Teljes szám

Haditechnika

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The aim of our study was to identify which support conditions result in producing the best accuracy with a bolt action, large calibre firearm, even over long distances. Precision is the feature that shows how closely impact points are grouped relative to each other. According to Litz, precision is primarily determined by non-deterministic coefficients. He also states that the choice of the right equipment is primarily aimed at reducing the uncertainties of the shooter as much as possible. He says: “The challenge is if the shooter wants to use the same equipment for different purposes, because then the shooter has to make compromises.” In our study, a total of 11 different front and rear support combinations were tested. For each method,  we varied weapon support strategies and surfaces. We fired five shots with each method and investigated the precision, weapon displacement characteristics, and the group of shots as a putative determinant of precision. The data obtained showed significant variation in the precision of each method. There was also a significant difference in the values of the recoil length and the post-firing backward slide of the shot. The rear support was a combination of a  rice bag and a gripped monopod, or a rear eared shooting bag. In terms of retention, both sliding and controlled handling were effective as compared with a pinched grip. 

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PDF (English)
object(Publication)#783 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6294) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-11-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-11-30 15:08:30" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7752) ["sectionId"]=> int(52) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(6170) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(1275) "Boda József – Boldizsár Gábor – Kovács László – Orosz Zoltán – Padányi József – Resperger István – Szenes Zoltán: A hadtudományi kutatási irányok, prioritások és témakörök. Államtudományi Műhelytanulmányok, (2016), 16. 1–23. Online: https://www.med.u-szeged.hu/download.php?docID=90702 Daruka Norbert: Robbanóanyag-ipari alapanyagok és termékek osztályozásának lehetőségei. Műszaki Katonai Közlöny, 26. (2016), 1. 26–43. Online: https://mkk.uni-nke.hu/document/mkk-uni-nke-hu/2016_1_03_Robbanoanyag-ipari%20alapanyagok.pdf FreeDee: SLS nyomtatás (szelektív lézerszinterezés) útmutató. (é. n.) Online: https://www.freedee.hu/sls-nyomtatas-szelektiv-lezerszinterezes-utmutato/ Kovács Zoltán: Gondolatok a műszaki támogatás és a műszaki zárás alapjairól. Nemzetvédelmi Egyetemi Közlemények, 6. (2002), 1. 30–46. Kugyela Lóránd: A többkomponensű robbanóanyagok múltja, jelene és jövője. Katonai Logisztika, 28. (2020), 4. 58–75. Online: https://doi.org/10.30583/2020.4.058 Lukács László: Szemelvények a magyar robbantástechnika fejlődéstörténetéből. Különös tekintettel a továbbfejlesztés várható irányaira és a kor új kihívásaira. Budapest, Dialóg Campus Kiadó, 2017. " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "35-44" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.2" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(896) "

The use of shaped charges during industrial and military blasting process may provide significant benefits. The different destructions and disarming tasks accomplished by sappers or explosive disposal operators demand special methods with shaped charges. There may be some notable difference among those tasks which determine the engagement of different types of charges. We examine the possibilities of 3D printed shaped charge bodies in our study presenting an up-to-date solution. These examined possibilities showed that it is necessary to know well a ketcher software to execute a proper planning process.  During the printing procedures we faced with several problems, however, we managed to achieve our goals and multiple types of charge body were printed. The claim of time and material certifies that this method is applicable in industrial and military blasting processes too. 

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A kumulatív töltetek alkalmazása az ipari és katonai robbantások során esetenként jelentős előnyöket  hordozhat. A különböző rombolások és tűzszerészek által  végzett hatástalanítások meghatározó módszereihez  szükségesek ezek a töltetek. A feladatok jelentősen  eltérhetnek, ami eltérő típusok alkalmazását teszi  szükségessé. Tanulmányunkban megvizsgáljuk a  lehetőségeit a töltetházak 3D nyomtatásának, ezzel  bemutatva egy 21. századi lehetőséget. A vizsgált  nyomtatási lehetőségek megmutatták, hogy az alkatelemek megfelelő minőségű tervezéséhez jártasságszintű tervezőprogram-ismeret szükséges. A nyomtatások során  több esetben nehézségekbe ütköztünk, de sikerült elérni a  kitűzött célokat és kinyomtatni több változatban kumulatívtöltet-házat. A gyártás idő- és anyagigénye  igazolja, hogy ennek a módszernek van létjogosultsága a  hadi és ipari alkalmazás során. 

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NKE, HHK, Műveleti Támogató Tanszék, egyetemi tanársegéd

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PDF

Környezetbiztonság

object(Publication)#182 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6244) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-11-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-11-30 15:08:31" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7684) ["sectionId"]=> int(111) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(6120) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(1970) "Hoffmann Imre – Kátai-Urbán Lajos – Lévai Zoltán – Vass Gyula: Iparbiztonsági kockázatok Magyarországon. Védelem Online, Tűz- és katasztrófavédelmi szakkönyvtár, 2015. Online: https://www.vedelem.hu/letoltes/anyagok/546-iparbiztonsagi-kockazatok-magyarorszagon.pdf Industry Guidelines for the Security of the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (2016. december). Online: https://cefic.org/app/uploads/2018/12/Guidelinesfor-the-security-of-the-transport-of-dangerous-goods-by-road-2016-GUIDELINES-ROAD.pdf Kátai-Urbán Lajos: Habilitációs Tézisek veszélyes üzemekkel kapcsolatos iparbiztonsági jog-, intézmény- és eszközrendszer fejlesztése Magyarországon. Budapest, Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, 2014. Kátai-Urbán Lajos – Kozma Sándor – Vass Gyula: Veszélyes szállítmányok felügyeletével kapcsolatos jog- és intézményfejlesztési tapasztalatok értékelése. Hadmérnök, 10. (2015), 3. 92–108. Online: http://hadmernok.hu/153_08_katayul_ks_vgy.pdf Kátai-Urbán Lajos – Vass Gyula: Veszélyes üzemek és szállítmányok biztonsága Magyarországon. Védelem Tudomány, 4. (2019), 1. 45–82. Online: http://vedelemtudomany.hu/articles/03-katai-vass.pdf Német Alexandra – Kátai Urbán Lajos – Vass Gyula: Veszélyes tevékenységek biztonsága a fenntarthatóság jegyében. Védelem Tudomány, 5. (2020), 1. 137–152. Online: https://www.vedelemtudomany.hu/articles/09-nemet-katai-vass.pdf Jogi források 387/2021. (VI. 30.) Korm. rendelet a Veszélyes Áruk Nemzetközi Közúti Szállításáról szóló Megállapodás „A” és „B” Melléklete kihirdetéséről, valamint a belföldi alkalmazásának egyes kérdéseiről, 1. melléklet. Online: https://njt.hu/jogszabaly/2021-387-20-22 Veszélyes áruk szárazföldi szállítása. 2008/68/EK irányelv a veszélyes áruk szárazföldi szállításáról. Online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/HU/TXT/?uri=-LEGISSUM%3Atr0006" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "45-57" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.3" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(896) "

