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object(Publication)#697 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6554) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-03-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-04-06 09:23:35" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8082) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(6430) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(1477) "Dermek, Milan (2011): Hasicské automobily na Slovensku. Zilina, Slovakia. Goodenough, Simon (1978): Fire! The Story of the Fire Engine. New York: Chartwell Books. Horváth, Hermina – Kátai-Urbán, Lajos – Vass, Gyula (2021): Transportation of Flammable Dangerous Goods in Hungary. Védelem Tudomány, 4(4), 110–125. Restás, Ágoston – Pántya, Péter – Rácz, Sándor – Érces, Gergő – Hesz, József – Bodnár, László (2018): A megelőző és mentő tűzvédelem valamint az iparbiztonság kapcsolódásai. In Vass, Gyula – Mógor, Judit – Kovács, Gábor – Dobor, József – Horváth, Hermina (eds.): Katasztrófavédelem 2018: Veszélyes tevékenységek biztonsága. Budapest: NDG DM. 340–340. Sivakumar, A. – Babu Sekar, Jagadeesh – Vignesh, Sathya – Muthukumar, Shyam – Yogapriya, J. (2020): Autonomous Standalone Fire Engine with LIDAR-ROS. European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, 7(4). Suslavičius, Vladimiras – Bogdevičius, Marijonas (2003): Improvement of Technical Parameters of Fire Vehicles and Equipment. Transport, 18(2), 89–96. Online: https://doi.org/10.3846/16483840.2003.10414072 Wallington, Neil (2004): The World Encyclopedia of Fire Engines and Firefighting. London: Annes Publishing. Wu, Chengxuan – Zheng, Yanping – Wang, Zhe (2016): Design of a Multifunctional Forest Fire Vehicle. Open Journal of Transportation Technologies, 5(6), 174–184. Online: https://doi.org/10.12677/OJTT.2016.56022" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(510) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "5-21" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2023.1.1" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(2461) "

Different parts of the world have different disasters or fire and technical rescue events. Economic, infrastructural and natural environmental differences cause great variances. The nations employ various organisations, depending on the available possibilities, with diverse technical solutions to eliminate the sources of fire, disaster, incident dangers. In case of fires and technical rescue occasions that have already occurred and require intervention and pose a direct threat to human life, physical integrity and property, these tasks are typically performed by fire brigade organisations. These organisations also carry out more or less extensive activities in their areas of responsibility; however, national solutions may involve the use of firefighting vehicles and equipment that differ significantly from one neighbouring country to another.
The article presents the general firefighting vehicles used internationally and in Hungary and their characteristic capabilities, together with the widely used technical equipment and devices worldwide, built-in or mobile firefighting machines. In this paper a wide-ranging inspection of firefighting vehicles are demonstrated, and the description of the firefighting equipment can be interpreted together with the carrier vehicles. By special fire engines, the author here means vehicles that are on standby in each country, but only in small numbers and only alerted a few times a year. An important aspect in this category is that the design and equipment of these firefighting vehicles are planned to eliminate special incident situations that are unlikely to occur, but pose a great threat to human life, physical integrity or the property of the country and citizens, even in the short term. The article focuses also on these less frequent, more specialised firefighting vehicles and technical devices, with a description of their typical deployment conditions.
When drawing the conclusions, the ideas and solutions found during the international outlook worthy of Hungarian adaptation are presented. Here the national adaptation possibilities of each international, special firefighting vehicle, the advantages they can provide and the expected disadvantages are examined. The content of the article is a general summary that fills a gap due to the small amount of international literature, which can also be used during research, investigation and education in this research field.

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assistant professor

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" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Pántya" ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "Pántya" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Péter" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Péter" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(4) "fire" [1]=> string(14) "fire operation" [2]=> string(12) "intervention" [3]=> string(9) "equipment" [4]=> string(28) "special firefighting vehicle" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#745 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(27642) ["id"]=> int(5301) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(6554) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#121 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6474) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-03-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-04-06 09:24:07" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7984) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(6350) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(1987) "Athanasiadis, Christos (2022): Transition of MND-C to AFS as a Nation AFS and NNG Update. Brussels: NCIA HQ, NCIA – HQ MND-C workshop, SME presentation, slide No. 13. Defourneaux, Gilles (2021): AFS Joining Instructions Who? Why? What? How? AFS workshop. Brussels: NCIA HQ. Friedrich, Gernot – Janinez, Deflet (2021): Alliance Interoperability Architecture Federated Mission Networking, and Alliance Federation Services. AFS workshop. Brussels: NCIA HQ. Károly, Krisztián (2013): Szövetséges erők követése az afganisztáni hadszíntéren. Honvédségi Szemle, 141(3), 18–21. Károly, Krisztián (2020): Automatizált erőkövetési képesség megvalósításának lehetőségei a Magyar Honvédség híradó-informatikai rendszerében. In Pohl, Árpád (ed.): Biztonság és honvédelem. Fenntartható biztonság és társadalmi környezet tanulmányok II. Budapest: Ludovika Egyetemi Kiadó. 571–586. Károly, Krisztián – Németh, András (2019): The Possibilities of Supporting the Public Functions with Fleet and Force Tracking Systems. AARMS, 18(3), 55–67. Online: https://doi.org/10.32565/aarms.2019.3.5 Low, Warren (2021): Protect Core Networking – Workshop Introduction/Context. Brussels: NCIA HQ. Murdock , Aidan (2021): IP Addressing. AFS workshop. Brussels: NCIA HQ. NATO CFI website. Online: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_84112.htm NATO NNEC website. Online: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_54644.htm NATO RAP website. Online: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_119353.htm NCIA/AFS/2021/050501 – AFS Joining Instructions. NCIA Costed Services Catalogue. Online: https://dnbl.ncia.nato.int/Pages/ServiceCatalogue/Services.aspx NCIA official website. Online: https://www.ncia.nato.int/ NCIA official website: Polaris programme. Online: https://www.ncia.nato.int/what-we-do/natoconsultation-command-networks/polaris-programme.html Trouvé, Pascal (2021): AFS Contribution to Polaris programme. AFS workshop. Brussels: NCIA HQ." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(510) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "23-32" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2023.1.2" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1263) "

