Public Governance, Administration and Finances Law Review

About journal

Public Governance, Administration and Finances Law Review, founded in 2016, is a Central European journal with global coverage, publishing original research articles, proceedings, and book reviews on all facets of public administration, public policy, and public management both on Central and Eastern Europe and other parts of the world. The journal aims to promote critical legal thinking, legal practice, and scholarly debate by providing a forum for disseminating academic research findings on the fields of public law and public finance, and through its Open Access policy, it wishes to contribute to a greater global exchange of knowledge.

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By writing this paper, the authors intended to answer questions raised by the transfer of digital artworks in the online space. At the beginning of the study, the basic expressions, including NFT digital artwork, will be explained. Then, it will be examined how these new forms of artwork can be treated by civil law. Although NFTs change hands daily, their legal nature, i.e. if they shall be deemed as things in the civil law sense, is unclear. If NFTs are treated as things, they can be a subject of ownership, and the provisions on the transfer of ownership rights shall be applied, which raises several further questions. According to another approach, NFTs embody the right to dispose, while there are other opinions as to which NFTs, following the model of bank account money, shall be deemed as claims facilitating the application of the provisions of the law of obligations. After reviewing the different approaches to the legal nature of NFTs, features of online auctions of NFT artworks will be introduced. Then, it will be examined if the platforms enabling online auctions fall under the scope of the recently adopted Digital Market Act and if so, which rules of the Act are applicable for them.

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Associate Professor, Department of Civil Law, Faculty of Law, University of Miskolc, Miskolc, Hungary

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PhD Student, Ferenc Deák Doctoral School of Law, University of Miskolc, Miskolc, Hungary

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There is a tension between state oversight and state intrusion into our personal lives. The analytical powers of artificial intelligence/machine learning and the pervasive data collection of the Internet of Things, the Smart City and all those personal devices we use together permit revelations as to our lives as never seen before. We must consider the impact of this on the relations between citizen and government in this new, ubiquitous world of government cybersurveillance and revelation.

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Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Justice and Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA

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Factors Influencing Initial Public Acceptance of Integrating the ChatGPT-Type Model with Government Services. Kybernetes. Online: Yusuf, Y. A., Yusoff, K. Z. H. & Zengeni, K. T. (2018). The Implications of the Legislative Corrupt Practices on the Democratic Consolidation in the Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. Journal of Techno Social, 10(1), 15–22. Online:" ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7068" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1410) "

This paper examines the potential for using generative artificial intelligence (AI) to boost civic participation in Nigeria’s developing e-government ecosystem. Emerging generative technologies like ChatGPT demonstrate intriguing capabilities to make governance more interactive and engaging through conversational interfaces. Thoughtfully implemented AI tools could increase access and understanding of e-government, particularly for underserved groups. However, risks around bias, privacy, security and capability limitations pose challenges for public sector applications. Additionally, Nigeria’s substantial digital divides and defective trust in government institutions hamper e-government participation currently. This paper analyses opportunities and limitations for applying generative AI to advance civic engagement given Nigeria’s unique socio-cultural context. Findings suggest that while AI holds promise, targeted strategies focused on inclusion, accessibility, education and institutional legitimacy building are critical to realise benefits. Cautious optimism, human-centric design and responsible governance frameworks are needed to employ generative systems successfully. If challenges are addressed, AI could open innovative possibilities for energising civic participation. But further research and controlled pilot applications are required to determine optimal implementation.

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Lecturer at the Department of Public Administration, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria

" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(11) "Abdulkareem" ["hu_HU"]=> string(11) "Abdulkareem" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(18) "Abdulrazaq Kayode " ["hu_HU"]=> string(10) "Abdulrazaq" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(13) "Generative AI" [1]=> string(7) "ChatGPT" [2]=> string(19) "Civil Participation" [3]=> string(16) "Digital Literacy" [4]=> string(12) "E-government" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#1070 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(33610) ["id"]=> int(5840) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7192) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#1071 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(26) { ["id"]=> int(7240) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-05-13 11:06:54" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(9044) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["submissionId"]=> int(7116) ["status"]=> int(5) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(6630) "Adair, D. (1957). “That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science”: David Hume, James Madison and the Tenth Federalist. The Huntington Library Quarterly, 20(4), 343–360. Online: Angwin, J., Savage, C., Larson, J., Moltke, H., Poitras, L. & Risen, J. (2015, August 15). AT&T Helped U.S. Spy on Internet on a Vast Scale. The New York Times. Online: Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Belknap Press. Bailyn, B. (Ed.) (1993). The Debate on the Constitution: Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches, Articles, and Letters During the Struggle over Ratification. Part One: September 1787 – February 1788. Library of America. Baker, P. (2014, January 15). Obama’s Path from Critic to Overseer of Spying. The New York Times. Online: Beeman, R. (Ed.) (2012). The Federalist Papers. Penguin Books. Berman, E. (2018). Digital Searches, the Fourth Amendment, and the Magistrates’ Revolt. Emory Law Journal, 68(1), 49–94. Online: Calmes, J. & Wingfield, N. (2013, December 17). Tech Leaders and Obama Find Shared Problem: Fading Public Trust. The New York Times. Online: Carlson, J. D., Goodale, G. M., Quinlan, G. C., Suarez, S. L., Meyer, J. M., McHugh, R., Petty, K. A. & Weinstein, B. H. (2016). National Security Law. The Year in Review. An Annual Publication of the ABA/Section of International Law, 51, 497–513. Online: Castle, S. (2013, December 25). TV Message by Snowden Says Privacy Still Matters. The New York Times. Online: Cole, D. (2015, May 6). Here’s What’s Wrong with the USA Freedom Act. The Nation. Online: Dallal, R. (2018). Speak No Evil: National Security Letters, Gag Orders, and the First Amendment. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 33(4), 1115–1146. Online: Doernberg, D. L. (1985). “We the People”: John Locke, Collective Constitutional Rights, and Standing to Challenge Government Action. California Law Review, 73(1), 52–118. Online: Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) (s. a.). National Security Letters. Online: Gellman, B. & Soltani, A. (2013, October 30). NSA Infiltrates Links to Yahoo, Google Data Centers Worldwide, Snowden Documents Say. The Washington Post. Online: Guariglia, M. & Mackey, A. (2022, August 22). Victory: Government Finally Releases Secretive Court Rulings Sought by EFF. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Online: Hasan, M. (2015, November 30). Why I Miss George W. Bush. The New York Times. Online: Ketcham, R. (Ed.) (1986). The Anti-Federalist Papers and the Constitutional Convention Debates. New American Library. Konig, D. (2008). Thomas Jefferson’s Armed Citizenry and the Republican Militia. Albany Government Law Review, 1, 250–291. Maass, P. (2013, August 13). How Laura Poitras Helped Snowden Spill His Secrets. The New York Times. Online: Mazzetti, M. & Schmidt, M. S. (2013, June 9). Ex-Worker at C.I.A. Says He Leaked Data on Surveillance. The New York Times. Online: Mendoza, M. (2013, November 21). Reagan Order Led to NSA’s Broader Spying. The Ithaca Journal. Montesquieu, Baron de, C. (2011). The Spirit of Laws. Cosimo Classics. Myers, S. L. & Kramer, A. E. (2013, August 1). Defiant Russia Grants Snowden Year’s Asylum. The New York Times. Online: Paine, T. (1997). Common Sense. Dover Publications. Risen, J. & Wingfield, N. (2013, June 19). Web’s Reach Binds N.S.A. and Silicon Valley Leaders. The New York Times. Online: Rosenthal, A. (2013, October 24). Clapper and Carney Get Slippery on Surveillance. The New York Times. Online: Rubin, A. J. (2013, October 21). French Condemn Surveillance by N.S.A. The New York Times. Online: Savage, C. & Mazzetti, M. (2013, June 10). Cryptic Overtures and a Clandestine Meeting Gave Birth to a Blockbuster Story. The New York Times. Online: Savage, C. & Shane, S. (2013, June 17). N.S.A. Leaker Denies Giving Secrets to China. The New York Times. Online: Shane, S. (2013a, June 20). Documents Detail Restrictions on N.S.A. Surveillance. The New York Times. Online: Shane, S. (2013b, November 2). No Morsel Too Minuscule for All-Consuming N.S.A. The New York Times. Online: Shane, S. & Sanger, D. E. (2013, June 30). Job Title Key to Inner Access Held by Leaker. The New York Times. Online: Shear, M. D. (2015, June 4). Limits Reshape Terror Laws, and Obama’s Legacy: News Analysis. International New York Times. Shoenberger, A. E. (2010). Connecticut Yankee in Europe’s Court: An Alternative Vision of Constitutional Defamation Law to New York Times v. Sullivan? Quinnipiac University Law Review, 28, 431–489. Online: Smale, A. (2013, October 23). Anger Growing among Allies on U.S. Spying. The New York Times. Online: Stanglin, D. (2013, July 31). Report: Snowden Says NSA Can Tap E-Mail, Facebook Chats. USA Today. Online: Steinhauer, J. & Weisman, J. (2015, June 4). Surveillance in Place Since 2001 is Cut Back Sharply; New Legislation Curtails Sweeping Monitoring of American Phone Records. International New York Times. The Editorial Board of the New York Times (2014, January 1). Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower. The New York Times. Online: Turner, S. (2018). The Secrets of the Secret Court: An Analysis of the Missing Party and Oversight of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Administrative Law Review, 70(4), 991–1019. Online: Warren, S. D. & Brandeis, L. D. (1890). The Right to Privacy. Harvard Law Review, 4(5), 193–220. Online: Weaver, R. L. (2011). The James Otis Lecture: The Fourth Amendment, Privacy and Advancing Technology. Mississippi Law Journal, 80, 1131–1227. Weaver, R. L. (2019). From Gutenberg to the Internet. Free Speech, Advancing Technology, and the Implications for Democracy. (2nd edition) Carolina Academic Press. Weaver, R. L., Burkoff, J. M., Hancock, C. & Friedland, S. I. (2021). Principles of Criminal Procedure. (7th edition) West Academic. " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7116" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(780) "