Transport of dangerous goods is committed to strict, international regulations. The strict regulation of transport  of dangerous goods by road has a high importance, since  by releasing hazardous materials during a road accident  could create a potentially large area of risk. On the other  hand, the dangerous shipment passing through inhabited  areas can be a potential target of a terrorist attack by  utilising the properties of dangerous goods. There are  specific provisions in the dangerous goods transport regulations to reduce this type of risk, but these measures  may need to be adapted to the specificities of the narrower  economic, social and safety context. In this publication, the  authors examine the consequences of an intentional act  against a packaged shipment of propane-butane gas  exempted from security provisions, by using software risk  analysis. 

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A veszélyesáru-szállítás szigorú, nemzetközi szabályokhoz kötött. A veszélyes áru közúti szállításának szigorú  szabályozása több szempontból is kiemelt jelentőségű, mivel egy esetleges közúti baleset során a veszélyes anyag  szabadba kerülésével jelentős méretű veszélyeztetett  terület alakulhat ki. Másrészt a veszélyes áru tulajdonságait  kihasználva, a lakott területeken áthaladó veszélyesáru-szállítmány potenciális célpontja lehet egy esetleges terrorcselekménynek. Az ilyen típusú kockázat  csökkentésére a veszélyesáru-szállítási szabályzatokban  külön rendelkezések vonatkoznak, azonban előfordulhat,  hogy ezeket az intézkedéseket a szűkebb gazdasági,  társadalmi és biztonsági környezet sajátosságaihoz  érdemes igazítani. A publikációban a szerzők  küldeménydarabban való szállítás esetén a visszaélés elleni  rendelkezések hatálya alól mentesülő, propán-bután  gázszállítmány elleni szándékos cselekmény következményeit vizsgálják meg szoftveres kockázatelemzés segítségével. 

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object(Publication)#788 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6259) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-11-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-11-30 15:08:31" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7707) ["sectionId"]=> int(111) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(6135) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3334) "Ahmet Biler – Aslihan Unlu Tavil – Yuehong Su and Naghman Khan: A Review of Performance Specifications and Studies of Trickle Vents. Buildings, 8. (2018), 11. 152. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110152 Belügyminisztérium Országos Katasztrófavédelmi Főigazgatóság: Átépült és megújult az orosházi laktanya (2022. március 22.). Online: https://www.katasztrofavedelem.hu/29/hirek/262450/atepult-es-megujult-az-oroshazi-laktanya Hornyacsek Júlia – Vad Tibor: A tűzoltók fizikai, szellemi és pszichés terhelése. Hadtudományi Szemle, 4. (2011), 4. 142–154. Online: http://epa.oszk.hu/02400/02463/00011/pdf/EPA02463_hadtudomanyi_szemle_2011_4_142-154.pdf Nemzeti Népegészségügyi Központ: Fertőződés elkerülése – Alapvető szabályok mindenki számára a Covid–19 vírusfertőzéssel kapcsolatban (2020. március 16.). Online: https://www.nnk.gov.hu/index.php/koronavirus-tajekoztato/560-fertozodes-elkerulese-alapveto-szabalyok-mindenki-szamara Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Hazard Communication Standard: Safety Data Sheets. OSHA Brief, 2012. Online: https://www.osha.gov/sites/default/files/publications/OSHA3514.pdf Osipov, Arthur: Fire Exoskeleton to Facilitate the Work of the Fireman. E3S Web of Conferences, 126. (2019). 1–10. Online: https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/201912600015 Padányi József: Az éghajlatváltozás és a katonai erő viszonyrendszere a hazai és a nemzetközi kutatások tükrében. Budapest, Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, 2014. Pántya Péter: A katasztrófavédelem beavatkozó hatékonyságának fejlesztése a tűzoltósági területen. Hadmérnök, 13. (2018), „KÖFOP” szám. 109–144. Potter, Alex: How an Ingenious Fireman Brought a Pole Into the Firehouse. Smithsonian Magazine, 2020. július. Online: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/invention-firemans-pole-180975206/ Shinn, Mary: When Seconds Count, Durango Firefighters Hit the Brass Pole. The Durango Herald, 2019. november 3. Online: https://www.durangoherald.com/articles/when-seconds-count-durango-firefighters-hit-the-brass-pole/ Urbán Anett: A katasztrófavédelem tűzoltó egységeinél rendszeresített védőruházatok vizsgálata. Műszaki Katonai Közlöny, 27. (2017), 4. 103–122. Online: https://folyoirat.ludovika.hu/index.php/mkk/article/view/1953/1239 Varga László (szerk.): A munkavédelmi törvény magyarázata. Budapest, KJK-Kerszöv, 2005. Jogi források 1993. évi XCIII. törvény a munkavédelemről 70/2011. (XII. 30.) BM rendelet a belügyminiszter irányítása alá tartozó rendvédelmi szervek munkavédelmi feladatai, valamint foglalkozás- egészségügyi tevékenysége ellátásának szabályairól 2/1998. (I. 16.) MüM rendelet a munkahelyen alkalmazandó biztonsági és egészségvédelmi jelzésekről 61/1999. (XII. 1.) EüM rendelet a biológiai tényezők hatásának kitett munkavállalók egészségének védelméről 3/2002. (II. 8.) SzCsM-EüM együttes rendelet a munkahelyek munkavédelmi követelményeinek minimális szintjéről 53/2018. számú BM OKF főigazgatói intézkedés a tűzoltósági szakterület által tartandó gyakorlatok rendszerének szabályairól 34/2021. számú Főigazgatói Intézkedés a személyi állomány egyéni védőeszközzel történő ellátásáról " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "59-69" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.4" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(881) "

Adherence to occupational safety regulations is of paramount importance in case of design and maintenance  of fire station barracks. A key issue is the safe intervention and the preservation of the work capacity both in terms of protection of life and property. Regular safety inspections  can reveal deficiencies that endanger functionality, so that the employer has the opportunity to correct them in order  to avoid a possible accident. The author, gathering her  many years of experience, gives the reader an insight into the occupational safety regulations of fire station barracks,  and also makes a short detour in the field of education, as  regular professional training of the staff is also an integral part of occupational safety and health. Finally, the author  offers some suggestions on occupational safety rules and  designs within fire departments. 