The Alliance’s wide area networks enabling operational command and control (C2) are under continuous revision in order to facilitate the wide spectrum data exchange between NATO Command Structure (NCS), NATO Force Structure (NFS) elements and other key organisations.
The focus is – as always – on the information technology’s researches and network-enabled capability development.
It is clear that running the current NATO wide area network has challenges in terms of network management, information security and counter-cyber operations. Therefore, it requires a viable transformation to a wide area network with a higher-level resiliency and scalability.
Having supported by NATO Communications and Information Agency (NCIA), the decade’s one of the most important tasks is to re-new, re-design and re-organise the existing classified network domain in support of efficient C2 for the current and future operations.
In this scientific article, I will provide with a short historical background of NCIA’s efforts in creation of a more resilient classified domain-net and the needs of core and functional services within the Alliance to introduce the already decided, the viable solution of classified network enhancements.

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object(Publication)#187 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6461) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-03-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-04-06 09:24:38" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7968) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(6337) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(5132) "Act LIV of 2002 on the International Cooperation of Law Enforcement Agencies. Act CLXXX of 2012 on Cooperation with the Member States of the European Union in Criminal Matters. Csákó, Beáta (2016): Bűnügyi együttműködés az Európai Unióban. Információs jegyzet, Országgyűlés Hivatala, 2016/37. Dornfeld, László (2020): A koronavírus-járvány hatása a kiberbűnözésre. In Medias Res, 9(4), 193–204. Dorning, Henrik (1937): A bűnügyi rendőrség nemzetközi összeműködése. Budapest: Pallas. Dorning, Henrik (1942): A bűnözés nemzetközi hálózata. In Borbély , Zoltán – Kapy, Rezső (eds.): A 60 éves magyar rendőrség 1881– 1941. Budapest: Halász Irodalmi és Könyvkiadó Vállalat. 167–170. Eurojust (s. a.): What We Do. Online: https://www.eurojust.europa.eu/about-us/what-we-do European Commission (2021a): Melléklet a következőhöz, Javaslat A Tanács határozata a tagállamoknak a számítástechnikai bűnözésről szóló egyezményhez csatolt, a megerősített együttműködésről és az elektronikus bizonyítékok átadásáról szóló második kiegészítő jegyzőkönyvnek az Európai Unió érdekében történő megerősítésére való felhatalmazásáról. Brussels: 25 November 2021. European Commission (2021b): Joint Investigation Teams (JITs) Collaboration Platform. Online: https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/digitalisationjustice/joint-investigation-teams-jits-collaboration-platform_en European Commission (s. a.): A határok nélküli Európa. A schengeni térség. Online: https://doi.org/10.2837/47559 European Council (2019): Zárójelentés a kölcsönös értékelések hetedik fordulójáról, A számítástechnikai bűnözés megelőzését és az ellene folytatott küzdelmet érintő európai szakpolitikák gyakorlati végrehajtása és működése. Brussels: 15 November 2019. European Council (s. a.): The EU’s Fight against Organised Crime. Online: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/eu-fight-against-crime/ European Judicial Network (s. a.): Hungary, Judicial Cooperation. Online: https://www.ejn-crimjust.europa.eu/ejn2021/ContentDetail/EN/5/13 European Union Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation (s. a). Online: https://www.eurojust.europa.eu/judicial-cooperation/practitioner-networks/european-judicial-cybercrime-network Europol (2020): How Covid-19-related crime infected Europe during 2020. Online: https://www.europol.europa.eu/cms/sites/default/files/documents/how_covid-19-related_crime_infected_europe_during_2020.pdf Hegyaljai , Mátyás (2014): Az EMPACT mint rendészeti válasz az európai bűnözésre. In Gál, Gyula – Hau tzinger , Zoltán (eds.): Tanulmányok a „biztonsági kockázatok – rendészeti válaszok” címő tudományos konferenciáról. Pécsi Határőr Tudományos Közlemények, 15, 127–134. Kolozsi, Bálint (2022): Nemzetközi bűnügyi együttműködés, közös nyomozócsoport magyar–német–román relációban. Belügyi Szemle, (70)2, 277–303. Online: https://doi.org/10.38146/BSZ.2022.2.4 Közbiztonság, 22 August 1869. 1. Közbiztonság, 23 April 1911. no. 17. 