://444.hu/2020/04/10/nekem-kene-felaldozni-magam-vagy-masok-aldozzak-fel-magukat-ertem Jakab, A. (2007). A szükségállapot alapvető dilemmája és jogi természete a német alkotmányjog és irodalom tükrében. Jogtudományi Közlöny, 62(2), 39–49. Jakab, A. & Till, Sz. (2016). A különleges jogrend. In L. Trócsányi & B. Schanda (Eds.), Bevezetés az alkotmányjogba (pp. 485–513). HVG-Orac. Kádár, P. (2014). A kivételes hatalomtól a különleges jogrend idején bevezethető intézkedésekig. Katonai Jogi és Hadijogi Szemle, 2(1), 5–46. Kelemen, R. (2019). A különleges jogrend szabályozása az egyes alkotmányokban I. Általános alapvetés, fogalmi elhatárolás. Magyar Katonai Jogi és Hadijogi Társaság. Vélemények a Katonai Jog Világából, 1. Kiss, B. (2018). Az alapjogok korlátozása és a közérdek. In K. Szamel (Ed.), Közérdek és közigazgatás (pp. 169–182). MTA JTI. Kiss, B. (2013). Some remarks on the provisions of the new fundamental law of Hungary regarding fundamental rights. In R. Keča (Ed.), Harmonizaciǰa srpskog i mađarskog prava sa pravom Evropske Uniǰe (pp. 513–523). Pravni fakultet u Novom Sadu, Centar za izdavačku delatnost. Kiss, B. (2018). Az alapjogok korlátozhatósága különleges jogrendben, különös tekintettel a (büntető-) igazságszolgáltatásra vonatkozó rendkívüli intézkedésekre. In M. Homoki-Nagy et al. (Eds.), Ünnepi kötet dr. Nagy Ferenc egyetemi tanár 70. születésnapjára (pp. 555–556). SZTE ÁJTK. Koja, F. (2003). Állami szükségállapot és a szükségállapotra vonatkozó jog. In P. Takács (Ed.), Államtan (pp. 797–817). Szent István Társulat. Mészáros, G. (2017). Különleges helyzetek és beavatkozási lehetőségek az alkotmányos demokráciákban [Doctoral dissertation, Debreceni Egyetem Marton Géza Állam- és Jogtudományi Doktori Iskola]. Mógor, J. & Horváth, L. (2009). Alkotmányos korlátok (garanciák) a minősített időszakokról szóló szabályozásban. Bolyai Szemle, 18(3), 35–45. Müller, P. & Puhl, J. (2020, April 21). What the Economy Needs Is a Blitzkrieg. Interview Conducted by Peter Müller and Jan Puhl. Spiegel. Online: https://bit.ly/3mkZXjH Sándor, L. (2020a, April 13). A szükséghelyzet nemzetközi. Beszélgetés Federica Cristanival. Mandiner. Online: https://precedens.mandiner.hu/cikk/20200413_a_szukseghelyzet_nemzetkozi Sándor, L. (2020b, September 15). “Nincsen egységes mintája a különleges jogrendnek”. Beszélgetés Szilágyi János Edével. Mandiner. Online: https://bit.ly/3Gxvsz9 Schmitt, C. (2005). Political Theology. Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. Trans. by G. Schwab. University of Chicago Pess. Szabó, Cs. & Horváth, L. (2012). Magyarország Alaptörvényének és a Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmányának összevetése a különleges jogrend vonatkozásában. Hadmérnök, 7(2), 395–404. Szilvay, G. (2020, April 17). The nature of Hungary’s ‘state of emergency’. The European Conservative. Online: https://europeanconservative.com/2020/04/the-nature-of-hungarys-state-of-emergency Techet, P. (2020, April 8). Tényleg Carl Schmittet kell olvasni, hogy megértsük a járványhelyzetet? Azonnali. Online: https://bit.ly/3w3JlAo Till, Sz. (2019). Különleges jogrend. In A. Jakab & B. Fekete (Eds.), Internetes Jogtudományi Enciklopédia (IJOTEN). Online: http://ijoten.hu/szocikk/kulonleges-jogrend" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(444) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "65-72" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.1.6" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1911) "

The various legal theorists dealing with the operation and effect of law have mostly examined situations that can be described as occurring in the usual, regular, normal state of social life. Over the last half century, and particularly since the formation and later enlargement of the European Union, the requirement of the rule of law has emerged as a key topic. The test of the rule of law is as follows: it is necessary to examine in an abnormal situation or, as it were, in an extraordinary situation exactly how it is possible to take political decisions that are of fundamental importance to society while also guaranteeing that these decisions remain within the rule of law at all times.
