AARMS – Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms <p>As the name of the journal shows, its goal is to publish research results, peer-reviewed studies of high standard in English in the field of military science and military technology. Recent changes in the structure of the university have called for the renewal of the publication, allowing for publishing scientific results in other disciplines such as public administration as well as law enforcement.</p> en-US <p>The copyright to this article is transferred to the University of Public Service Budapest, Hungary (for U.S. government employees: to the extent transferable) effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.</p> <p>The author warrants that this contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors.</p> <p>An author may make an article published by University of Public Service available on a personal home page provided the source of the published article is cited and University of Public Service is mentioned as copyright holder</p> orbok.akos@uni-nke.hu (Orbók Ákos) gilian.maria@uni-nke.hu (Gilián Mária (Ludovika Egyetemi Kiadó)) Thu, 30 Mar 2023 16:46:16 +0200 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Special Vehicles and Equipment in Fire Operations Used in Different Regions https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6430 <p>Different parts of the world have different disasters or fire and technical rescue events. Economic, infrastructural and natural environmental differences cause great variances. The nations employ various organisations, depending on the available possibilities, with diverse technical solutions to eliminate the sources of fire, disaster, incident dangers. In case of fires and technical rescue occasions that have already occurred and require intervention and pose a direct threat to human life, physical integrity and property, these tasks are typically performed by fire brigade organisations. These organisations also carry out more or less extensive activities in their areas of responsibility; however, national solutions may involve the use of firefighting vehicles and equipment that differ significantly from one neighbouring country to another.<br />The article presents the general firefighting vehicles used internationally and in Hungary and their characteristic capabilities, together with the widely used technical equipment and devices worldwide, built-in or mobile firefighting machines. In this paper a wide-ranging inspection of firefighting vehicles are demonstrated, and the description of the firefighting equipment can be interpreted together with the carrier vehicles. By special fire engines, the author here means vehicles that are on standby in each country, but only in small numbers and only alerted a few times a year. An important aspect in this category is that the design and equipment of these firefighting vehicles are planned to eliminate special incident situations that are unlikely to occur, but pose a great threat to human life, physical integrity or the property of the country and citizens, even in the short term. The article focuses also on these less frequent, more specialised firefighting vehicles and technical devices, with a description of their typical deployment conditions.<br />When drawing the conclusions, the ideas and solutions found during the international outlook worthy of Hungarian adaptation are presented. Here the national adaptation possibilities of each international, special firefighting vehicle, the advantages they can provide and the expected disadvantages are examined. The content of the article is a general summary that fills a gap due to the small amount of international literature, which can also be used during research, investigation and education in this research field.</p> Pántya Péter Copyright (c) 2023 Pántya Péter https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6430 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Networks Enabling the Alliance’s Command and Control https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6350 <p>The Alliance’s wide area networks enabling operational command and control (C2) are under continuous revision in order to facilitate the wide spectrum data exchange between NATO Command Structure (NCS), NATO Force Structure (NFS) elements and other key organisations.<br />The focus is – as always – on the information technology’s researches and network-enabled capability development.<br />It is clear that running the current NATO wide area network has challenges in terms of network management, information security and counter-cyber operations. Therefore, it requires a viable transformation to a wide area network with a higher-level resiliency and scalability.<br />Having supported by NATO Communications and Information Agency (NCIA), the decade’s one of the most important tasks is to re-new, re-design and re-organise the existing classified network domain in support of efficient C2 for the current and future operations.<br />In this scientific article, I will provide with a short historical background of NCIA’s efforts in creation of a more resilient classified domain-net and the needs of core and functional services within the Alliance to introduce the already decided, the viable solution of classified network enhancements.</p> Gulyás Attila Copyright (c) 2023 Gulyás Attila https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6350 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 International Criminal Cooperation in the Shadow of the Coronavirus Pandemic https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6337 <p>European cooperation in criminal matters is a priority in all EU Member States, whether in the detection, investigation or judicial fields. In recent years, I have been carrying out research in the field of organised crime, during which I have realised that in investigations involving two or more Member States, it is almost impossible to achieve the desired objective without criminal cooperation. Then, in the spring of 2020, investigative authorities had to deal with a variable such as the coronavirus pandemic, one of the consequences of which was that personal contact was minimised. However, one of the most important factors for successful and effective police cooperation are personal contacts, which can be achieved through training, meetings or even personal exchanges of views during the course of a criminal case.<br />However, the activity of organised crime groups is ongoing, although it is fair to say that they favour cyberspace, but they have not given much thought to overcoming the obstacles that arose during the coronavirus pandemic. They have emerged in e-commerce, online marketplaces, but at the same time, they have expanded their existing network of recruiters and started to think globally. Their distribution activities and logistics have also changed. Typically, the online space can be observed for criminal activities such as drug trafficking, arms trafficking or fraud.<br />The pandemic has also reduced the effectiveness of international cooperation on crime. In the research for this study, I am looking for answers to the question: what tools and methods of cooperation were available to the investigating authorities in the period before the pandemic and could they be further expanded? I will then contrast this period with the escalated situation during the pandemic. My research questions will include how and to what extent the coronavirus pandemic affected international criminal cooperation, in particular the use of Joint Investigation Teams. I also shed light on the question: what are the opportunities and obstacles to the use of available tools for criminal cooperation in the case of crimes committed in the online space?