222. Monroy, Matthias (2020): Security Architectures in the EU. EU Police Forces Plan New Information System. Online: https://digit.site36.net/2020/09/16/eu-police-forces-plan-newinformation-system/ Nagy, Ivett (2021): A kábítószer-bűnözés átalakulása az online platformok hatására [Drug Crime Transformation under the Effect of Online Platforms]. Belügyi Szemle, 69(6), 107–123. Online: https://doi.org/10.38146/BSZ.SPEC.2021.6.7 Nagy, Zoltán (2021): A karantén krimogén veszélyei. Online: https://ujbtk.hu/dr-nagy-zoltan-akaranten-krimogen-veszelyei/ Nyeste, Péter (2020): A nemzetközi bűnügyi együttműködés és a leplezett eszközök. Ruzsonyi, Péter (ed.): Közbiztonság. Fenntartható biztonság és társadalmi környezet tanulmányok III. Budapest: Ludovika Egyetemi Kiadó. 833–852. Páhi, Barbara (2019): A nemzetközi bűnügyi együttműködés, különös tekintettel az Európai Közösség pénzügyi érdekeinek védelmére. Miskolci Jogtudó, (1), 57–68. Sallai, János (2015): A rendészet kihívásai napjainkban. Hadtudomány, 25(1–2), 135–138. Online: https://doi.org/10.17047/HADTUD.2015.25.1-2.135 Sallai, János – Borszéki, Judit (2022): A nemzetközi rendőri együttműködés kezdetei. Belügyi Szemle, 70(5), 983–1003. Online: https://doi.org/10.38146/BSZ.2022.5.6 Szijártó , István (2019): Az Europol és az Eurojust szerepe a közös nyomozócsoportokban. Ügyészek Lapja, (6). Southeast European Law Enforcement Center (s. a.). Online: https://www.selec.org/ Szomora, Zsolt (2022): A 20 éves Budapesti Egyezmény II. Kiegészítő Jegyzőkönyvét 2022 májusában nyitja meg aláírásra az Európa Tanács [The Second Additional Protocol to the 20th Anniversary Budapest Convention Will Be Opened for Signature by the Council of Europe in May 2022]. Online: https://jogaszegylet.hu/jogelet/a-20-eves-budapestiegyezmeny-ii-kiegeszito-jegyzokonyvet-2022-majusaban-nyitja-meg-alairasra-az-europatanacs/" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(510) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "33-49" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2023.1.3" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(2489) "

European cooperation in criminal matters is a priority in all EU Member States, whether in the detection, investigation or judicial fields. In recent years, I have been carrying out research in the field of organised crime, during which I have realised that in investigations involving two or more Member States, it is almost impossible to achieve the desired objective without criminal cooperation. Then, in the spring of 2020, investigative authorities had to deal with a variable such as the coronavirus pandemic, one of the consequences of which was that personal contact was minimised. However, one of the most important factors for successful and effective police cooperation are personal contacts, which can be achieved through training, meetings or even personal exchanges of views during the course of a criminal case.
However, the activity of organised crime groups is ongoing, although it is fair to say that they favour cyberspace, but they have not given much thought to overcoming the obstacles that arose during the coronavirus pandemic. They have emerged in e-commerce, online marketplaces, but at the same time, they have expanded their existing network of recruiters and started to think globally. Their distribution activities and logistics have also changed. Typically, the online space can be observed for criminal activities such as drug trafficking, arms trafficking or fraud.
The pandemic has also reduced the effectiveness of international cooperation on crime. In the research for this study, I am looking for answers to the question: what tools and methods of cooperation were available to the investigating authorities in the period before the pandemic and could they be further expanded? I will then contrast this period with the escalated situation during the pandemic. My research questions will include how and to what extent the coronavirus pandemic affected international criminal cooperation, in particular the use of Joint Investigation Teams. I also shed light on the question: what are the opportunities and obstacles to the use of available tools for criminal cooperation in the case of crimes committed in the online space?
The threat is growing, it has more and more international aspects, so I think there is a need for deeper cooperation, not only between law enforcement agencies, but also involving the private sector and civil society. It is important to make the citizens of all countries aware of the threats they face.

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A 2019-es OTDK-dolgozat megjelentetését tervezi.