This article provides an update en events since Edward Snowden, an employee of a National Security Agency (NSA) contractor, stole and released thousands of classified documents in 2013, revealing that the U.S. government was engaged in a massive secret cybersurveilance operation that was amassing information about people all over the world, including U.S. citizens. In the U.S., Snowden’s revelations sparked a spirited debate regarding privacy rights, and in particular whether the U.S. cybersurveillance operation was appropriate in a democratic system. This article describes the scope of the cybersuveillance program, and examines how the courts and Congress responded to the Snowden revelations, and (in particular) how U.S. society evolved in the following years.

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Professor of Law & Distinguished University Scholar, University of Louisville, Louis D. Brandeis School of Law

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object(Publication)#1068 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(27) { ["id"]=> int(7410) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-05-17 21:20:21" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(9272) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["submissionId"]=> int(7286) ["status"]=> int(5) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(6356) "Auers, D. (2013). Latvia. In S. Berglund, J. Ekman, K. Deegan-Krause & T. Knutsen (Eds.), The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe (pp. 85–123). Edward Elgar. Council of Europe (s. a.). Latvia, Country-specific Monitoring of the Implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Online: Di Federico, G. & Martinico, G. (2023). Official Languages, National Identities and the Protection of Minorities: A Complex Legal Puzzle. Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) 7 September 2022, Case C-391/20, Boriss Cilevičs et al., ECLI:EU:C:2022:638. European Constitutional Law Review, 19(2), 346–370. Online: Dimitrovs, A. (2019, May 2). A Dangerous Precedent for Minority Rights: the Latvian Constitutional Court’s Ruling on Minority Schools. VerfassungsBlog. Online: Dimitrovs, A. (2020, June 23). Riga and Venice on a Collision Course: On the Controversial New Constitutional Court Decisions on Minority Languages in Latvia. VerfassungsBlog. Online: Fourth Opinion (2024, February 22). Fourth Opinion on Latvia: Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. ACFC/OP/IV(2023)1. Online: Ganty, S. & Kochenov, D. V. (2022, July 22). Citizenship Imposition Is the New Non-Discrimination Standard: ECtHR Blames the Victims in Savickis. VerfassungsBlog. Online: Ganty, S. & Kochenov, D. V. (2023, November 23). Hijacking Human Rights to Enable Punishment by Association: Valiullina, Džibuti and Outlawing Minority Schooling in Latvia. Strasbourg Observers. Online: Government comments (2011, March 30). Comments of the Government of Latvia on the First Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Latvia. Online: Government comments (2014, January 3). Comments of the Government of Latvia on the Second Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Latvia. Online: Government comments (2018, September 21). Comments of the Government of Latvia on the Third Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Latvia. Online: Government comments (2024, February 19). Comments of the Government of Latvia on the Fourth Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Latvia. Online: Kascian, K. (2019, October 3). Judicial Path to Nowhere? Challenging the Minority Education Reform before Latvia’s Constitutional Court. VerfassungsBlog. Online: Kascian, K. (2023). Evolution of Lithuania’s Approach towards Writing of Personal Names in the Official Documents: On the Verge of Liberalisation? Public Governance, Administration and Finances Law Review, 8(2), 73–86. Online: Kolstø, P. & Tsilevich, B. (1997). Patterns of Nation Building and Political Integration