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A tűzoltólaktanyák kialakítása és fenntartása során a munkavédelmi szabályok betartása kiemelt jelentőségű. Központi kérdés az állomány biztonságának és munkavégző képességének megóvása, élet- és vagyonvédelmi  szempontból is. A rendszeres munkavédelmi ellenőrzések  alkalmával tárhatók fel a működőképességet veszélyeztető  hiányosságok, így általuk a munkáltatónak lehetősége nyílik azok kijavítására, hogy egy esetleges baleset elkerülhető  legyen. A szerző jelen cikkel, többéves tapasztalatait  összegyűjtve, betekintést enged az olvasó számára a  tűzoltólaktanyák munkavédelmi szempontú előírásait  illetően, továbbá rövid kitérőt tesz az oktatás területére,  mivel a munkavédelem szerves részét képezi az állomány rendszeres szakmai képzése is. Végül néhány javaslatot  kínál a laktanyákon belül betartandó munkavédelmi  szabályokról és kialakításokról. 

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object(Publication)#798 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(6344) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-11-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-11-30 15:08:30" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7816) ["sectionId"]=> int(111) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(6220) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(4690) "Antal, Imre – Rudolf Nagy: A települési hulladékkezelés tűzbiztonságának munkavédelmi szempontú vizsgálata. Védelem Tudomány, 6, no. 4 (2021). 42–72. BME ABÉT: Kommunális szilárd hulladéklerakók Magyarországon [Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in Hungary]. s. a. Online: https://www.enfo.hu/index.php/etanfolyam/11579 Csőke, Barnabás: Hulladékgazdálkodás. Veszprém, Pannon Egyetem, 2011. Online: https://tudastar.mk.uni-pannon.hu/anyagok/12-Hulladekgazdalkodas.pdf Fraser, Christian: Naples: A City Swimming in Filth. BBC News, 28 May 2008. Online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7423245.stm Grecmájer, Ákos: Magyarország hulladékgazdálkodási adatainak földrajzi megjelenítése és elemzése. Budapest, ELTE–TTK, 2014. Online: http://lazarus.elte.hu/hun/digkonyv/szakdolg/2014-bsc/grecmajer_akos.pdf Hajdú, József: Biogáz üzemek működése és biogáz üzemi technológiák. Gödöllő, Szent István Egyetemi Kiadó, 2009. Online: https://docplayer.hu/280371-Biogazuzemek-mukodese-es-biogaz-uzemi-technologiak-obekk-tudomanyos-szakmai-kiadvanyok-szerzo-dr-hajdu-jozsef.html Hornyacsek, Júlia – Erika László: A hulladéklerakás adaptálható tapasztalatai Ausztriában és Németországban. Bolyai Szemle, 25, no. 3 (2016). 84–95. Horváth, Anikó – József Stipta: Csomagolóanyagok környezeti hatásvizsgálata. Műszaki Szemle, 10, nos. 39–40 (2007). 25–30. Kátai-Urbán, Lajos – Tamás Parrag: Szennyvizek mikroszennyező és mikroműanyag tartalma. Iparbiztonsági és Hatósági Szakmai Nap, 2020. Kátai-Urbán, Lajos – Gyula Vass – Alexandra Német: Veszélyes tevékenységek biztonsága a fenntarthatóság jegyében. Védelem Tudomány, 5, no. 1 (2020). 137–152. Kátai-Urbán, Lajos: Veszélyes üzemekkel kapcsolatos iparbiztonsági jog-, intézményés eszközrendszer fejlesztése Magyarországon. Budapest, Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, 2015. Képviselői Információs Szolgálat [Representative Information Service]: Hulladékerőművek, hulladékégetés [Waste-to-Energy Plants, Waste Incineration]. Infojegyzet, 2016/23. Online: https://www.parlament.hu/documents/10181/595001/Infojegyzet_2016_23_hulladekegetes.pdf/c4ea1502-7026-4a7b-98eb-99bc653ece1a Kiss Leizer, Géza Károly: Környezetbiztonság a hulladékok hasznosításában. Hadmérnök, 10, no. 3 (2015). 109–118. Morvai, Cintia: Veszélyes hulladékok keletkezésének és ártalmatlanításának vizsgálata. Védelem Tudomány, 2, no. 1 (2017). 129–138. Nemzeti Energia- és Klímaterv [National Energy and Climate Plan]. Ministry for Innovation and Technology, 2019. Online: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/hu_final_necp_main_hu.pdf Orlandi, Giorgia: Évek óta tart a hulladékválság az olasz fővárosban. Euronews, 13 July 2021. Online: https://hu.euronews.com/green/2021/07/13/evek-ota-tart-a-hulladekvalsag-az-olasz-fovarosban Pál, Angéla: A kommunális hulladékok környezeti hatásai, a hulladékgazdálkodás, mint ellenhatás. Hadmérnök, 11, no. 2 (2016). 87–98. Picture of a Caterpillar 826C landfill compactor being used at an Australian landfill site. s. a. Online: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Landfill_compactor.jpg Rácz, Réka Magdolna – Balázs Lóderer: A klímaváltozás és annak következményeire való felkészülés lehetséges jövőbeni aspektusai. Hadtudományi Szemle, 4, no. 3 (2011). 91–98. Szabó, Imre: Hulladéklerakók tervezése, üzemeltetése I. Miskolc, Miskolci Egyetem, 2011. Online: https://hulladekonline.hu/files/81 Trenyik, Tamás: A települési hulladék begyűjtés és a kapcsolódó elválasztási láncok folyamatmodell bázisú értékelése. PhD thesis, University of Kaposvár, Faculty of Economics, 2019. Wang, Qingsong – Ping Ping – Xuejuan Zhao – Guanquan Chu – Jinhua Sun – Chunhua Chen: Thermal Runaway Caused Fire and Explosion of Lithium Ion Battery. Journal of Power Sources, 208 (2012). 210–224. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.02.038 Legal sources Act CXXVIII of 2011 on Disaster Management and amending certain related laws. Act CLXXXV of 2012 on Waste. Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste. Decree 219/2011 (X. 20.) on the protection against serious accidents related to hazardous substances. Decree 6/2016 (VI. 24.) on Firefighting Tactics Regulations and Technical Rescue Regulations BM OKF instruction. Decree 54/2014 (XII. 5.) of the Ministry of the Interior on the National Fire Protection Regulations. Decree 292/2013 (VII. 26.) on the rules of non-regular waste transport and the designation of state bodies acting in this process. " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "71-80" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.5" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(648) "

Today, nearly seventy municipal solid waste landfills in Hungary fully comply with European Union directives.  Experience has shown that some sites have not yet been recultivated and that there are several illegal landfills.  Waste fires are a special area within disaster management that have not yet been legally regulated nor intervention procedures have been established. In the first part of the series of articles I will present the key aspects that should be taken into account when defining a possible legal regulation. In addition, I plan to evaluate the prevention and response measures to hazards that are specific to landfills.