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Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (s. a.): APP en la Región Servicios de Asesoría. Online: https://bit.ly/2xJHZAY Barrera Guarderas, Augusto (2007): Agotamiento de la descentralización y oportunidades de cambio en el Ecuador. In Carrión, Fernando M. (ed.): La descentralización en el Ecuador: opciones comparadas. Quito: FLACSO/SENPLADES. 175–206. Bonbright, James C. – Danielsen, Albert L. – Kamerschen, David R. (1988): Principles of Public Utility Rates. Arlington, Virginia: Public Utilities Reports Inc. Carrión, M. Fernando (2007): El desafío político de gobernar la ciudad. Nueva Sociedad, (212), 36–52. Carrión, M. Fernando (2002): La descentralización en América Latina: una perspectiva comparada. In Procesos de descentralización en la comunidad Andina. Quito: FLACSO-OEA. Cabrera-Jara, Natasha (2019a): Gentrificación en áreas patrimoniales latinoamericanas: cuestionamiento ético desde el caso de Cuenca, Ecuador [Gentrification in Latin American Heritage Areas: Ethical Questioning Based on the Case of Cuenca, Ecuador]. urbe. Revista Brasileira de Gestão Urbana, 11. Online: https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-3369.011.e20180201 Cabrera-Jara, Natasha (2019b): Mercado inmobiliario y metamorfosis urbana en ciudades intermedias. Gringolandia en Cuenca: la tierra prometida [Real Estate Market and Urban Metamorphosis in Intermediary Cities. Gringolandia in Cuenca: The Promised Land]. Bitácora Urbano Territorial, 29(1): 91–100. Online: https://doi.org/10.15446/bitacora.v29n1.75223 Carnap, Rudolf (1950): Logical Foundations of Probability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Castells, Manuel (1968): Y a-t-il une sociologie urbaine? Sociologie du travail, 10(1): 72–90. Online: https://doi.org/10.3406/sotra.1968.1380 EC Asamblea Nacional: Constitución de la República del Ecuador 2018. Online: https://bit.ly/3eLSowO EC Código Orgánico de Organización Territorial, Autonomía y Descentralización (COOTAD). Online: https://bit.ly/3czprCh EC Consejo Nacional Electoral “Transparencia 2017” CNE. Online: https://bit.ly/2Vot7Rr EC Dp World. “Desarrollo Local Posorja”. Online: https://bit.ly/2VIYzcb EC Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado Provincial de Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas (GADPSDT) (2020): APP Puerto Seco Santo Domingo. Online: https://bit.ly/34R4EaA EC Ley Orgánica de Incentivos para Asociaciones Público-Privadas y la Inversión Extranjera. Online: https://bit.ly/2xGj29J EC Ley Orgánica para el fomento productivo, atracción de inversiones, generación de empleo, y estabilidad y equilibrio fiscal. Online: https://bit.ly/2TlrAdA Fontaine, Guillaume (2010): Petropolítica. Una teoría de la gobernanza energética. Quito: FLACSO. Online: https://doi.org/10.14201/alh.7793 González, Matías – Boza, José – De León, Javier (2018): Buen gobierno y eficacia de la ayuda al desarrollo. Criterio Libre, 16(29), 143–162. Online: https://doi.org/10.18041/1900-0642/criteriolibre.2018v16n29.5012 Green, Amelia – Grace, Debra – Perkins, Helen (2016): City Branding Research and Practice: An Integrative Review. The Journal of Brand Management, 23(3), 252–272. Online: https://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2016.8 Hospers, Gert-Jan (2010): Lynch’s The Image of the City after 50 Years: City Marketing Lessons from an Urban Planning Classic. European Planning Studies, 18(12), 2073–2081. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2010.525369 Lacasse, François – Wall, Terry (1994): Public–Private Partnerships in Infrastructure Provision: Main Issues and Conclusions. Paris: OECD, Public Management Occasional Papers, 1994/6. Lynch, Kevin (1960): The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. Moon, Graham – Kendall, Ian (1993): The National Health Service. In Farnham , David – Horton, Sylvia (eds.): Managing the New Public Services. London: Palgrave. 172–187. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-22646-7_8 Mulreany, Michael – Devlin, Liam St John (1998): Public Expenditure and the Private Sector. London: Institute of Public Administration. Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) 2030. Online: https://bit.ly/3boZyF7 Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo Agenda 2030 “Ranking Business in Latin America and Caribbean”. Online: https://bit.ly/3boZyF7 Reyes-Tagle, Gerardo – Ponce de León, Oscar – Brandão, Luiz Eduardo T. – Celle, Adilio – Dompieri, Izabel – Grijalva, Jose – Martins Vieira, Cynthia – Rebollo, Andres – Ventim, Bruno (2021): Impacto fiscal en APP en América Latina y el Caribe. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Online: https://doi.org/10.18235/0003780 Rosenbloom, David H. (1986): Public Administration. Understanding Management, Politics and Law in the Public Sector. New York: Random House. Roth Deubel, André-Noël (2007): Políticas públicas. Formulación, implementación y evaluación [Public Policies: Formulation, Implementation and Evaluation]. Bogota: Aurora. UNCTAD (2019): Promoting Investment for Sustainable Development in Cities. The IPA Observer, (7), 1–9. Online: https://bit.ly/2RUL2x3 Waylen, Georgina (2008): Gendering Governance. In Goertz, Gary – Mazur, Amy G. (eds.): Politics, Gender, and Concepts. Theory and Methodology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 114–135. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511755910.006 World Bank (s. a.): APP in Latin America and Caribbean. Online: https://bit.ly/2zgEi6g Xiaohu, Zhang – Menglong, Li (2019): Meta-governance as a New Solution to the Governance Crisis. Management Issues, 39(3), 88–93. Online: https://doi.org/10.22394/2304-3369-2019-3-88-93 Zagrebelsky, Gustavo (1995): El derecho dúctil. Ley, derechos y justicia. 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The Ecuadorian Government with the aim of planning and making decisions in real time should include the perspective of a new city model in function of the new social needs and the construction of an image for its own country and the international arena. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) should be a fundamental support for these to provide jobs for youths and the ability to generate new businesses. Nowadays, there are public decision-making processes to influence public policy. The author seeks to reflect on local governments and their current perspective regarding the provision of services. Indeed, public management plays a fundamental role in the development of different programs in the field of the digitalisation of services to generate viable solutions and try to improve the quality of life of its inhabitants. Methodology: secondary sources were used for content analysis based on the overview of relevant literature written in English and Spanish.

