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Biztonságtechnika

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Healthcare facilities, including hospitals, are part of critical infrastructure, both from a technical and a social point of view. Their most important task is to provide medical care, which must be provided at all times, even in emergency situations. For this reason, the question of what external and internal hazards pose a risk in hospitals and what protection solutions can be put in place to reduce them is an important issue. In Part 2 of this two-part series of articles, we will use the types and characteristics of the risk factors identified earlier. Based on international safety recommendations and our own experience, we determine  whether they are avoidable and, if so, what preventive safety design or activity can be used to reduce their risks and impact. Based on our research, it can be stated that hazards to hospitals cannot be completely avoided, but risks can be reduced by safety measures. In this series of articles, we have identified specific risk factors that affect hospitals and suggested possible ways to reduce or avoid them. An important factor, however, is that each institution has a unique function and design, so in addition to general  guidance, it is always necessary to carry out specific  analyses and identify the necessary preventive actions.  These can significantly improve the operational safety of  healthcare institutions, particularly hospitals, and also have  an impact on their economic and social image.  

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Az egészségügyi létesítmények, azon belül is a kórházak a kritikus infrastruktúra részét képezik mind műszaki, mind  társadalmi szempontból. A legfontosabb feladatuk a gyógyítás, amit különböző vészhelyzetekben is folytonosan  biztosítani szükséges. Emiatt fontos kérdés, hogy a kórházakban milyen külső és belső veszélyforrások merülnek fel kockázatként és azok milyen védelmi megoldásokkal csökkenthetők. A két részből álló cikksorozat 2. részében a korábban feltárt kockázati tényezők típusai, jellemzői alapján nemzetközi ajánlások és saját tapasztalatok alapján meghatározzuk, hogy azok elkerülhetők-e, és ha igen, akkor milyen megelőző biztonsági kialakítással vagy tevékenységgel csökkenthetők a kockázataik és a hatásuk. A kutatásunk alapján kijelenthető, hogy a kórházakat fenyegető veszélyek teljes mértékben nem kerülhetők el, azonban biztonsági  intézkedésekkel csökkenthetők a kockázatok. A cikksorozatban feltártuk a kórházakat érintő speciális kockázati tényezőket, és javaslatot adtunk azok  lehetséges csökkentésére vagy elkerülésére. Fontos tényező azonban,  hogy minden egyes intézmény  egyedi funkcióval és  kialakítással rendelkezik, így az  általános útmutatás mellett mindig szükséges az  egyedi elemzések elkészítése és a  szükséges  megelőző tevékenységek meghatározása.  Ezekkel  jelentősen növelhető az egészségügyi  intézmények,  különösen a kórházak működődési  biztonsága, ami  egyben kihatással van azok gazdasági és  társadalmi  megítélésére is.  

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PhD student

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doktorandusz

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Magyar katasztrófaorvosi mentőcsapat műveleti tevékenysége Haitin

Jackovics Péter József, Muhoray Árpád, Pék László
doi: 10.32567/hm.2022.1.2
21-41.
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In 2010, Hungary sent a rescue team to earthquake-stricken Haiti. The authors report on team preparation, high-level  leadership decisions, mission challenges, leadership  experiences, security issues, civil-military cooperation and  lessons learnt from international disaster relief. As they  contributed actively and directly to the successful  implementation of the mission as deputy director general,  team leader and medical professional leader, they had first- hand experience. The experience gained then can still serve  as a lesson for future leaders and organisations of  disaster management today. 

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Magyarország 2010-ben mentőcsapatot küldött ki a  földrengés sújtotta, válságövezetbe tartozó Haitibe. A  szerzők a csapat kiutazásának előkészítéséről, a vezetői döntésekről, a küldetés szakmai kihívásairól, a vezetés-irányítás tapasztalatairól, a biztonsági kérdések és a civil- katonai együttműködés, a nemzetközi katasztrófa- segítségnyújtás tanulságairól számolnak be úgy, hogy a  küldetés sikeres végrehajtásában aktívan, közvetlenül  közreműködtek, akkori felsővezetőként, csapatvezetőként és orvosszakmai vezetőként. Az akkor szerzett  tapasztalatok napjainkban is tanulságként szolgálhatnak a  jövő katasztrófavédelmi szervezetei és vezetői számára. 

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object(Publication)#119 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5781) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-06-17" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-06-17 15:54:12" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7039) ["sectionId"]=> int(111) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(5657) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(1247) "Gamma Technical Corporation: KOMONDOR Armoured Vehicle Family. 2020. Online: http://gammatech.hu/downloads/cat/Gamma_komondor_MRAP.pdf Tervezési és tervezésen túli üzemállapotok sugárzási következményei, MTA EK-SVL-2016-994-02-01-00, tanulmány. Budapest, 2017. november. Zsitnyányi Attila: KOMONDOR – könnyű páncélvédett bázisjármű család fejlesztése Magyarországon I. rész. Haditechnika, 53. (2019), 6. 44–50. Online: https://doi.org/10.23713/HT.53.6.09 Zsitnyányi Attila: KOMONDOR – könnyű páncélvédett bázisjármű család fejlesztése Magyarországon II. rész. Haditechnika, 54. (2020), 1. 35–42. Online: https://doi.org/10.23713/HT.54.1.08 Jogi források 1996. évi CXVI. törvény az atomenergiáról 2011. évi CXXVIII. törvény a katasztrófavédelemről és a hozzá kapcsolódó egyes törvények módosításáról 234/2011. (XI. 10.) Korm. rendelet a katasztrófavédelemről és a hozzá kapcsolódó egyes törvények módosításáról szóló 2011. évi CXXVIII. törvény végrehajtásáról 1150/2012. (XII. 30.) Korm. határozat a Katasztrófavédelmi Koordinációs Tárcaközi Bizottság létrehozásáról, valamint szervezeti és működési rendjének meghatározásáról " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "43-55" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.3" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(254) "