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PDF (English)

Védeleminformatika

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Online: https://doi.org/10.1108/ICS-01-2016-0006 Albladi, Samar Muslah – George R. S. Weir: User Characteristics that Influence Judgment of Social Engineering Attacks in Social Networks. Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences, 8. (2018). 1. Online: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13673-018-0128-7 Bak Gerda – Kiss Sándor: A biztonságtudatosság szisztematikus szakirodalmi áttekintése. Hadmérnök, 16. (2021), 4. 85–99. Online: https://doi.org/10.32567/hm.2021.4.7 Beldad, Ardion D.: Sharing to be Sociable, Posting to be Popular: Factors Influencing Non-Static Personal Information Disclosure on Facebook among Young Dutch Users. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 11. (2015), 3–4. 357–374. Online: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWBC.2015.072132 Buchanan, Tom – Monica T. Whitty: The Online Dating Romance Scam: Causes and Consequences of Victimhood. Psychology, Crime & Law, 20. (2013), 3. 261– 283. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2013.772180 Bulgurcu, Burcu – Hasan Cavusoglu – Izak Benbasat: Information Security Policy Compliance: An Empirical Study of Rationality-Based Beliefs and Information Security Awareness. MIS Quarterly, 34. (2010), 3. 523–548. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/25750690 Donalds, Charlette – Kweku-Muata Osei-Bryson: Cybersecurity Compliance Behavior: Exploring the Influences of Individual Decision Style and Other Antecedents. International Journal of Information Management, 51. (2020). 102056. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.102056 Ehmann Bea – Balázs László: A Sarkvidéktől a világűrig: A pszichológiai tartalomelemzés alkalmazása izolált kiscsoportok vizsgálatára. Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle, 70. (2015), 4. 723–742. Online: https://doi.org/10.1556/0016.2015.70.4.2 Furnell, Steven – Kieran Millet – Maria Papadaki: Fifteen Years of Phishing: Can Technology Save Us? Computer Fraud & Security, (2019), 7. 11–16. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-3723(19)30074-0 Grant, Kevin – David Edgar – Arun Sukumar – Martin Meyer: ‘Risky Business’: Perceptions of E-Business Risk by UK Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). International Journal of Information Management, 34. (2014), 2. 99–122. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2013.11.001 Hanus, Bartlomiej – Yu “Andy”Wu: Impact of Users’ Security Awareness on Desktop Security Behavior: A Protection Motivation Theory Perspective. Information Systems Management, 33. (2015), 1. 2–16. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/10580530.2015.1117842 Hauser, Deanna: Social Engineering Awareness in Business and Academia. In MWAIS 2016 Proceedings. Wisconsin, 2016. 3–6. Horváth Dóra – Ariel Mitev: Alternatív kvalitatív kutatási kézikönyv. Budapest, Alinea Kiadó, 2015. Hutchinson, Gershon – Jacques Ophoff: A Descriptive Review and Classification of Organizational Information Security Awareness Research. In H. Venter – M. Loock – M. Coetzee – M. Eloff – J. Eloff (szerk.): Information and Cyber Security. Cham, Springer, 2020. 114–130. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43276-8_9 Jaeger, Lennart – Andreas Eckhardt: Eyes Wide Open: The Role of Situational Information Security Awareness for Security–Related Behaviour. Information Systems Journal, 31. (2021), 3. 429–472. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12317 Jéri Tamás: Az elektronikus levelezés és a kiberbiztonság összefüggései. Hadmérnök, 16. (2021), 2. 169–185. Online: https://doi.org/10.32567/hm.2021.2.12 Kallio, Hanna – Anna-Maija Pietilä – Martin Johnson – Mari Kangasniemi: Systematic Methodological Review: Developing a Framework for a Qualitative Semi- Structured Interview Guide. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72. (2016), 12. 2954–2965. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.13031 Keith, Mark J. – Samuel C. Thompson – Joanne Hale – Paul Benjamin Lowry – Chapman Greer: Information Disclosure on Mobile Devices: Re-Examining Privacy Calculus with Actual User Behavior. 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Online: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071878781 Lazar, Arokia Jesu Prabhu – Sudhakar Sengan – Luigi Pio Leonardo Cavaliere – Thillaiarasu Nadesan – Deepesh Sharma – Mukesh Kumar Gupta – Thangam Palaniswamy – Mahendiran Vellingiri – Dilip Kumar Sharma – Thirukumaran Subramani: Analysing the User Actions and Location for Identifying Online Scam in Internet Banking on Cloud. Wireless Personal Communications, (2021). Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-021-08585-y Oroszi Eszter Diána: Social engineering technikák. In Deák Veronika (szerk.): Célzott kibertámadások. Éves továbbképzés az elektronikus információs rendszer biztonságával összefüggő feladatok ellátásában részt vevő személy számára 2018. Budapest, Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, 2018. 77–118. Online: https://bit.ly/3D5AqlD Ortiz, Jaime – Shu-Hao Chang – Wen-Hai Chih – Chia-Hao Wang: The Contradiction between Self-Protection and Self-Presentation on Knowledge Sharing Behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 76. (2017). 406–416. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.07.031 Parsons, Kathryn – Agata McCormac – Marcus Butavicius – Malcolm Pattinson – Cate Jerram: Determining Employee Awareness Using the Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q). Computers & Security, 42. (2014). 165–176. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2013.12.003 Saáry, Réka – Ágnes Csiszárik-Kocsir – János Varga: Examination of the Consumers’ Expectations Regarding Company’s Contribution to Ontological Security. Sustainability, 13. (2021), 17. 9987. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179987 Stirnimann, Sonja: Der Mensch als Risikofaktor bei Wirtschaftskriminalität: Handlungsfähig bei Non-Compliance und Cyberkriminalität. Wiesbaden, Springer, 2018. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-20813-4 Szappanos Gábor: Kártékony kódok használata a célzott támadások végrehajtásában. In Deák Veronika (szerk.): Célzott kibertámadások. Éves továbbképzés az elektronikus információs rendszer biztonságával összefüggő feladatok ellátásában részt vevő személy számára 2018. Budapest, Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, 2018. 119–159. Online: https://bit.ly/3z4dl1J Szokolszky Ágnes: A pszichológiai kutatás módszertana. Budapest, Osiris Kiadó, 2020. Tari Annamária: Y generáció. Klinikai pszichológiai jelenségek és társadalomlélektani összefüggések az információs korban. Budapest, Jaffa Kiadó, 2010. Vahdati, Soudabeh – Niloofar Yasini: Factors Affecting Internet Frauds in Private Sector: A Case Study in Cyberspace Surveillance and Scam Monitoring Agency of Iran. Computers in Human Behavior, 51. (2015). 180–187. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.058 Zhongping, Zeng – Yang Kaifeng – Zhang Yi – Zhou Peipei: Increasing Employees’ Awareness and Enhancing Motivation in E-Government Security Behavior Management. 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Digital technology is embedded in our lives, and the pandemic will further increase and strengthen our  connection to electronic devices. At the same time, the  number of cyberattacks has increased significantly, despite  the fact that a significant part of them could be prevented. This study aims to explore and deepen the understanding  of the factors influencing the attitudes and awareness of  Generation Y youth towards information security, based on qualitative empirical research in form of in-depth  interviews. The interviews were analysed using a  triangulation approach with two perspectives: content analysis and grounded theory methodology. The interviews demonstrate that the interviewees consider their online and digital security as a significant factor on a theoretical  level, however, the practice reveals the lack of appropriate  protection methods and the vulnerability of the  respondents. This foundational research can form the basis for further quantitative approaches.