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Malden, MA – Oxford – Carlton, Victoria: Blackwell Publishing. 171–182. Aquinói Szent Tamás [Thomas Aquinas] (2011): Summa Theologica. In Aquinói Szent Tamás [Thomas Aquinas]: A Summa Theologiae kérdései a jogról [Summa Theologiae on Law]. Budapest: Szent István Társulat. Aristotle (2004): Nicomachean Ethics. Translated by Roger Crisp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Augustine, Saint (1886): Letter 138 (To Marcellinus). In Schaff, Philip (ed.): Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church I. Buffalo: The Christian Literature Company. Augustine, Saint (2000): The City of God. Translated by Marcus Dods. New York: Modern Library. Bobocel, D. Ramona – Gosse, Leanne (2015): Procedural Justice: A Historical Review and Critical Analysis. In Cropanzano , Russell S. – Ambrose, Maureen L. (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Justice in the Workplace. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 51–88. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199981410.001.0001 Boda, Mihály (2020): Az igazságos haború hagyománya Europában és a Távol Keleten (Kínában) [Just War Tradition in Europe and the Far East (China)]. In Pohl, Árpád (ed.): Biztonság és honvédelem. Budapest: Ludovika Egyetemi Kiadó. 1689–1701. Boda, Mihály (2021a): Háborús ideológiák a középkori Magyarországon: istenítéleti ideológia, az igazságos háború elmélete [Warfare Ideologies in Medieval Hungary: Ideology of Judgement of God, Just War Theory]. Hadtudomány, 31(1), 62–74. Online: https://doi. org/10.17047/HADTUD.2021.31.1.62 Boda, Mihály (2021b): Hungarian Theory of Just War Based on the Idea of the Holy Crown: A Historical Case of Just Mission. Journal of Military Ethics, 20(3–4), 269–280. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/15027570.2021.2018797 Boda, Mihály (2022a): Az igazságos háború elméletének kiterjesztése a rendészetre: történelmi és kortárs elméletek. Az igazságos rendészet elmélete [Applying Just War Theory for Policing: Historical and Contemporary Theories. Just Policing Theory]. Belügyi Szemle, 70(1), 169–185. Online: https://doi.org/10.38146/BSZ.2022.1.10 Boda, Mihály (2022b): The Warfare Ideology of Ordeal: Another Form of Just War Thinking? Theory and Practice from the Early Middle Ages. Online: http://real.mtak.hu/129507/1/Boda_Warfare%20Ideology%20of%20Ordeal_Lek_20210507.pdf Cushing, Kathleen G. (1995): Anselm of Lucca and the Doctrine of Coercion: The Legal Impact of the Schism of 1080? The Catholic Historical Review, 81(3), 353–371. Online: https://doi.org/10.1353/cat.1995.0031 Frowe, Helen (2011): The Ethics of War and Peace. An Introduction. London – New York: Routledge. Gentili, Alberico (1933): De Iure Belli. Libri Tres. Vol. 1–2. Volume 2 translated by John C. Rolfe. Oxford–London: The Clarendon Press – Humphrey Milford. Gerics, József (1980): Judicium Dei a magyar állam XI. századi külkapcsolataiban [Iudicum Dei in the Hungarian State’s Foreign Relations in the 11th Century]. In Mezey, László (ed.): Athleta Patriae – Tanulmányok Szent László történetéhez [Athleta Patriae – Essays on the History of Saint Ladislaus]. Budapest: Szent István Társulat. 111–134. Gratian (2013): Decretum, part II, causa 23. In Reichberg, Gregory M. – Syse, Henrik – Begby, Endre (eds.): The Ethics of War. Classic and Contemporary Readings. Malden, MA – Oxford – Carlton, Victoria: Blackwell Publishing. 109–124. Grotius, Hugo (2005a): The Rights of War and Peace. Book I. Indianapolis. Liberty Fund. Grotiu , Hugo (2005b): The Rights of War and Peace. Book II. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. Grotius, Hugo (2005c): The Rights of War and Peace. Book III. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. Isidore of Seville (1966): History of the Kings of Goths. In Isidore of Seville’s History of the Kings of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevis. Translated by Guido Donini – Gordon B. Ford Jr. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 3–33. Isidore of Seville (2006): The Etymologies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Isidore of Seville (2018): Sententiae. Translated by Thomas L. Knoebel. New York – Mahwah, NJ: The Newman Press. Johnson, James Turner (2006): The Just War Idea: The State of the Question. Social Philosophy and Policy, 23(1), 167–195. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0265052506060079 Kalmanovitz, Pablo (2018): Early Modern Sources of the Regular War Tradition. In Lazar, Seth – Frowe, Helen (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 145–165. Lenin, Vladimir Ilych (1964a): The Tasks of the Proletariat in our Revolution. In Lenin Collected Works. Volume 24 (April–June 1917). London: Lawrence and Wishart, Moscow: Progress Publishers. 57–91. Lenin, Vladimir Ilych (1964b): War and Revolution. Lenin Collected Works. Volume 24 (April–June 1917). London: Lawrence and Wishart, Moscow: Progress Publishers. 398–421. Lenin, Vladimir Ilych (1966): The Principles of Socialism and the War of 1914–1915. In Lenin on the War and Peace. Three Articles. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. 4–57. Luban, David (2011): War as Punishment. Georgetown Law Faculty Working Papers, (145), 11–71. Online: https://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/fwps_papers/145/ McMahan, Jeff – McKim, Robert (1993): The Just War and the Gulf War. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 23(4), 501–541. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/00455091.1993.10717333 Mille, David (2021): Justice. In Zalta , Edward N. (ed.): The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2021. Online: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2021/entries/justice/ Ramsey, Paul (1978): Basic Christian Ethics (Midway reprint). Chicago–London: The University of Chicago Press. Rawls, John (1999): Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Reichberg, Gregory M. (2018): Thomas Aquinas on War and Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 17–41. Révay, Péter (1979): Révay Péter Turóc vármegyei főispán emlékirata Magyarország több mint 600 éve tündöklő Szent Koronájának eredetéről, jeles és győzedelmes voltáról, sorsáról. In Katona, Tamás (ed.): A korona kilenc évszázada. Budapest: Magyar Helikon. 195–232. Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2005): Crusading as an Act of Love. In Berman, Constance H. (ed.): Medieval Religion. New Approaches. New York – London: Routledge. 44–60. Online:https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203328675_chapter_2 Ryder, Andrew (2019): “The only Justifiable War” The Marxist Strategies of Lenin, Trotsky, and Blanco. An Introduction to International Perspectives. In Cordeiro-Rodrigues, Luís – Singh, Danny (eds.): Comparative Just War Theory. Lanham – New York – London: Rowman and Littlefield. 31–44. Walzer, Michael (1992): Just and Unjust Wars. New York: Basic Books. Weithman, Paul (2001): Augustine’s Political Philosophy. In Stump, Eleonore – Kretzmann, Norman (eds.): The Cambridge Companion to Augustine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 234–252. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521650186.017 Wollenberg, Erich (1936): Just Wars in the Light of Marxism. New International, 3(1), 2–5." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(510) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "61-75" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2023.1.5" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(545) "