The aim of this study is to investigate how and by what constitutional mandate the Hungarian Government deviated from the normal constitutional situation in 2020. The “state of exception” theorised by Carl Schmitt and Giorgio Agamben means the suspension of the law. It is important to understand their views in order to see that the Hungarian situation in 2020 is utterly dissimilar to such a state of exception. In short, we need to distinguish a state of exception from an extraordinary situation, because the latter does not imply the suspension of law in general or, more specifically, the suspension of the rule of law, but that parliamentary and government decisions remain within it. The special legal order applied in an extraordinary situation is not in fact a suspension of democracy, still less of the rule of law. On the contrary, it actually falls within both: in a state of national crisis, this situation is democracy itself and the rule of law itself, and – accordingly – strict laws (both democratic and imposed within the rule of law), or rather laws of cardinal importance, make its conditions and its functioning possible and regulate it.

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Criza de Euthyrox s-a terminat. Romania va putea produce medicamentul. Ziarul Financiar. Online: https://www.zf.ro/eveniment/premierul-a-facut-anuntul-criza-euthyrox-s-a-terminat-romania-va-19564661 Camus, A. (1942). Le Mythe de Sisyphe. Gallimard. Camus, A. (1951). L’Homme révolté. Gallimard. Chernoff, A. & Warman, C. (2021, February 2). Down and out: Pandemic-induced automation and labour market disparities of COVID-19. Vox Eu. Research based policy analysis and commentary from leading economists. Online: https://voxeu.org/article/pandemic-induced-automation-and-labour-market-disparities-covid-19 Cunningham, A. (2008). Epidemics, Pandemics and the Doomsday Scenario. Historically Speaking, 9(7), 29–31. Online: https://doi.org/10.1353/hsp.2008.0035 Cuschieri, S. (2020, May 30). COVID-19 panic, solidarity and equity – the Malta exemplary experience. Journal of Public Health. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-020-01308-w De Mata, I. (2020). European Solidarity During the COVID-19 Crises. Eurohealth, 26(2), 16–20. Derrida, J. (2000). Of Hospitality. Anne Dufourmantelle Invites Jacques Derrida to Respond. Stanford University Press. Esposito, R. (2008). Immunisation and Violence. Biopolitica. Online: https://biopolitica.flinders.edu.au/publication/immunization-and-violence/ Flood, B. (2020, October 7). Jane Fonda says coronavirus is ‘God’s gift to the left’ because it could help Biden defeat Trump. Fox News. Online: https://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/jane-fonda-says-coronavirus-gods-gift-left-help-biden-defeat-trump Foucault, M. (1984). What Is Enlightenment. In P. Rainbow (Ed.), The Foucault Reader (pp. 32–50). New York, Pantheon Books. Foucault, M. (2003). Society Must be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–1976. New York, Picador. Harari, Y. (2020, April 28). COVID-19 may bring new surveillance era. BBC World News. Online: https://www.bbc.com/news/av/technology-52441339 Harari, Y. (2021). Yuval Noah Harari on COVID-19: ‘The biggest danger is not the virus itself’. DW. Online: https://www.dw.com/en/virus-itself-is-not-the-biggest-danger-says-yuval-noah-harari/a-53195552 Heidegger, M. (2013). The Question Concerning Technology. Perennial. Kant, I. (2018). Perpetual Peace. A Philosophical Essay. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. Korinek, A. & Stiglitz, J. (2021). Covid-19 driven advances in automation and artificial intelligence risk exacerbating economic inequality. BMJ, 367–372. Online: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n367 Lorenzini, D. (2020). Biopolitics in the Time of Coronavirus. Critical Inquiry, 47(S2), 40–45. Online: https://doi.org/10.1086/711432 Nancy, J-L. (1983). L’impératif catégorique. Flammarion. Norrlöf, C. (2020). Is covid-19 a liberal democratic curse? Risks for liberal international order. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 33(5), 799–813. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2020.1812529 Owens, B. (2021, May 30). Nature isn’t really healing. The Atlantic. Online: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2021/05/pandemic-lockdowns-nature-wildilfe/619054/ Pascoe, J. & Stripling, M. (2020). Surging Solidarity: Reorienting Ethics for Pandemics. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 30(3–4), 419–444. Online: https://doi.org/10.1353/ken.2020.0022 Siisiäinen, L. (2018). Foucault, Biopolitics and Resistance (1st ed.). Routledge. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315180496 The “Elie Wiesel” National Institute for Studying the Holocaust in Romania (2020). Raport de monitorizare a antisemitismului in Romania. Online: https://www.inshr-ew.ro/raport-antisemitism-romania-2019-2020/ Walsh, J. (2014). ‘The Hidden Point of Intersection’. Rethinking the Relationship Between Sovereignty and Bio-politics in Foucault and Agamben. The University of Puget Sound. Online: https://soundideas.pugetsound.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=psupc " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(444) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "73-87" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.1.7" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1116) "