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A digitális technológia behálózza életünk, a pandémia pedig tovább növeli és erősíti az elektronikus eszközökkel való  kapcsolatunkat. Ezzel együtt a kibertámadások száma is  jelentősen megnövekedett, annak ellenére, hogy ezek  jelentős része megelőzhető lenne. Jelen tanulmány célja az  Y generációs fiatalok információbiztonsággal kapcsolatos attitűdjét, tudatosságát befolyásoló tényezők feltárása,  mélyebb megértése kvalitatív jellegű empirikus kutatás,  mélyinterjúk alapján. Az interjúk elemzése trianguláció  keretében két megközelítésben, tartalomelemzéssel és  grounded theory módszertannal történt. Az interjúk  rámutatnak, hogy az alanyok jelentős tényezőként  tekintenek elméleti síkon az online és digitális  biztonságukra, azonban a gyakorlatban a megfelelő  védekezési módok hiányossága, az alanyok sebezhetősége derül ki a kutatásból. Az alapozó jellegű kutatás további  kvantitatív kutatás alapját képezheti. 

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Online: https://www.realcleardefense.com/articles/2017/12/12/red_robots_risin_112770.html Bershidsky, Leon: Take Elon Musk Seriously on the Russian AI Threat. Bloomberg, 2017. szeptember 5. Online: https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-09-05/take-elonmusk-seriously-on-the-russian-ai-threat Bezrukov, Andrei: Vyklyuchit’ Svet v Kremle: Chego Zhdat’ ot Kibervoyn [Turn off the Lights in the Kremlin: What to Expect from Cyberwar]. Gazeta, 2018. október 13. Online: https://www.gazeta.ru/comments/2018/10/12_a_12018991.shtml Catania, Carlos A. – Carlos García Garino: Automatic Network Intrusion Detection: Current Techniques and Open Issues. Computers & Electrical Engineering, 38. (2012), 5. 1062–1072. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2012.05.013 Freedberg Jr., Sydney J.: Armed Robots: US Lags Rhetoric, Russia. Breaking Defense, 2017. október 18. 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Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijar.2013.03.012 Polyakova, Alina: Weapons of the Weak: Russian and AI-Driven Asymmetric Warfare. Brookings Institution, 2018. november 15. Online: https://www.brookings.edu/research/weapons-of-the-weak-russia-and-ai-driven-asymmetric-warfare/ Simonite, Tom: For Superpowers, Artificial Intelligence Fuels New Global Arms Race. Wired, 2017. szeptember 8. Online: https://www.wired.com/story/for-superpowers-artificial-intelligence-fuels-new-global-arms-race/ Sommer, Robin – Vern Paxson: Outside the Closed World: On Using Machine Learning for Network Intrusion Detection. In 2010 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). IEEE, 2010. 305–316. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2010.25 Svenmarck, Peter – Linus Luotsinen – Mattias Nilsson – Johan Schubert: Possibilities and Challenges for Artificial Intelligence in Military Applications. In Proceedings of the 2018 NATO Big Data and Artificial Intelligence for Military Decision Making Specialists’ Meeting. 2018. 1–16. Tekhnologii “Sudnogo Dnya”: Vooruzhennyye Sily Rossii Vnedryayut Iskusstvennyy Intellekt’ [‘Doomsday Technologies’: Russia’s Armed Forces Introduce Artificial Intelligence’], Yandex, 2018. március 16. Online: https://bit.ly/3slQkU6 Thomas, Timothy: Russia’s Information Warfare Strategy: Can the Nation Cope in Future Conflicts. Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 27. (2014), 1. 101–130. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13518046.2014.874845 Thornton, Rod – Marina Miron: Towards the ‘Third Revolution in Military Affairs’. The Russian Military’s Use of AI-Enabled Cyber Warfare. The RUSI Journal, 165. (2020), 3. 12–21. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/03071847.2020.1765514 Tucker, Patrick: Russia Says It Will Field a Robot Tank that Outperforms Humans. Defense One, 2017. november 8. Online: https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2017/11/russia-robot-tank-outperforms-humans/142376/ Vooruzhennyye Sily RF Vnedryayut Tekhnologii Iskusstvennogo Intellekta. Voenniye Materialy, 2018. március 15. Online: https://warfiles.ru/176763-vooruzhen�-nye-sily-rf-vnedryayut-tehnologii-iskusstvennogo-intellekta.html Williams, David P.: Underwater Target Classification in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. In Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 2016 23rd International Conference, Cancún, 2016. 2498–2503. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICPR.2016.7900011 " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "97-107" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.7" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(558) "

Nowadays, the biggest danger is not kinetic, but comes from the information space. For the Russian army, the main weapon of the defence toolbox is information. The concept  of information operations occupies a special place in the  Russian (and before that Soviet) military mindset. Artificial  intelligence, as the next defining technology, has already appeared in warfare. By developing artificial intelligence for military use, the Russian army entered a new type of  armaments race and took it to a new level with a specific  way of thinking.

