AARMS – Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms <p>As the name of the journal shows, its goal is to publish research results, peer-reviewed studies of high standard in English in the field of military science and military technology. Recent changes in the structure of the university have called for the renewal of the publication, allowing for publishing scientific results in other disciplines such as public administration as well as law enforcement.</p> Ludovika University Press en-US AARMS – Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science 2498-5392 <p>The copyright to this article is transferred to the University of Public Service Budapest, Hungary (for U.S. government employees: to the extent transferable) effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.</p> <p>The author warrants that this contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors.</p> <p>An author may make an article published by University of Public Service available on a personal home page provided the source of the published article is cited and University of Public Service is mentioned as copyright holder</p> Short Study on Performance of Air Surveillance Augmented by Twin Radars https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2362 <p>Detection of targets at low altitudes with a low Radar Cross Section (RCS) such as drones and stealth could challenge Air Surveillance systems and this situation must be addressed in a cost–effective way. This paper summarizes the newly emerged technical challenges of the Control and Reporting Centre (CRC) and gives solutions on how to overcome recognized shortcomings. In addition it highlights problems and requirements related to drone maneuvering capabilities and their very low RCS. This article summarizes challenges and gives a synthesized solution to the network centric approach based on the short distance Gaussian bi–static radar concept called twin radar coherent signal fusion. The idea is to explore advantages of the twin radar concept such as doubled detection range, increased, superior angular resolution of the system and increased plot update frequency. Examples for the twin radar performance demonstration are based on VHF radar, which has unique capabilities such as exploitation of multipath and resonance frequency for drones. A few peculiarities of the new signal processing are introduced with the extended air traffic control and monitoring network structure.</p> Balajti István Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 1 16 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.1 Evidence Based Military Medicine – The NATO Trauma Registry Initiative https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2364 <p>For thousands of years Medicine was practiced in empiric and authoritarian ways. Physicians and other medical personnel always treated sick people with the principle of “nil nocere”, meaning “do no harm”, but the procedures sometimes either were not effective or did cause harm. Modern scientific methods in medicine enabled the scientists to provide firm results and evidence of a particular treatment or procedure in health care provisions. In a controlled clinical environment the prospective, double blinded, multi– centric, randomized trial became the golden standard of research, because this method provided the most solid basis of testing a hypothesis. In Military Medicine the operational environment and battle rhythm define the framework for the practice. It is impossible to design a trial with all the aforementioned requirements in battlefield settings, however small scope prospective trauma care studies are now getting approval and some of them have been already published. The tools for this research are the national Military Trauma Registry Systems, which are available now in a few countries. The NATO Trauma Registry Initiative is a multinational effort for the exchange of operational trauma care data among the NATO Military Medical Services, to foster the improvement of Military Medicine and to provide more solid evidence for treatment. </p> Balázs Róbert Kopcsó István Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 17 29 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.2 Component Based IT Interoperability Solutions, a Novel Approach https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2366 <p>In our days the range of information activities supported by IT equipment, and the volume of information stored in IT systems is continually growing. So cooperation among different organizations is practically impossible without extensive, meaning preserving information exchange between their IT systems. Practically all today’s interoperability solutions are based on a previously agreed intermediary representation (formatted message standard, or standard data elements), but these solutions have a number of limitations. This paper outlines the foundations of a novel, component based realization of IT interoperability solutions. For this reason it summarizes the foundations of IT interoperability, analyses the goals, and possibilities of component based solutions outlines an architecture of component based interoperability solutions, and finally determines basics of its components.</p> Munk Sándor Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 31 46 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.3 Analysis of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections In Mission Circumstances https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/3685 <p>During this research a specific partial data set of the UN database was analyzed from different aspects and evaluated in order to create an image about the prevalence and probable reasons of upper respiratory tract infections among soldiers serving in the operation area.<br>The research indicates that the prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and the previously performed tonsillectomies, was the highest in one contingent. The statistical data demonstrates that the tonsillectomies may influence the frequency of upper respiratory infections within the contingent.</p> Fejes Zsolt Kóródi Gyula Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 47 52 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.4 Implementation of Goal–Oriented Budgeting in the Defence Sector https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2369 <p>This article describes the starting points for implementing goal–oriented budgeting (management by objectives) into the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. It also focuses on the principles and factors that affect implementation.&nbsp;</p> Musil Petr Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 53 57 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.5 The Infocommunication System Requirements of the Deployable Rapid Diagnostic Laboratory Support “Sampling Group” I. https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2370 <p>The purpose of the authors of this article is to present the abilities and the requirements of the infocommunication sub–system of a sampling group which supports the professional activity of a deployable rapid diagnostic laboratory. In addtion, the article determines the infocommunication demands and the contact system of the group. Considering the above, the authors of the article investigate the applicable technologies, the possible technical devices and give suggestions for their implementation.<br>This article is made possible with the support of the project TGYDGL09 “Deployable Rapid Diagnostic Laboratory”.