As the 21st century became shaped by the matters of public health, the Covid-19 pandemic revealed that it is a trap to believe that we have to choose between the medicalisation of politics and the politicisation of medicine. My thesis is that models of good governance in the post-pandemic world must be shaped by leftist principles, values and practices, in order to ensure not the reopening, but the reconstruction of public life, which needs more than ever overcoming social inequalities and political polarisations, whereas liberal principles should be implemented in order to fix standards of economic performance and efficiency after applying mechanism of recovery. Governments as well as electoral spheres are reticent to biopolitical incursions, historically associated with panoptic systems. I claim that it is time to plead for positivising biopolitics as political humanism. My research will expose twelve themes for disseminating biopolitics as political humanism, focused on sensitive key-domains such as labour, social cohesion, security, infodemia, domestic life and good governance.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(11) "Serban Oana" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(55) "Leftist and Neoliberal Insights of Puzzling Biopolitics" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(45) "The Biopolitical Turn of the Post-Covid World" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#888 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7081) ["email"]=> string(31) "oana.serban@filosofie.unibuc.ro" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5791) ["seq"]=> int(6) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "RO" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1071-9222" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(49) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:23:"UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST";}" ["hu_HU"]=> string(49) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:23:"UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Serban" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "SERBAN" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(4) "Oana" ["hu_HU"]=> string(4) "OANA" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(6) { [0]=> string(11) "biopolitics" [1]=> string(11) "biosecurity" [2]=> string(11) "biohumanism" [3]=> string(15) "good governance" [4]=> string(16) "panoptic systems" [5]=> string(8) "covid-19" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#900 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(20307) ["id"]=> int(4652) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5791) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }


object(Publication)#791 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5632) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-10-29" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-11-19 10:25:54" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(6845) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(5508) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3346) "Balázs, I. (2020). A közigazgatás változásairól Magyarországon és Európában a rendszerváltástól napjainkig. DE ÁJK. Beluszky, P. & Győri, R. (2006). Ez a falu város! Avagy a városi rang adományozásának gyakorlata és következményei 1990 után. Tér és Társadalom, 20(2), 1–51. Bibó, I. (1990). Közigazgatási területrendezés és az 1971. évi településhálózat-fejlesztési koncepció. In T. Huszár (Ed.), Bibó István Válogatott tanulmányok I–IV. Magvető, vol. III, 143–276. Csatári, B. (1995). A kistérség fogalma. In F. Csefkó (Ed.), Kistérségekről kistérségeknek (pp. 11–15). Dunaholding City Menedzser Kft. Csite, A. & Oláh, M. (2011). “Kormányozni lehet ugyan távolról, de igazgatni csak közelről lehet jól...”