in a Bifurcated Postcommunist State: Ethnic Aspects of Parliamentary Elections in Latvia. East European Politics and Societies, 11(2), 366–391. Online: Krivcova, E. (2023, July 28). Language litigation in the field of higher education in the Constitutional Court of Latvia and the EU Court of Justice. ICELDS. Online: Muižnieks, N. (2011). Latvian–Russian Memory Battles at the European Court of Human Rights. In N. Muižnieks (Ed.), The Geopolitics of History in Latvian–Russian Relations (pp. 219–238). Academic Press of the University of Latvia. Morris, H. M. (2005). The Non-Citizens of the EU. In D. J. Smith (Ed.), The Baltic States and Their Region. New Europe or Old? Vol. 3. On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral Imagination in the Baltics (pp. 251–273). Rodopi. National Statistical System of Latvia (s. a.). Population by ethnicity at the beginning of year 1935–2023. Online: Nugraha, I. Y. (2023). Protection of Constitutional Identity as a Legitimate Aim for Differential Treatment: ECtHR 9 June 2022, No. 49270/11, Savickis and Others v. Latvia. European Constitutional Law Review, 19(1), 141–162. Online: Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs (2024, January 24). Latvijas iedzīvotāju sadalījums pēc nacionālā sastāva un valstiskās piederības (Datums = 01.01.2024) [Distribution of Latvia’s population according to ethnic composition and nationality (Date = 01.01.2024)]. Online: Phillips, A. (2002, September 1). FCNM: From Analysis to Action – Protecting minorities in Europe. Minority Rights Group. Online: Purs, A. (2012). Baltic Facades. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Since 1945. Reaktion Books. Salnītis, V. & Skujenieks, M. (1937). Ceturtā tautas skaitīšana Latvijā 1935. gadā. IV: Tautība [Fourth Population Census in Latvia in 1935. IV: Nationality]. State Statistical Office. Online: Smooha, S. (2002). The Model of Ethnic Democracy: Israel as a Jewish and Democratic State. Nations and Nationalism, 8(4), 475–503. Online: TVP Wilno (2022, January 18). V. Čmilytė-Nielsen o oryginalnej pisowni nazwisk: jest to kwestia godności ludzkiej [V. Čmilytė-Nielsen on the Original Writing of Names: It Is a Question of Human Dignity]. Online: Ziemele, I. (2020). A Non-Recognition Policy with Regards to the Occupation of Latvia. In A. Sprūds, V. Ščerbinskis & K. Bukovskis (Eds.), The Centenary of Latvia’s Foreign Affairs. Global Thought and Latvia (pp. 100–116). Latvian Institute of International Affairs." 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On 22 February 2024, the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities published a critical opinion on Latvia within the framework of the fourth monitoring cycle. This text is centred on government comments as an important element of the standardised FCNM monitoring mechanisms provided by the Latvian Government during the four monitoring circles. This study identifies and assesses the key arguments and techniques employed by Latvia in this sectoral dialogue framework. It shows that the Latvian authorities view diversity as a threat to social cohesion, and their endeavours, inter alia, in the minority education domain, combine references to Latvia’s traumatic historical experience, constitutional identity, and the margin of state discretion that camouflage the absence of political will to advance minority rights. Among other negative factors, this signals a dangerous path that could likely be followed by other states that are parties to this Convention.

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The author dedicates this article to the memory of Aleksandr Kuzmin aka Aleksandrs Kuzmins (1984–2021), lawyer, politician and minority rights activist from Latvia.

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Board Member, International Centre for Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity Studies, Prague, Czech Republic

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8. Volume, 2. Number | 2023