AARMS – Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms <p>As the name of the journal shows, its goal is to publish research results, peer-reviewed studies of high standard in English in the field of military science and military technology. Recent changes in the structure of the university have called for the renewal of the publication, allowing for publishing scientific results in other disciplines such as public administration as well as law enforcement.</p> Ludovika University Press en-US AARMS – Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science 2498-5392 <p>The copyright to this article is transferred to the University of Public Service Budapest, Hungary (for U.S. government employees: to the extent transferable) effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.</p> <p>The author warrants that this contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors.</p> <p>An author may make an article published by University of Public Service available on a personal home page provided the source of the published article is cited and University of Public Service is mentioned as copyright holder</p> The Concept of Juristocracy on Trial: Reality or Fiction? https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5403 <p>This article aims to investigate the controversial concept of Juristocracy that has been widely analysed recently. This theory claims that lobbyists representing a liberal ideology have formed an oligarchy of lawyers in EU institutions. These juristocratic networks seek to limit the sovereignty of post-liberal, legitimate national governments. The concept extends to other supranational institutions as well as NGOs and academic networks. This study discusses the political ambition of lawyers of EU institutions and their existence as political protagonists i.e. Juristocracy. However, the theory of Juristocracy addresses some historical phenomena. The EU’s bureaucracy has become a “power institution” and tends to compete with national governments. In this socio-evolutionary struggle, both legal and political theories can easily become “power theories”. The concept of Juristocracy reflects the weakening global influence of neoliberal values as well as the changing role of post-WWII supranational institutions. In this respect, juristocratic networking can be seen as a historical necessity as much as it has to do with the conflict of supranational and national governance, in particular within the EU. The legitimacy and public trust of supranational institutions is more and more challenged, thus the study concludes the need for a new, win–win deal between national governments and supranational institutions. Otherwise, in the long-term, nation states will only survive if relying on historical and socio-psychological foundations.</p> Kis Norbert Copyright (c) 2022 Kis Norbert https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 20 2 5 14 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.1 Recent Trends in Transit Migration Routes Through Turkey to Europe https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5689 <p>Due to its geographical proximity to Western countries, Turkey is becoming one of the critical points of a complex migration system that includes asylum seekers, refugees, regular, irregular and transit migrants. For this reason, Turkey, regarded as a “transition country”, is a very important station on the way to European destinations. With this aspect, Turkey has become a key country in terms of the EU’s border security, and this feature has become the focal point of EU–Turkey relations.<br />Despite the importance and insufficient opportunities for irregular migration to the EU, Turkey’s struggle with transit migration will be discussed in this study. Furthermore, the routes used by refugees to reach Europe through Turkey, as well as the statistics related with these routes, will be examined.</p> Aygün Erhan Copyright (c) 2022 Aygün Erhan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 20 2 15 25 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.2 The Shanghai Cooperation Organization in a Changing Central Asian Geopolitical Context https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5579 <p>The article discusses the initial role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in Central Asia and the latest development trends, as well as possible scenarios for its transformation in the future, with a special focus on Central Asia. The enlargement of the SCO in 2017 enhanced its geopolitical weight and expanded opportunities for further multilateral cooperation. It has a chance to transform into the Eurasian organisation. Nevertheless, these perspectives remain unclear.</p> Vasa László Nurimbetov Rakhmatulla Copyright (c) 2022 Vasa László, Nurimbetov Rakhmatulla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 20 2 27 38 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.3 Air Power Projection in Conduct of NATO Deterrence Activities and Operations https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5499 <p class="KBOAbstractHeading" style="line-height: 150%;">This paper provides an overview and analysis of the role, place and importance of air power for the success of joint military operations in conduct of NATO deterrence activities and operations. Air power has been highly valued in defence, security and in warfare from its very beginning, since the establishment of the first Air Forces. With its modern development it has become crucial for achieving military goals, as well as national ones. The importance of air power is shown through its definition and comparison in the military doctrines of the air forces of certain countries and NATO, where it is obvious how important it is in the structure of national power, security and defence, as well as in collective security and defence of NATO. The emphasis is on the ongoing implementation of NATO military activities and operations and the projection of the Alliance’s air power in deterring Russia’s potential threats to its members in Northeast Europe, in the Baltic region. The current method of projection of air power and the use of its elements in these NATO military activities are discussed and presented. The special features and capabilities provided by the air power, which do not possess other military components and cannot compensate for these effects, give it a key role in supporting and conducting joint military operations, and in enabling the success of their implementation.