Just war thinking features the history of warfare from the beginning up to the 20th century. Just war thinking, however, did not have one unique frame, but it appeared in many forms. The theory of judgement of God, the mission-related theory, the law enforcement theory, the revolutionary, and finally, the regular war theory were the important forms of historical just war thinking. This article presents these theories and classifies them with the help of the main concepts of Saint Thomas Aquinas and the principal concepts of justice.

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Middle East Quarterly, 14(4), 22–32. Online: https://www.meforum.org/1753/the-us-counter-propaganda-failure-in-iraq Hallahan, Kirk – Holtzhause n, Derina – van Ruler, Betteke – Ver čič, Dejan – Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy (2007): Defining Strategic Communication. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 1(1), 3–35. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/15531180701285244 Hammond-Errey, M. (2019): Understanding and Assessing Information Influence and Foreign Interference. Journal of Information Warfare, 18(1), 1–22. Holtzhause n, Derina – Zerfass , Ansgar eds. (2015): The Routledge Handbook of Strategic Communication. London – New York: Routledge. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203094440 Johnson, Thomas H. (2018): Amil Khan: Taliban Narratives: The Use and Power of Stories in the Afghanistan Conflict. London: Hurst, 2018. Book review. International Affairs, 94(4), 960–961. 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Hadtudományi Szemle, 14(2), 115–132. Online: https://doi.org/10.32563/hsz.2021.2.9 Nothhaft, Howard – Page Werder, Kelly – Verčič, Dejan – Zerfass, Ansgar (2018a): Editors’ Introduction. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 12(4), 329–332. Online:https://doi.org/10.1080/1553118X.2018.1493484 Nothhaft, Howard – Page Werder, Kelly – Ver čič, Dejan – Zerfass , Ansgar (2018b): Strategic Communication: Reflections on an Elusive Concept. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 12(4), 352–366. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/1553118X.2018.1492412 Nothhaft, Howard – Schölzel, Hagen (2015): (Re-)Reading Clausewitz: The Strategy Discourse and its Implications for Strategic Communication. In Holtzhausen, Derina – Zerfass , Ansgar (eds.): The Routledge Handbook of Strategic Communication. London – New York: Routledge. 18–33. O’Connor, Amy – Shu mate, Michelle (2018): A Multidimensional Network Approach to Strategic Communication. 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This article argues a discrepancy between the low degree of interest afforded to military disciplines in strategic communication research and the high degree of significance of strategic communication to modern military practice. A relatively low number of scholarly articles have been published in the field of strategic communication which focus on military disciplines, with most of them being empirical studies addressing research objects on the frontiers of military science. Meanwhile, strategic communication has become increasingly central to military practice in the post-1990 period, as seen in armed conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Ukraine.

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Since the hypersonic weapon system has gotten into service, the military strategists try to assess what changes the new capability will cause in the current theories and concepts. Even though there is much discredit around the effectiveness of the system, everyone agrees that it will shape and change the security environment. However, the first worries focused on the changes of current nuclear strategy, inherently the weapon will implicate other significant changes in the character of war. At the theory level, the capability of the system can override the current A2AD concepts, it can compel the adversary by bargain power and it can also put the current warfighting concepts at risk. Therefore, the analysis should focus on every segment of the current concepts and theories to predict how the system changes and shape military science.

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Online: https://doi.org/10.32576/nb.2019.3.8 Sanchez-Pi, Nayat – Martí, Luis – Bicharra Garcia, Ana Cristina – Baeza Yates, Ricardo – Vellasco, Marley et al. (2021): A Roadmap for AI in South America. Side event AI in South America of the Global Partnership for AI (GPAI). Paris: Paris Summit, GPAI Paris Center of Expertise. Statista (2019a): Revenues from the artificial intelligence (AI) software market in South America from 2018 to 2025 (in billion U.S. dollars). Online: www.statista.com/statistics/721751/latin-america-artificial-intelligence-market/ Statista (2019b): Public opinion on the governmental use of artificial intelligence (AI) and facial recognition in selected countries in South America in 2019. Online: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1101603/government-use-ai-latin-america/ Thomázy, Gabriella (2021): Migrációs stratégiák: Dél-Amerika vs. Európa. Ecuador, Kolumbia, Magyarország és Spanyolország összehasonlító elemzése. Hadtudomány, 31(2), 58–74. Online: https://doi.org/10.17047/HADTUD.2021.31.2.58 TMG (2020): Overview of AI Policies and Developments in South America. TMG Report, February 2020. Online: https://www.tmgtelecom.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/TMG-Reporton-Overview-of-AI-Policies-and-Developments-in-Latin-America.pdf Urbanovics, Anna – Guajardo Santana, Rodrigo (2022): Estrategias de ciberseguridad en los países latinoamericanos – un análisis comparativo. Acta Hispanica, (4). 89–104. Online: https://doi.org/10.14232/actahisp.2022.0.89-104 Veronese, Alexandre – Nunes Lopes Espiñeira Lemos, Amanda (2021): Trayectoria normativa de la inteligencia artificial en los países de Latinoamérica con un marco jurídico para la protección de datos: límites y posibilidades de las políticas integradoras. Revista Latinoamericana de Economía y Sociedad Digital, (2), 1–31. Online: https://doi.org/10.53857/MZBU2371" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(510) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "101-114" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2023.1.8" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(938) "

South American countries have also started to develop national AI strategies. The aim of the study is to provide a comparative analysis of strategy development processes in five South American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. For the quantitative analysis, I used data from the OECD AI Policy Observatory (Artificial Intelligence Policy Observatory) and other international databases, while for the qualitative analysis, I used document analysis on national strategies. The countries surveyed have taken different paths in preparing their national strategies, but the common point is that in all of them the strategy is part of a larger digitisation agenda. Although the AI strategies of the countries in the region are still at an early stage, the existence of national intent will allow progress in terms of both national and regional regulation, with the potential for these countries to become AI powers.