<br />The threat is growing, it has more and more international aspects, so I think there is a need for deeper cooperation, not only between law enforcement agencies, but also involving the private sector and civil society. It is important to make the citizens of all countries aware of the threats they face.</p> Csontos-Nagy Ivett Copyright (c) 2023 Csontos-Nagy Ivett https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6337 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The Role of Locality in Public Service Management of Ecuador https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6236 <p>The Ecuadorian Government with the aim of planning and making decisions in real time should include the perspective of a new city model in function of the new social needs and the construction of an image for its own country and the international arena. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) should be a fundamental support for these to provide jobs for youths and the ability to generate new businesses. Nowadays, there are public decision-making processes to influence public policy. The author seeks to reflect on local governments and their current perspective regarding the provision of services. Indeed, public management plays a fundamental role in the development of different programs in the field of the digitalisation of services to generate viable solutions and try to improve the quality of life of its inhabitants. Methodology: secondary sources were used for content analysis based on the overview of relevant literature written in English and Spanish.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2"></a></p> Cevallos Stefany Copyright (c) 2023 Cevallos Stefany https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6236 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Historical Forms of Just War Theory in Europe and Hungary https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6078 <p>Just war thinking features the history of warfare from the beginning up to the 20th century. Just war thinking, however, did not have one unique frame, but it appeared in many forms. The theory of judgement of God, the mission-related theory, the law enforcement theory, the revolutionary, and finally, the regular war theory were the important forms of historical just war thinking. This article presents these theories and classifies them with the help of the main concepts of Saint Thomas Aquinas and the principal concepts of justice.</p> Boda Mihály Copyright (c) 2023 Boda Mihály https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6078 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Certain Characteristics of Strategic Communication in Armed Conflicts over the Past Decades https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6490 <p>This article argues a discrepancy between the low degree of interest afforded to military disciplines in strategic communication research and the high degree of significance of strategic communication to modern military practice. A relatively low number of scholarly articles have been published in the field of strategic communication which focus on military disciplines, with most of them being empirical studies addressing research objects on the frontiers of military science. Meanwhile, strategic communication has become increasingly central to military practice in the post-1990 period, as seen in armed conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Ukraine.</p> Torda Péter Copyright (c) 2023 Torda Péter https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6490 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Hypersonic Weapon Systems as an Indicator of Changes in Concepts and Theories https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5996 <p>Since the hypersonic weapon system has gotten into service, the military strategists try to assess what changes the new capability will cause in the current theories and concepts. Even though there is much discredit around the effectiveness of the system, everyone agrees that it will shape and change the security environment. However, the first worries focused on the changes of current nuclear strategy, inherently the weapon will implicate other significant changes in the character of war. At the theory level, the capability of the system can override the current A2AD concepts, it can compel the adversary by bargain power and it can also put the current warfighting concepts at risk. Therefore, the analysis should focus on every segment of the current concepts and theories to predict how the system changes and shape military science.</p> Tarjáni Attila Copyright (c) 2023 Tarjáni Attila https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/5996 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Artificial Intelligence Landscape in South America https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6533 <p>South American countries have also started to develop national AI strategies. The aim of the study is to provide a comparative analysis of strategy development processes in five South American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. For the quantitative analysis, I used data from the OECD AI Policy Observatory (Artificial Intelligence Policy Observatory) and other international databases, while for the qualitative analysis, I used document analysis on national strategies. The countries surveyed have taken different paths in preparing their national strategies, but the common point is that in all of them the strategy is part of a larger digitisation agenda. Although the AI strategies of the countries in the region are still at an early stage, the existence of national intent will allow progress in terms of both national and regional regulation, with the potential for these countries to become AI powers.</p> Urbanovics Anna Copyright (c) 2023 Urbanovics Anna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6533 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 What Can Privacy Mean in Data-Driven Societies? https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6346 <p>The purpose of this article is to present the basis for building trust within the European Union, through which the authors illustrate the importance of the protection of personal data as a fundamental requirement in both the EU and its Member States’ legal environments. In addition, the authors have examined the Chinese Social Credit System, which by its design and operation is not primarily focused on building trust and is therefore not the most appropriate solution for building trust. The authors conducted a SWOT analysis comparing the EU and Chinese principles to achieve their objectives. They also conducted interviews with people who have personal experience with the Chinese credit point system. Based on the results obtained, they sought to justify their basic hypothesis that this type of credit system could not be applied within the EU.</p> Lendvai Tünde, Tóth András Copyright (c) 2023 Lendvai Tünde, Tóth András https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/aarms/article/view/6346 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200