AARMS – Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms <p>As the name of the journal shows, its goal is to publish research results, peer-reviewed studies of high standard in English in the field of military science and military technology. Recent changes in the structure of the university have called for the renewal of the publication, allowing for publishing scientific results in other disciplines such as public administration as well as law enforcement.</p> Ludovika University Press en-US AARMS – Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science 2498-5392 <p>The copyright to this article is transferred to the University of Public Service Budapest, Hungary (for U.S. government employees: to the extent transferable) effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.</p> <p>The author warrants that this contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors.</p> <p>An author may make an article published by University of Public Service available on a personal home page provided the source of the published article is cited and University of Public Service is mentioned as copyright holder</p> Security of Encryption Procedures and Practical Implications of Building a Quantum Computer https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/4973 <p>In ensuring the operation of an IT system, it is essential to maintain the data’s confidentiality and integrity, which is based on some encryption processes. Encryption procedures are based on algorithms, the theory of which is given by cryptography. Due to their complexity, they are often hardly understandable not only to an average person but also to the majority of professionals who are familiar with IT. The algorithms used are not eternal; various designs or implementation errors or even performance gains from computer hardware improvements make one time high achieving algorithms obsolete and easily hackable. Strong algorithms can be circumvented in alternative ways, the necessary software and hardware infrastructure can already be built from personal computing devices. I tested its effectiveness on two different password databases: with the success of hacking university passwords, I prove that it is possible to circumvent strong algorithms with simple methods. Modern encryption algorithms have a relatively long life cycle and they become obsolete slowly. The construction of the quantum computer creates a new situation, which requires a number of procedures to be eliminated and its parameters to be modified or protected by additional methods. As it is an impossible task to modernise the encryption algorithms of all IT systems operating today, preparations must be started as soon as possible so that the new situation can be handled, at least for critical systems. In my article, I would like to draw attention to the weaknesses of encryption methods, present a possible method of circumventing the cryptographic methods currently in use, demonstrate the operation of a quantum computer and some algorithms relevant to the topic.</p> Koczka Ferenc Copyright (c) 2021 Koczka Ferenc https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 19 3 5 22 10.32565/aarms.2020.3.1 The Impact of the Covid Pandemic on Security and the Military: https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/4736 <p>A global health crisis can have long lasting effects on many areas of life, and the military is not exempt of its effects either. This article aims to highlight the possible usage of the military in various forms of emergency situations, especially in the case of the current coronavirus pandemic, particularly focusing on cooperation based on partnerships, while also highlighting the effects the Covid-19 epidemic had on the military. Civil-military cooperation (CIMIC) is a cornerstone of military operations these days, and its positive effects on military operations, especially in the struggle against the pandemic are also detailed. This study is based on the events and experiences of the first seven months since the outbreak of the Covid pandemic.</p> Padányi József Ondrék József Copyright (c) 2021 Padányi József, Ondrék József https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 19 3 23 36 10.32565/aarms.2020.3.2 The Role of the NATO Support and Procurement Agency in Support to Operations https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5459 <p>It is a basic requirement of the nations participating in multinational operations that the necessary resources be available at the required place and time, in the determined quality and quantity with optimal costs. In all of this, the Contractor Support to Operations, one of the pillars of the support to operations, has a more and more significant role. This method of support (besides the Host Nation Support) is destined for covering the gaps in the national military capabilities and capacities. It is indispensable these days to employ contractors for capitalising on their technological knowledge, as well as for achieving cost savings and a growth in the capabilities. The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA or Agency), the ‘contract integrator’ organisation of the NATO also support the NATO and the nations this way. In this article, the authors would like to introduce the operation of the NSPA and discuss the potential opportunities in its use.</p> Pohl Árpád Gulyás György Copyright (c) 2021 Pohl Árpád, Gulyás György https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 19 3 37 51 10.32565/aarms.2020.3.3 Can Boko Haram Constitute a Threat to European Security? https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5173 <p>In this study, the authors seek to address the question whether Boko Haram can constitute a threat to European security. Toanswer this question, one mustanalyse recent Nigerian migration patterns to Italy, actual reports, peer-reviewed academic works, a wide variety of regional journals and media articles. By evaluating all available research sources, it can be concluded that the answer is not as clear-cut as one might thinkat first glance. On the one hand, we could argue that a terrorist group like Boko Haram cannot constitute a serious European security threat, since the majority of Nigerians arriving in Europe seems to have decided to flee their country of origin due to economic, social and security reasons, therefore, these migrants have nothing to do with terrorism. On the other hand, we could also argue that Boko Haram can pose a threat to European security, by taking advantage of migration flows and inserting its own soldiers, thus creating terrorist cells within them. We have found plenty of evidences related to the terrorist organisation’s increased use of women as soft targets and the potential re-radicalisation of traumatised children in Europe. Since its alignment with ISIL in 2015, there has been growing concern that Boko Haram could follow suit with focusing its efforts on refugees, infiltrating migration flows and thereby creating a significant security risk to Europe. However, in recent years the number of Nigerian migrants arriving in Europe has been decreasing, which could be justified by tighter links between African and European governments and by stronger European control. If this continuous cooperation and tight internal European border security andpolice procedures are to remain, there is less chance for Boko Haram to constitute a threat to European security.</p> Sinkó Gábor Babos Tibor Copyright (c) 2021 Sinkó Gábor, Babos Tibor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 19 3 53 70 10.32565/aarms.2020.3.4 Military Intervention and Changing Balance of Power in Libya: https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5204 <p>Libya has sunk into chaos since Muammar Gaddafi was deposed by a Western-led military intervention in 2011. Since then, the Libyan crisis has escalated into an internationalised armed conflict, and a major power struggle between Turkey, Qatar, Italy, and Russia, Egypt, France, and the United Arab Emirates. In the last few years, General Khalifa Haftar has become Libya’s most prominent military commander, who is now ruling the eastern part of the country, as the head of the Libyan National Army. His military offensive, launched in April 2019, to capture the capital Tripoli forced Turkey to help the UN-backed Government of National Accord to avoid defeat. But Haftar too received additional military support, especially from Abu Dhabi and Moscow. This escalated the conflict even further, spurring Ankara for another, this time more consequential intervention, which was able to change the local balance of power, so diplomatic efforts and the peace process could get another chance.</p> Selján Péter Copyright (c) 2021 Selján Péter https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 19 3 71 84 10.32565/aarms.2020.3.5 The Remarkable 10th Anniversary of Stuxnet https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5258 <p>It has been ten years since Stuxnet, a highly sophisticated malware that was originally aimed at Iran’s nuclear facilities, was uncovered in 2010. Stuxnet is considered to be the first cyber weapon, used by a nation state threat actor in a politically motivated cyberattack. It has significantly changed the cybersecurity landscape, since it was the first publicly known malware that could cause physical damage to real processes or equipment. Its complexity and level of sophistication, due to the exploitation of four different zero-day vulnerabilities in Windows and the usage of two stolen certificates, has triggered a paradigm shift in the cybersecurity industry. The recently uncovered cyber espionage campaign known as SolarStorm is a worthy anniversary celebration for Stuxnet. Especially because now the tables have turned. This campaign targeted the United States Government and its interests with a highly sophisticated supply chain attack through the exploitation of the SolarWinds Orion Platform used by thousands of public and private sector customers for infrastructure monitoring and management. In this article, I attempt to summarise the key points about the malware deployed in the SolarStorm campaign that can be drawn from reports available at the time of the writing.</p> Selján Gábor Copyright (c) 2021 Selján Gábor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 19 3 85 98 10.32565/aarms.2020.3.6