. Hétfa Kutatóintézet és Elemző Központ. David, P. A. (1985). Clio and the Economics of QWERTY. The American Economic Review, 75(2), 332–337. Fibinger, A., Kádár, K., Kovács, P. & Magyar, A. (2017). Ügyfélszolgálat a közigazgatásban. Speciális jelentés 2017. NKE. Guilford, J. P. (1942). Fundamental statistics in psychology and education. McGraw-Hill. Hoffman, I. (2012). A járás helye a magyar közigazgatás rendszerében. Magyar Közigazgatás, Új Folyam 2(1), 19–32. Kelő, J. (2019). A járási hatósági igazgatás a kistelepüléseken – települési ügysegédek és a kormányablakok. In I. Laki & T. Szabó (Eds.), Kényszerpályák és lehetőségek. A községi igazgatás és feladatellátás dimenziói napjainkban (pp. 175–203). Települési Önkormányzatok Országos Szövetsége. Közigazgatás- és közszolgáltatásfejlesztési stratégia 2014-2020. Online: https://2015-2019.kormany.hu/download/8/42/40000/K%C3%B6zigazgat%C3%A1s_feljeszt%C3%A9si_strat%C3%A9gia_.pdf Local Administrative Units (LAU). (s.a.). In EUROSAT. Your key of European Statistics. Online: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/nuts/local-administrative-units Kovács, Cs. (1991). A személyi jövedelemadó rendszer térbeli vonatkozásai. Tér és Társadalom, 5(1), 23–40. Körmendy, I. (2018). Városok Magyarországon (és Európában). Online: https://epiteszforum.hu/varosok-magyarorszagon-es-europaban#a14 Lentner, Cs. (2019). Önkormányzati pénz- és vagyongazdálkodás. Dialóg Campus Kiadó. Mitra, S. (2014). From e-commerce to Web 3.0: Entrepreneur Journey. Kindle Edition. Murányi, P. (2011). „Aligvárosok” és törpefalvak. A város–falu viszony újragondolása. Pro Publico Bono, 1(1), 1–16. Pfeil, E. (2003). Önkormányzati integráció és helyi közigazgatás. Dialóg Campus Kiadó. Pollitt, C. (2007). Convergence or Divergence: What has been Happening in Europe? In C. Pollitt, S. V. van Thiel & V. Homburg (Eds.), New Public Management in Europe. Adaptation and Alternatives (pp. 10–25). Palgrave Macmillan. Online: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230625365_2 Salamin, G., Radvánszky, Á. & Nagy, A. (2008). A magyar településhálózat helyzete. Falu–Város–Régió, 2008/3, 6–25. Szigeti, J. (2009). A körjegyzőségi rendszer térszerkezeti jellemzői. ECOSTAT. Szoboszlai, Gy. (1973). A középszintű (járási-városi) területi igazgatás és társadalmi környezet. MTA-ÁJTI. Vági, G. (1982). Versengés a fejlesztési forrásokért. Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(444) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "89-102" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.1.8" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1017) "

This paper will evaluate the current situation and role of the Hungarian (administrative) lower-middle level and make projections about its future. Centralisation efforts since 2010 have had a non-negligible impact on the administrative and non-administrative (common institution maintenance, micro-regional development policy) tasks assigned to the lower-middle level. However, it may be argued that the transition to the Web 3.0 era – the era of the most advanced, most intelligent and customised web technologies – may put such centralisation efforts into a new context. Revitalisation of formations similar to the multi-functional micro-regional associations of local self-governments which largely disappeared after 1 January 2013 may be justifiable in the forthcoming period in order to promote local synergies. If this is correct, a rethink of the public administration system at the lower-middle level may become a very important task for the public administration as along with regional discourse.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(21) "Buskó Tibor László" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(109) "Re-thinking the Lower-middle Level of Administration in Hungary with Particular Reference to the Web 3.0. Era" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#834 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(6845) ["email"]=> string(29) "Busko.Tibor.Laszlo@uni-nke.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5632) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4746-0015" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(28) "a:1:{s:5:"hu_HU";s:3:"NKE";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Buskó" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Buskó" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(14) "Tibor László" ["hu_HU"]=> string(14) "Tibor László" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(6) { [0]=> string(9) "districts" [1]=> string(29) "local government associations" [2]=> string(21) "public administration" [3]=> string(18) "territorial policy" [4]=> string(21) "local public services" [5]=> string(7) "Hungary" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#847 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(20308) ["id"]=> int(4653) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5632) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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In Cs. Lentner (Ed.), A devizahitelezés nagy kézikönyve. ÁNTK, pp. 87–120. Blanchard, O. (2012). Monetary Policy in the Wake of the Crisis. In O. Blanchard et al. (Eds.), In the Wake of the Crisis. Leading Economists Reassess Economic Policy. The MIT Press. Borio, C. & Disyatat, P. (2021). Monetary and Fiscal Policy: Privileged powers, entwined responsibilities. SUERF Policy Note, Issue No. 238. Foley-Fisher, N., Ramcharan, R. & Yu, E. (2016). The Impact of Unconventional Monetary Policy on Firm Financing Constraints: Evidence from the Maturity Extension Program. Journal of Financial Economics, 122(2), 409–429. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2643795 Funashima, Y. (2018). Do the Bank of Japan’s Unconventional Monetary Policies Decrease Real Interest Rates under a Zero Lower Bound? Open Journal of Social Sciences, 6(7), 122–130. Online: https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2018.67010 Galema, R. & Lugo, S. (2017). When central banks buy target selection and impact of the European Corporate Sector Purchase Program. Utrecht University School of Economics Discussion Paper Series, No. 17–16. Hagelmayer, I. (1969). A bankrendszer feladatai. Pénzügyi Szemle, 13(2). Huszti, E. (1987). Az antiinflációs útkeresés. Monetáris politika és gyakorlat Magyarországon. Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó. Huszti, E. (1995). Banktan. Tass Kft. Huszti, E. (2006). A monetáris szabályozás néhány pénzelméleti kérdése. In Cs. Lentner (Ed.), Pénzpiacok szabályozása Magyarországon. Akadémiai Kiadó, 13–32. Kecskés, A. (2015). Az amerikai jegybank szerepe a 2007–2009-es gazdasági világválság kialakulásában. Controller info, 5(Special Issue), 14–18. Kecskés, A. (2017). The regulatory implications of the shadow banking system. Economics & Working Capital, 2(1–4), 27–38. Kolozsi, P. P. & Lentner, Cs. (2006). A magyar jegybanki szabályozás és monetáris politika az európai integrációs folyamatok tükrében. In Cs. Lentner (Ed.), Pénzpiacok szabályozása Magyarországon. Akadémiai Kiadó, 33–68. Kolozsi, P. P., Parragh, B., Pulai, Gy. (2017): Categorising the Central Bank’s Credit Incentive Programs by Targeting and Intensity. Public Finance Quarterly, 62(4), 502–523. Kovács, L. (2015). The banking sector in the shadow of the crisis. Hungarian Financial Almanac, 25, 78–81. Lentner, Cs. (Ed.). (2012). Bankmenedzsment – bankszabályozás – pénzügyi fogyasztóvédelem. NKTK. Lentner, Cs. (2015). A túlhitelezés globalizálódása a világban és Magyarországon. In Cs. Lentner (Ed.), A devizahitelezés nagy kézikönyve. NKTK, 23–62. Lentner, Cs., Tatay, T. & Szegedi, K. (2015). Corporate social responsibility in the banking sector. Public Finance Quarterly, 60(1), 95–103. Losoncz, M. (2010). A globális pénzügyi válság anatómiája és tanulságai. Pénzügyi Szemle, 55(4), 765–780. Macchiarelli, C., Monti, M. & Vedolin, A. (2017). The Corporate Sector Purchase Programme (CSPP): Effectiveness and challenges ahead. European Parliament Working Paper. Online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2017/607343/IPOL_IDA(2017)607343_EN.pdf Matolcsy, Gy., Palotai, D. & Sisak, B. (2015). A devizahitelezés makrogazdasági hatásai és gazdaságpolitikai válasza. In Cs. Lentner (Ed.), A devizahitelezés nagy kézikönyve. NKTK, 121–158. Matolcsy, Gy. & Palotai, D. (2018). The Hungarian Model: Hungarian Crisis Management in View of the Mediterranean Way. Financial and Economic Review, 17(2), 5–42. Matolcsy, Gy. (2020). Quo vadis Hungaria? Facing a New World. Civic Review, 16(Special Issue), 9–31. Online: https://doi.org/10.24307/psz.2020.1202 Neményi, J. (2009). A monetáris politika szerepe Magyarországon a pénzügyi válság kezelésében. Közgazdasági Szemle, 66(5), 393–421. Neményi, J, (2011). A pénzügyi válság hatása a központi bankok szabályozására. Verseny és Szabályozás, 5(1), 167–209. Nyers, R. et al. (1991). A bankrendszer fejlődése a bankmérlegek alapján. MNB. The Financial Crisis Inquiry Report (2011). U.S. Congress. Samuelson, A. P. & Nordhaus, D. W. (2005). Közgazdaságtan. Akadémiai Kiadó, 479–489." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(444) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "103-116" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.1.9" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1156) "

This study outlines the development of Hungary’s monetary policy, and the course and changes in its objectives and instruments since the beginning of the market economy transition in the late 1980s. The author’s basic thesis is that the period since the two-level banking system was reinstated after four decades of a planned economy system, in 1987, can be basically divided into three development phases with significantly different characteristics. The first phase was an ‘attempt to introduce’ an imported monetary mechanism, or perhaps an urge to comply with it, while the second phase was an approach of a monetary regime change launched in 2013 and supporting economic growth and financial stability strongly and directly, which lasted until the appearance of the traumatic elements of the Covid-19 pandemic crisis. The third phase is evolving today, under the circumstances of adapting to the conditions of the real essence of the twenty-first century, i.e. a new type of international competitiveness, which is pursued by the Central Bank of Hungary as stipulated by the Fundamental Law and the cardinal Central Bank Act of Hungary.

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