</p> Farkas Tibor Hronyecz Erika Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 59 70 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.6 War Grave Excavation Methods: Survey, Results and Suggestions https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2372 <p>War graves, or war heroes’ graves, are burial places for soldiers who fell in battle while serving their homeland, or as a result of fighting for their country. War graves around the world are, from time to time, excavated — either by chance or by design — and the earthly remains of the warriors resting within may be exhumed. The following study primarily seeks answers to the questions of who should, in such cases, carry out the excavation of a war grave? Which areas of science may be affected by the excavation? What types of experts can be involved in such instances? And what methods exist for this purpose? A further objective of the study is to make recommendations on the optimal methodology that may be applied by experts in Hungary.</p> Tóth Zsolt Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 71 87 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.7 Capabilities and Application Possibilities of the Intelligence Functional Sub–system of “HUTOPCCIS” Computer–aided Command System Operating on a Geospatial Information Systems Basis https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2409 <p>Operational command is to be implemented always in the area of operations, or area of responsibility, using command assets that have a direct effect on the operational activities, and are able to quickly and operatively react to changes in the situation, and to make available the necessary forces and equipment in due time corresponding to the current situation in order to support the combat activity. These requirements are met by field command systems.<br />This study is aimed at presenting the development results, capabilities, and application possibilities of the computer–aided intelligence planning and command and data processing functional sub–system operating on a geospatial information systems basis.</p> Furján Attila Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 89 101 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.8 Mali: A New Challenge for Peacekeeping https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2416 <p>In the past few years many conflicts have intensified in Africa, one of which have caused a new peacekeeping mission to be deployed to Mali, and already existing operations to be strengthened. Mali was the first victim of the chaos caused by the Arab Spring and the international intervention in Libya. The heavily armed Tuareg returned to Mali after the Libyan intervention, and their separatist aspirations caused an interior conflict that escalated when terrorist groups got involved. A democratically functioning country collapsed from one day to another. The crisis in Mali is a difficult challenge for the international community because it has to organize a multidimensional peacekeeping mission, while having to fight against terrorism. Moreover, the global economic crisis forced these nations to reduce their military spending without compromising effectiveness. The present paper deals with the complexity of the conflict in Mali and examines whether the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), the peacekeeping mission in Mali, is able to comply with the expected requirements.</p> Ritter Noémi Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 103 111 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.9 Place and Role of Cultural Anthropology in the Military https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2422 <p>Action–anthropology is one branch of cultural anthropology that as an interdiscipline can promote the more effective functioning of the system of the Hungarian Defence Force’s mission operations planning, training, and task implementation. Cultural anthropology — and the sub–discipline action–anthropology — is a branch of social science utilizing methods of theory and knowledge to solve prac- tical social problems; therefore, it is suitable for special research in mission areas.</p> Sztankai Krisztián Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 113 116 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.10 Analysis and Assessment of Targets on a Digital Map and Computer Processing of Intelligence Data https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2425 <p>The Tactical Operational Command and Control Information System shall have sub–systems that are capable of covering, ensuring, and servicing — in summary supporting — the battlefield systems operated by the combat (manoeuvre) forces and combat support units and sub–units during planning and commanding, on the land forces, brigade, battalion and company level.<br />One of the most important such sub–systems is the intelligence planning, command and data processing functional sub–system. It allows for a quick and professional processing of target intelligence data, displaying them with the standard symbols on digital maps, and promptly grouping them by priority; thereby it greatly facilitates the manoeuvre commander’s foresight, provides assistance for decision–making, and provides accurate target data to the fire support groups for target planning.</p> Furján Attila Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 117 130 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.11 Origin and Development of the Thoughts on Military Keynesianism During 1936–2012 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2427 <p>The aim of the paper is to show how the thoughts of military Keynesianism have been developed and to define the role of military Keynesianism. First, the term ‘military Keynesianism’ will be introduced and its birth in the history of economic development will be dated and explained. Second, the development of the thoughts of military Keynesianism and also the development of the military–industrial complex will be described and the main different views on the application of military Keynesianism policy will be included. Finally, the authors will try to interpret opinions on the application of military Keynesianism during the economic recession, 2008–2012.</p> Štancl Luboš Hynková Vendula Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 131 139 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.12 Hazardous Activities in Hungary — in Terms of Industrial Safety https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2432 <p>Storage, processing and use of dangerous substances which are present in hazardous activities involve the risk of major accidents. The experience of recent history shows that industrial accidents can cause catastrophic effects to the environment of dangerous industrial establishments and citizens living nearby. The aim of the authors of this article is to categories the Hungarian hazardous activities and provide the readers with a general overview of their vulnerability.</p> Kátai-Urbán Irina Vass Gyula Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 141 154 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.13 International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS) 12–Inventories: Determining Exemplary Requirements for Military Logistics Systems https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2441 <p>In this paper the author shows that it is conceptually possible to derive from International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS) 12–Inventories exemplary requirements that can be used as a basis to assess in principle the compliance of military logistics systems with IPSAS 12. However, the utility of isolated requirements for compliance with IPSAS 12 is limited, since these requirements certainly need to be integrated with requirements derived from other IPSASs and with requirements related to the accounting system used to prepare IPSAS annual financial statements. As a result of such a requirement’s integration process it is very likely that noticeable changes and/or augmentations of the proposed exemplary requirements for compliance with IPSAS 12 will turn out to be necessary.