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Napjainkban a legnagyobb veszély nem a kinetikus, hanem az információs térből érkezik. Az orosz hadsereg számára a  védelmi eszköztár fő fegyvere az információ. Az információs műveletek koncepciója különleges helyet foglal el az orosz  (és előtte a szovjet) katonai gondolkodásmódban. A  mesterséges intelligencia mint a következő meghatározó  technológia már a hadviselésben is megjelent. Az orosz hadsereg a mesterséges intelligencia katonai  felhasználására való fejlesztésével beszállt az új típusú  fegyverkezési versenybe, sajátos gondolkodásmódjával  pedig új szintre léptette azt. 

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Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-84334-676-0.50013-3 Suduc, Ana-Maria – Mihai Bîzoi – Florin Gheorghe Filip: Audit for Information Systems Security. Informatica Economică, 14, no. 1 (2010). 43–48. Szczepaniuk, Edyta Karolina – Hubert Szczepaniuk – Tomasz Rokicki – Bogdan Klepacki: Information Security Assessment in Public Administration. Computers and Security, 90 (2020). 1–11. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2019.101709 Tõnurist, Piret – Angela Hanson: Anticipatory Innovation Governance: Shaping the Future through Proactive Policy Making. OECD Working Papers on Public Governance, no. 44 (2020). Online: https://doi.org/10.1787/cce14d80-en" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "109-131" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.8" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1038) "

Due to the rapid pace of globalisation and digitalisation and the better usage of ICT technology, cybercrime is also rising. Hence, the secure operation of controlling and auditing information systems is fundamental in both the private and public sectors. It is generally accepted in the private sector that companies seek an independent third-party’s assistance to carry out information security audits.  However, how do information security audits work in public administration? The article aims to characterise and assess information security auditing in public administration and define a new solution for conducting such audits. The article is considered a theoretical research paper. Theoretical research explains the basic terms related to auditing and defines conditions for efficient and effective information security auditing. Additionally, the research aims to answer whether the internal (bureaucratic, within the public administration organisational system) or external (third-party) audits prove more effective. 

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object(Publication)#806 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6372) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-11-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-11-30 15:08:30" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7850) ["sectionId"]=> int(112) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["submissionId"]=> int(6248) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3529) "Bandaru, Suresh: Investigating the Effect of Jamming Attacks on Wireless LANs. International Journal of Computer Applications, 99, no. 14 (2014). 5–9. Online: https://doi.org/10.5120/17439-8180 Bhardwaj, Rashmi: Wi-Fi generation comparison Wifi6 vs Wifi5 vs Wifi4. Network Interview, s. a. Online: https://networkinterview.com/wi-fi-generation-comparison-wifi6-vs-wifi5-vs-wifi4/ Broustis, Ioannis – Konstantinos Pelechrinis – Dimitris Syrivelis – Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy – Leandros Tassiulas: FIJI: Fighting Implicit Jamming in 802.11WLANs. In Yan Chen – Tassos D. Dimitriou – Jianying Zhou (eds.): Security and Privacy in Communication Networks. SecureComm 2009. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Volume 19. Berlin–Heidelberg, Springer, 2009. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-05284-2_2 Cai, Yifeng – Konstantinos Pelechrinis – Xin Wang – Prashant Krishnamurthy – Yijun Mo: Joint Reactive Jammer Detection and Localization in an Enterprise WiFi Network. Computer Networks, 57, no. 18 (2013). 3799–3811. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2013.09.004 CPE220 2,4 GHz-es300 Mb/s 12 dBi Kültéri Egység. TP-Link, s. a. Online: https://www.tp-link.com/hu/business-networking/outdoor-radio/cpe220/ Danel, Eve: Wi-Fi 6’ s OFDMA Challenges Make Verification Crucial. RF Globalnet, 02 December 2019. Online: https://www.rfglobalnet.com/doc/wi-fi-s-ofdma-challenges-make-verification-crucial-0001 Frater, Michael R. – Michael Ryan: Electronic Warfare for the Digitized Battlefield. London– Norwood, Artech House, 2001. Gyányi, Sándor: Informatikai WLAN-hálózatok zavarása. Bolyai Szemle, 18, no. 4 (2009). 119–132. Haig, Zsolt – László Kovács – László Ványa: Elektronikai hadviselés. Budapest, Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, 2014. Karhima, T. – A. Silvennoinen – M. Hall – S.-G. Haggman: IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN Tolerance to Jamming. IEEE MILCOM 2004. Military Communications Conference, 3 (2004). 1364–1370. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/MILCOM.2004.1495141 Lichtman, Marc – Jeffrey D. Poston – Saidhiraj Amuru – Chowdhury Shahriar – T. Charles Clancy – R. M. Buehrer – Jeffrey H. Reed: A Communications Jamming Taxonomy. IEEE Security and Privacy, 14, no. 1 (2016). 47–54. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2016.13 McKee, Caleb: OFDMA vs OFDM explained. 04 March 2021. Online: https://www.minim.com/blog/what-is-wifi --6-ofdma-vs-ofdm-explained Pirayesh, Hossein – Huacheng Zeng: Jamming Attacks and Anti-Jamming Strategies. Wireless Networks: A Comprehensive Survey. 2021. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2022.3159185 QAM modulator and demodulator. Faststream Technologies, 28 February 2022. Online: https://faststreamtechblogs.wordpress.com/2022/02/28/qam-modulator-and-demodulator/ Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Wireless Signal Strength. CISCO, s. a. Online: https://documentation.meraki.com/MR/WiFi_Basics_and_Best_Practices/Signal-to-Noise_Ratio_(SNR)_and_Wireless_Signal_Strength What is WiFi Strength and RSSI? SimpliSafe, s. a. Online: https://support.simplisafe.com/hc/en-us/articles/360035742191-What-is-WiFi-Strength-and-RSSI Wi-Fi 4/5/6/6E (802.11 n/ac/ax). Duckware, 03 September 2022. Online: https://www.duckware.com/tech/wifi-in-the-us.html Wi-Fi Channels, Frequencies, Bands & Bandwidths. Electornics Notes, s. a. Online: https://www.electronics-notes.com/articles/connectivity/wifi-ieee-802-11/channels-frequencies-bands-bandwidth.php " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "133-152" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.9" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(665) "

Wireless local area networks or WLANs are the necessary underlying communication technology of consumer electronics, mobile computers and mobile phones of our days. Thanks to the comfortable operations and ubiquitous applicability for work and entertainment, the demand surged for these devices in the last 15 years. WLAN solutions provide the opportunity for mobility. But these networks communicate via radio waves with devices, which can be eavesdropped on and attacked. One form of attack is jamming. This article analyses the most frequent WLAN  standards and the jamming options, particularly the execution of electronic jamming in the physical layer.