</p> Boros Goran Csengeri János Copyright (c) 2022 Boros Goran, Csengeri János https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 20 2 39 47 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.4 Short Study: Describing the Major Features of the Russian Battalion Tactical Group https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5045 <p>Today we have clear evidence, that in Eastern Ukraine regular Russian forces have fought on the separatists’ side. Based on open sources, the main type of unit deployed by the Russian Armed Forces is the Battalion Tactical Group. These Battalion Tactical Groups were deployed in almost all battles of the Russo–Ukraine war. In these battles, the Battalion Tactical Groups used the latest available Russian military equipment and they used them by the latest Russian manuals. It is very important to get familiar with the battle performance, the equipment and the tactics used by the Russian Battalion Tactical Groups in order to have a clear picture of the main tactical formation implemented by the Russians in Eastern Ukraine.</p> Takács Márk Copyright (c) 2022 Takács Márk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 20 2 49 65 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.5 Research Methods for the Study of Refugee Resettlement https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/4974 <p>This study tries to integrate different methods for research on refugee resettlement, which denotes the scholarship that intends to compare specific issues in two or more contexts and societies under their diverse socio-cultural settings. The study aims to represent a holistic picture that allows a greater understanding of refugee resettlement and proposes developing a more appropriate and holistic research methodology for refugee studies to do research in state and public administration. Researching the refugee problem has various distinctive noticeable difficulties that scholars must deal with; it also provides a diverse alternative for each stage to pilot the research process. The paper discusses the correlations amid the methodological problems and clarifies the critical decisions that are considered when researching the refugee problem.</p> Hossain A N M Zakir Copyright (c) 2022 Hossain A N M Zakir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 20 2 67 86 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.6 Hungary’s Energy and Water Security Countermeasures as Answers to the Challenges of Global Climate Change https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/4814 <p>Weather extremities became more significant in Central Europe from the beginning of the 21st century. More frequent and severe droughts, floods, precipitations, storms, extreme high (or low) temperatures are occurring nowadays. It has become important also for Hungary to have proper legal and scientific background to fight against these phenomena. In recent years, several legal and technical regulations were born in Hungary as strategic answers for these challenges. The goal is to ease the consequences and adapt to the changes as much as possible. The authors selected some key areas and their interactions as the energy sector, water management and security issues. After describing Hungary’s situation, related environment and the history of recent years’ efforts in these areas, they summarise the responses and probable benefits of the Hungarian countermeasures as a possible positive example for answering the challenges of climate change.</p> Földi László Berek Tamás Padányi József Copyright (c) 2022 Földi László, Berek Tamás, Padányi József https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 20 2 87 96 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.7 Charting Possible Performance Indicators Related to Digital Learning Content Supported Learning https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/1012 <p>During my professional carrier, I participated in several digital content development projects, and in my doctoral dissertation I examined the ecosystem of e-learning development according to the Design Science (DS) methodology. Partly from the practical experience, partly from the comprehensive research, I perceived that few indicators – which can be applied in practice – were determined about the effectiveness and efficiency of a digital learning content development process.<br />Traditionally, projects can be evaluated by the ‘iron triangle’: the project is completed on time, within budget in right quality. This approach is not fundamentally wrong, but as several studies point out, it does not provide a complete picture, can even lead to false conclusions, and can determine wrong decisions.<br />The present work aims to focus specifically on the e-learning content created as a product of professional authoring tools (e.g. the end result is a SCORM standard package). This paper does not seek to take into account the whole development process. In addition to the focus on the content development, it is also important to underline that the background of these findings is in adult learning environments in large or multinational corporations.<br />In this article, I summarise the key technological, methodological and financial indicators (both key performance indicators and key result indicators) for the learner- and content-centred e-learning materials. Together, these indicators can form a system that gives the opportunity to evaluate and compare e-learning materials in its complexity.</p> Balkányi Péter Copyright (c) 2022 Balkányi Péter https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 20 2 97 119 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.8