</p> Scheppelmann Holger Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 155 166 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.14 (Specialized) Technical and Medical Reconnaissance of Disaster–affected Areas https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2501 <p>Following a disaster in the affected area secondary impacts also prevail besides primary ones. It is important to know these impacts because rescue operations should be based on them. The implementation of the activities with the aim of managing the consequences is commanded and controlled by the onsite commander in all cases. As a leader, he makes decisions based on assessment. This method is appropriate if it is built on the reconnaissance information and data of the affected zone. Depending on the features of disasters, the most frequent reconnaissance methods of the disaster area are the technical and medical reconnaissance. In this article, the authors review the purposes, functions and correlations of these scopes of tasks with the decisions of the onsite commander. On the other hand, they systematize the types of technical reconnaissance and the applicable reconnaissance methods and tools. Furthermore, they examine the main tasks, requirements and elements of medical reconnaissance.</p> Hornyacsek Júlia Antal Örs Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 167 182 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.15 Support to Insurgency and Counter Insurgency Operations https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2502 <p>Since the end of the 20th Century the role and ultimate power of states have been diminishing. Once, states were considered untouchable no matter what happened within their borders and no matter who ruled them, but nowadays, international intervention into intra–state affairs has become quite common. Ungoverned, undergoverned, misgoverned and contested areas offer fertile ground for insurgents, extremists, organized crime and warlords to flourish and consequently endanger not only local civilian populations but also the political, security, economic or ideological interests of western powers. Consequently, two separate approaches to intra–state interventions have been developed: backing the government in their fight against the insurgency, such as in Afghanistan, and backing the insurgents in their fight against the government such as in Libya.<br />First, this article will analyze the changed role of the states in the New World Order and define parameters that guide international interventions into the intra–state affairs. Secondly, it will analyze western approaches to insurgency and counter insurgency operations through a case study of NATO operations in Afghanistan and Libya.</p> Zekulić Vlasta Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 183 197 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.16 Military Symbology and Schemes of Battalion Task Force in Selected Tactical Activities (Learning Tool) https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2516 <p>This paper deals with the use of military symbology in accordance with the current standard of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) APP–6C from 2012. It analyses the current state of the topic, especially the available resources dedicated to military symbology and schemes of tactical activities of units. The paper defines the procedures and principles in creating tactical symbols and principles for their use in tactical situations. One of the annexes of is an overview of the most common tactical symbols, which provides a standardized, structured set of graphic symbols identifying the most common units, equipment, lines, areas and maneuvers with respect to the current state of the Army of the Czech Republic. This examination also provides the user, through the presentation of MS Office, a comprehensive overview of tactical symbols, as well as short instructions for their use. These symbols can also be removed from the presentation and can be used by the user as the necessary basis for creating one’s own diagrams of tactical situations. The next part of this thesis deals with the design of new variants of schemes selected for use in tactical operations of a battalion task force. This schema set is available to the user as well in a presentation of MS Office. Individual schemes are drawn to ensure the required clarity and so this presentation can be used for teaching and by students. This work is a learning tool which can be used by students of The University of Defense especially in subjects like Tactics of Units and Tactics of Formations and, other fields of study as well as in military practices of the units of the Army of the Czech Republic (ACR).</p> Panák Marek Černý Jiří Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 199 208 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.17 Military Captcha https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2517 Sztuka Jiří Hagara Ladislav Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 209 220 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.18 The Analysis of the U.S. Financial Year (FY) 2014 Defense Budget https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2518 <p>The analysis examines the governmental decisions that tried to provide alternatives and offer a realistic response to the current U.S. debt crisis, severely undermining those defense budget provisions that had previously been planned. First, the impact of the 2011 Budget Control Act and the ‘sequestration’ process will be examined within the context of U.S. defense planning, giving a comprehensive overview of the U.S. budget debate with regard to U.S defense policy. Then the analysis compares and contrasts the current 2013 financial year data to the 2014 financial plan proposal based on President Obama’s statement in the White House on April 10, 2013, in which he presented the key points of the 2014 financial year budget. There the President put an emphasis on his sustained effort to improve the situation of American people through social benefit programs. These will have a determining effect to the United States armed forces in the future, which operate under heavy pressure and at times financial austerity. Expenses of social welfare and medical care are important for our analysis, as these belong to more steady mandatory items of the federal budget, while the defense budget relies mostly on discretionary funding, and is subject to major fluctuations. Finally the assessment will reflect on the Obama administration’s FY 2014 proposals with regard to the US defense policy review process in order to highlight the practical effects of sequestration.</p> Szabó Albert Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 221 227 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.19 Thoughts on the Book Nuclear Reactor Safety https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/2519 <p>In 2013 December, the SOMOS Environmental Protection Ltd. and the ELTE Eötvös Publishing Company published a new book dedicated to the safety of nuclear reactors and having analogous title (“Nuclear reactor safety”). For the readers of Academic and Applied Research in Military Science we want to present some considerations for reviewing the book.</p> Csurgai József Solymosi Máté Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 13 1 229 233 10.32565/aarms.2014.1.20