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object(Publication)#774 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(30) { ["id"]=> int(6470) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-03-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-04-06 09:27:58" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7979) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(9) ["submissionId"]=> int(6346) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(5144) "Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2012) C 326/02. DigitalEurope (2019): A Stronger Digital Europe. Brussels. Online: https://www.digitaleurope.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/DIGITALEUROPE-%E2%80%93-Our-Call-to-Action-for-ASTRONGER-DIGITAL-EUROPE.pdf Directive (EU) 2016/1148 of the European Parliament and of the Council (6 July 2016) concerning measures for a high common level of security of network and information systems across the Union. Directive (EU) 2016/680 of the European Parliament and of the Council (27 April 2016) on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by competent authorities for the purposes of the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Council Framework Decision 2008/977/JHA. Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (12 July 2002) concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications). Engelmann, Severin – Chen, Mo – Dang, Lorenz – Grossklags, Jens (2021): Blacklists and Redlists in the Chinese Social Credit System: Diversity, Flexibility, and Comprehensiveness. AIES ’21: Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society, 78–88. Online: https://doi.org/10.1145/3461702.3462535 Human Rights Watch (2018): China: Big Data Fuels Crackdown in Minority Region. Human Rights Watch, 26 February 2018. Online: https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/02/26/china-big-datafuels-crackdown-minority-region Kaszián, Ábel Gergő (2021): A GDPR kínai „unokatestvére” – avagy a kínai adatvédelmi törvény megszületése és várható hatásai. Jogi Fórum, 20 September 2021. Online: https://www.jogiforum.hu/publikacio/2021/09/20/a-gdpr-kinai-unokatestvere-avagy-a-kinaiadatvedelmi-torveny-megszuletese-es-varhato-hatasai/ Kostka, Genia (2018): China’s Social Credit Systems and Public Opinion: Explaining High Levels of Approval. Merics, 17 September 2018. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3215138 Kovalovszki, Kartal (2019): A kínai társadalmi kreditrendszer [The Chinese Social Credit System]. DiploMaci, 11 April 2019. Online: https://diplomaci.blog.hu/2019/04/11/a_kinai_tarsadalmi_kreditrendszer Lee, Amanda (2020): What Is China’s Social Credit System and Why Is It Controversial? South China Morning Post, 09 August 2020. Online: https://www.scmp.com/economy/china-economy/article/3096090/what-chinas-social-credit-system-and-why-it-controversial Liang, Fan – Das, Vishnupriya – Kostyuk , Nadiya – Hussa in, Muzammil M. (2018): Constructing a Data‐Driven Society: China’s Social Credit System as a State Surveillance Infrastructure. Policy and Internet, 10(4), 415–453. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.183 Lin, Leesa – Hou, Zhiyuan (2020): Combat Covid-19 with Artificial Intelligence and Big Data. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27(5), 1–8. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa080 Maurtved t, Martin (2018): Surveillance and Social Manipulation: A Solution to “Moral Decay”? Master’s thesis. University of Oslo. Mészáros, R. Tamás (2021): Annyi adatot gyűjtöttek, hogy a Kínai Kommunista Párt is megijedt tőle [They Collected so Much Data that even the Chinese Communist Party Was Scared of It]. G7, 25 July 2021. Online: https://g7.hu/vilag/20210725/annyi-adatot-gyujottek-hogy-akinai-kommunista-part-is-megijedt-tole/ Misuraca , Gianluca – Barce vičius , Egidijus – Codagnone, Cristiano (2020): Exploring Digital Government Transformation in the EU. Understanding Public Sector Innovation in a Data-Driven Society. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Online: https://doi.org/10.2760/480377 Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council (27 April 2016) on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation). Salát, Gergely (2009): A régi Kína története. Budapest: ELTE Knfuciusz Intézet. Online: https://btk.ppke.hu/uploads/articles/772735/file/regikinatortenete_teljes.pdf Stratfor (2012): The Geopolitics of China: A Great Power Enclosed. Stratfor, 25 May 2012. Online: https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/geopolitics-china-great-powerenclosed Wang, Maya (2018): Cambridge Analytica, Big Data and China. Human Rights Watch, 18 April 2018. Online: https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/04/18/cambridge-analytica-big-data-and-china West, John (2015): China’s Political Predicament. Asian Century Institute, 30 September 2015. Online: https://asiancenturyinstitute.com/politics/979-china-s-political-predicament Wimmer, Maria A. – Neur oni, Alessia C. – Frecè, Jan Thomas (2020): Approaches to Good Data Governance in Support of Public Sector Transformation Through Once-Only. Electronic Government, EGOV 2020, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57599-1_16" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(510) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "115-132" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2023.1.9" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(863) "

The purpose of this article is to present the basis for building trust within the European Union, through which the authors illustrate the importance of the protection of personal data as a fundamental requirement in both the EU and its Member States’ legal environments. In addition, the authors have examined the Chinese Social Credit System, which by its design and operation is not primarily focused on building trust and is therefore not the most appropriate solution for building trust. The authors conducted a SWOT analysis comparing the EU and Chinese principles to achieve their objectives. They also conducted interviews with people who have personal experience with the Chinese credit point system. Based on the results obtained, they sought to justify their basic hypothesis that this type of credit system could not be applied within the EU.

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