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PDF (English)

Fórum

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In Hungary, the identification and designation of critical infrastructures of the healthcare sector began in 2016, including the subsector of the inpatient care. The Act on the identification, designation and protection of critical systems and facilities and its implementing decree requires  operators of designated system components to prepare an  Operator Security Plan. The ISO 22301 standard, which is a  proven in international practice for operator security  planning, is available and describes how professionals can  design Business Continuity Management Systems (BCMS). Additional requirements for the health sector are set out in a separated government decree on the identification,  designation and protection of health-critical systems and  facilities. In public administration and thus in healthcare  sector, the practical application of a profit-oriented  approach, and the focusing on the maintenance of “production”, is not the common practice. The concepts of  profit and production are difficult to apply. The study  examines the fundamentals of BCM thus the Risk Analysis,  and Key Performance Indicators (KPI), as the BCMS  efficiency measurement in public health. 

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Hazánkban 2016-ban kezdődött meg az egészségügyi  ágazatban, azon belül is a fekvőbeteg-ellátás alágazatban a  létfontosságú rendszerelemek azonosítása és kijelölése. A létfontosságú rendszerek és létesítmények azonosításáról,  kijelöléséről és védelméről szóló törvény, illetve  végrehajtási rendelete a kijelölt rendszerelemek  üzemeltetői számára Üzemeltetői Biztonsági Terv készítését írják elő. Az üzemeltetői biztonsági tervezéshez bevált,  nemzetközi gyakorlatban alkalmazott ISO 22301 szabvány  áll rendelkezésre, amely az üzletmenet-folytonossági  menedzsmentrendszerek tervezését írja le. Az egészségügyi ágazatra vonatkozó további előírásokat az egészségügyi létfontosságú rendszerek és létesítmények azonosításáról,  kijelöléséről és védelméről szóló ágazati rendelet határozza  meg. A közigazgatásban és így az egészségügyben a  profitorientált, így a „termelés” fenntartására fókuszáló  szemléletmód gyakorlati alkalmazása nem megszokott, a  profit és a termelés fogalma nehezen alkalmazható. A  tanulmány az üzletmenet-folytonossági  menedzsmentrendszerek alapjainak, a kockázatértékelés és az üzletmenet-folytonossági tervezés hatékonysága visszamérésének közegészségügyben való alkalmazási  lehetőségeit vizsgálja. 

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Online: https://hungarytoday.hu/hungarian-oil-company-mol-expands-norway-28505/ Xiaoning, Yang: China’s 2016 Observer Activities Report. Arctic Council, 01 December 2016. Online: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/1860 " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "169-185" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(21) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.11" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(679) "

Climate change is driving the discovery of more and more minerals hidden in the Arctic, for which the initial stage of  the struggle is already underway. As this process intensifies, so the number of countries interested in the  region is expanding. Hungary cannot be left out of this  process, but the articulation of Hungarian interests is still in its infancy. The paper examines how the Arctic region is  currently reflected in Hungarian strategic documents and  how actual cooperation with the Arctic states is developing.  Finally, the paper outlines the elements on which  Hungarian interests and actions concerning the Arctic can  be built in the future. 

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object(Publication)#794 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(5738) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-11-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-11-30 15:08:32" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(6991) ["sectionId"]=> int(71) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(5614) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(8059) "Bader, Christine E. – Nicholas A. Giordano – Catherine C. McDonald – Salimah H. Meghani – Rosemary C. Polomano: Musculoskeletal Pain and Headache in the Active Duty Military Population: An Integrative Review. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 15. (2018), 4. 264–271. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12301 Bean, J. C. – D. B. Chaffin – A. B. Schultz: Biomechanical Model Calculation of Muscle Contraction Forces. A Double Linear Programming Method. Journal of Biomechanics, 21. (1988), 1. 59–66. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(88)90192-3 Brinckmann, Paul – Henk Grootenboer: Change of Disc Height, Radial Disc Bulge and Intradiscal Pressure from Discectomy. And In Vitro Investigation on Human Lumbar Disc. Spine, 16. (1991), 6. 641–646. Online: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199106000-00008 Brinckmann, Paul – M. Biggemann – D. Hilweg: Prediction of the Compressive Strength of Human Lumbar Vertebrae. Clinical Biomechanics, 4. (1989), Suppl. 2. 1–27. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/0268-0033(89)90071-5 Brinckmann, Paul – Manfred Horst: The Influence of Vertebral Body Fractures, Intradiscal Injection, and Partial Discectomy, on the Radial Bulge and Height of Human Lumbar Discs. Spine, 10. (1985), 2. 138–145. Online: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-198503000-00005 Brinckmann, Paul – R. W. Porter: A Laboratory Model of Lumbar Disc Protrusion. Fissure and Fragment. Spine, 19. (1994), 2. 228–235. Online: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199401001-00019 Brinckmann, Paul – Wolfgang Frobin – Eberhard Hierholzer – Manfred Horst: Deformation of the Vertebral End-Plate under Axial Loading of the Spine. Spine, 8. (1983), 8. 851–856. Online: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-198311000-00007 Brinckmann, Paul – Wolfgang Frobin – Gunnar Leivseth (szerk.): Musculoskeletal Biomechanics. Stuttgart – New York, Thieme, 2002. Dieen, J. H. – I. Kingma: Total Trunk Muscle Force and Spinal Compression are Lower in Asymmetric Moments as Compared to Pure Extension Moments. Journal of Biomechanics, 32. (1999), 7. 681–687. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00044-5 Felsenberg, D. – W. A. Kalender – D. Banzer – G. Schmilinsky – M. Heyse – E. Fischer – U. Schneider: Quantitative computertomographische Knochenmineralgehalts Bestimmung. Fortschr Röntgenstr, 148. (1988). 431–436. Online: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1048225 Frobin, Wolfgang – Paul Brinckmann – Gunnar Leivseth – Martin Biggemann – Olav Reikerås: Precision Measurement of Segmental Motion from Flexion-Extension Radiographs of the Lumbar Spine. Clinical Biomechanics, 11. (1996), 8. 457–465. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(96)00039-3 Horst, Manfred – Paul Brinckmann: Measurement of the Distribution of Axial Stress on the End-Plate of the Vertebral Body. Spine, 6. (1981), 3. 217–232. Online: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-198105000-00004 Jäger, Matthias: Biomechanisches Modell des Menschen zur Analyse und Beurteilung der Belastung der Wirbelsaeule bei der Handhabung von Lasten. Düsserdorf, VDI Verlag, 1987. Jäger, Matthias – A. Luttmann: Entwicklung eines biomechanischen Modells zur Bestimmung der Belastung der Wirbelsäule. Biomedizinische Technik, 38. (1993), 393–394. Online: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmte.1993.38.s1.393 Kang, Suk Hyung – Jin Seo Yang – Yong Jun Cho – Seung Won Park – Kwang Pil Ko: Military Rank and the Symptoms of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Young Korean Soldiers. World Neurosurgery, 82. (2014), 1–2. 9–14. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2013.02.056 Knox, Jeffrey B. – Joseph R. Orchowski – Danielle L. Scher – Brett D. Owens – Robert Burks – Philip J. Belmont Jr.: Occupational Driving as a Risk Factor for Low Back Pain in Active-Duty Military Service Members. The Spine Journal, 14. (2014), 4. 592–597. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2013.06.029 Koreerat, Nicholas R. – Christina M. Koreerat: Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injuries in a Security Force Assistance Brigade Before, During, and After Deployment. Military Medicine, 186. (2021), Suppl. 1. 704–708. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usaa334 Leskinen, T. P. J. – H. R. Stålhammar – I. A. A. Kuorinka – J. D. G. Troup: A Dynamic Analysis of Spinal Compression with Different Lifting Techniques. Ergonomics,. 26. (1983a), 6. 595–604. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/00140138308963378 Leskinen, T. P. J. – H. R. Stålhammar – I. A. A. Kuorinka – J. D. G. Troup: The Effect of Inertial Factors on Spinal Stress When Lifting. Engineering in Medicine, 12. (1983b), 2. 87–89. Online: https://doi.org/10.1243/EMED_JOUR_1983_012_023_02 Mattila, Ville M. – Heikki Kyröläinen – Matti Santtila – Harri Pihlajamäki: Low Back Pain during Military Service Predicts Low Back Pain Later in Life. Plos One, 12. (2017), 3. 1–10. Online: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173568 McGill, S. M. – R. L. Hughson – K. Parks: Changes in Lumbar Lordosis Modify the Role of the Extensor Muscles. Clinical Biomechanics, 15. (2000), 10. 777–780. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(00)00037-1 Miyamoto, K. – N. Limua – M. Maeda – E. Wada – K. Shimizu: Effects of Abdominal Belts on Intra-Abdominal Pressure, Intra-Muscular Pressure in the Erector Spinae Muscles and Myoelectrical Activities of Trunk Muscles. Clinical Biomechanics, 14. (1999), 2. 79–87. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(98)00070-9 Nachemson, Alf: Lumbar Intradiscal Pressure. Experimental Studies on Post-Mortem Material. Acta Orthopedica Scandinavica, 31. (1960). Supplementum 43. 1–104. Online: https://doi.org/10.3109/ort.1960.31.suppl-43.01 Nagai, Takashi – John P. Abt – Timothy C. Sell – Karen A .Keenan – Nicholas C. Clark – Brian W. Smalley – Michael D. Wirt – Scott M. Lephart: Lumbar Spine and Hip Flexibility and Trunk Strenght in Helicopter Pilots With and Without Low Back Pain History. Work, 52. (2015), 3. 715–722. Online: https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-152192 Nelson, Richard C. – Chauncey A. Morehouse (szerk.): Biomechanics IV. Baltimore, Maryland, Macmillan Education, 1974. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-02612-8 Orsello, Christopher A. – Andrea S. Philipps – George M. Rice: Height and In-Flight Low Back Pain Association among Military Helicopter Pilots. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 84. (2013), 1. 32–37. Online: https://doi.org/10.3357/ASEM.3425.2013 Qu, Hao – Ling-Jia Yu – Ju-Tai Wu – Gang Liu – Sheng-Hui Liu – Peng Teng – Li Ding – Yu Zhao: Spine System Changes in Soldiers after Load Carriage Training in a Plateau Environment: A Prediction Model Research. Military Medical Research, 7. (2020), 63. 1–11. Online: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00293-1 Reyna, J. R. – S. H. Leggett – K. Kenney – B. Holmes –V. Mooney: The Effect of Lumbar Belts on Isolated Lumbar Muscle. Strength and Dynamic Capacity. Spine, 20. (1995), 1. 68–73. Online: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199501000-00013 Sturdy, Jordan T. – Pinata H. Sessoms – Anne K. Silverman: A Backpack Load Sharing, Model to Evaluate Lumbar and Hip Joint Contact Forces during Shoulder Bone and Hip Belt Assisted Load Carriage. Applied Ergonomics, 90. (2021.). 1–10. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2020.103277 Szendrői Miklós (szerk.): Ortopédia. Budapest, Semmelweis Kiadó, 2005. Szentágothai János – Réthelyi Miklós: Funkcionális anatómia 1 kötet. Budapest, Medicina Kiadó – Semmelweis Kiadó, 1996. Thoolen, Stijn J. J. – Marieke H. A. H. Van Den Oord: Modern Air Combat Developments and Their Influence on Neck and Back Pain in F-16 Pilots. Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, 86. (2015), 11. 936–941. Online: https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4303.2015 Yi, Jeong Min – Gwang Suk Kim: Factors Influencing Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Military Personnel during Basic Combat Training. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 46. (2016), 4. 523–533. Online: https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2016.46.4.523" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(471) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "187-206" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(21) "10.32567/hm.2022.3.12" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(568) "

In the third part of my article series, I perform a biomechanical analysis of the lumbar spine. I will use  examples from the literature to show what a significant  effect increased load, effects on the spine during military  service and other factors have on the development of spine  complaints. To counterbalance the burden of training and deployment, I consider building a strategy based on appropriate preventive factors to be important, thereby  increasing the effectiveness of treatment and ultimately reducing the risk of developing spine diseases.

" ["hu_HU"]=> string(624) "

Cikksorozatom harmadik részében a deréktáji gerinc  biomechanikai elemzését végzem. Irodalmi példákon  fogom bemutatni, hogy a megnövekedett terhelés, a  katonai szolgálat során a gerincet ért hatások és egyéb  tényezők milyen nagy hatással vannak a gerincpanaszok  kialakulására. A kiképzéssel és bevetéssel járó megterhelés  ellensúlyozására fontosnak tartom a megfelelő stratégia kiépítését preventív szempontok alapján, növelve ezáltal a  kezelés hatékonyságának fokát, végeredményként pedig  csökkentve a gerincbetegségek kialakulásának kockázatát.

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