This paper presents the applicability and technical parameters of a radiation shielded vehicle procured by the  Paks Nuclear Power Plant, and justifies its significance in  dose savings in the event of an accident with specific  calculations. 

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Jelen írás bemutatja egy, a Paksi Atomerőmű által beszerzett sugárárnyékolt jármű alkalmazhatóságát, műszaki paramétereit, valamint tényleges számításokkal igazolja annak jelentőségét a dózismegtakarításban, baleseti helyzet esetén. A gyakorlati alkalmazási  tapasztalatok és szituációs analízisek támasztják alá az alkalmazhatóság hatékonyságát. 

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object(Publication)#786 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5817) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-06-17" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-06-17 15:54:12" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7122) ["sectionId"]=> int(111) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(5693) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3627) "Berek, Tamás, László Földi and József Padányi, ‘The Structure and Main Elements of Disaster Management System of the Hungarian Defence Forces, with Special Regard to the Development of International Cooperation’. AARMS 19, no 1 (2020), 17–26. Online: https://doi.org/10.32565/aarms.2020.1.2 Bérczi, László and Csaba Badonszki, ‘A tűzvédelmi tervezés fő tartópillérei: a tűzvédelmi műszaki irányelvek’. Védelem Tudomány 6, no 2 (2021), 66–96. Cimer, Zsolt and Béla Szakál, ‘Control of major-accidents involving dangerous substances relating to combined terminals’. Science for Population Protection 7, no 1 (2015), 1–11. Érces, Gergő and Gyula Vass, ‘Veszélyes ipari üzemek tűzvédelme ipari üzemek fenntartható tűzbiztonságának fejlesztési lehetőségei a komplex tűzvédelem tekintetében’. Műszaki Katonai Közlöny 28, no 4 (2018), 2–22. Environment Protection Agency, Managing Fire Water and Major Spillages: PPG18. Online: https://www.netregs.org.uk/media/1674/ppg-18.pdf Kuti, Rajmund and László Földi, ‘A beépített vízköddel oltó rendszerek újabb alkalmazási lehetőségeinek feltárása’. Hadmérnök 3, no 2 (2008), 60–66. Ministry for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, Guidelines for quantitative risk assessment – CPR 18E. The Hague: VROM, PGS 3, October 1997. Online: https://content.publicatiereeksgevaarlijkestoffen.nl/documents/PGS3/PGS3-1999-v0.1-quantitative-risk-assessment.pdf Sárosi, György, Veszélyes áru raktárlogisztika – korszerű követelmények. Budapest: Complex Kiadó, 2006. Szakál, Béla and Zsolt Cimer, ‘Major Disaster Recovery Plans’. Science for Population Protection 6, no 1 (2014), 1–7. UN Economic Commission for Europe, Safety Guidelines and Good Practices for the Management and Retention of Firefighting Water. Geneva: United Nations, 2019. Online: https://ww.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/documents/2019/TEIA/Publication/1914406E_web_high_res.pdf Vass, Gyula, ‘Industrial Safety Training in Disaster Management Higher Education in Hungary’. Pozhary i Chrezvychajnye Situacii: Predotvrashenie Likvidacia 8, no 2 (2017), 80–84. Online: https://doi.org/10.25257/FE.2017.2.80-84 Legal sources Act CXXVIII of 2011 on disaster management and the amendment of certain related laws. Online: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=A1100128.TV Directive 2012/18/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances, amending and subsequently repealing Council Directive 96/82/EC. Online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:197:0001:0037:EN:PDF Government Decree 90/2007 (IV. 26.) on procedures for the prevention and remedying of environmental damage. Online: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=a0700090.kor Government Decree 219/2011 (X. 20.) on the prevention of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances. Online: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=a1100219.kor Government Decree 366/2015 (XII. 2.) on the designation of bodies performing water protection administrative tasks and amending certain government decrees on water issues. Online: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=a1500366.kor Government Decree 531/2017 (XII. 29.) on the designation of specialised authorities acting on overriding reasons in the public interest. Online: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=A1700531.KOR Ministry of the Interior Decree 54/2014 (XII. 5.) on National Fire Protection Regulations. Online: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=a1400054.bm" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "57-66" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.4" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(535) "

Major accidents involving dangerous substances endanger human health and the environment. Due to major industrial accidents in dangerous establishments, the contaminated firewater can cause significant environmental damage if it enters surface and  groundwater or the soil. In the present study, the author  examines the requirements of the Hungarian disaster  management, environmental protection and water quality  protection regulations applied for the prevention of the  environmental effects of industrial accidents. 

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American Journal of Physics, 69. (2001). 377–381. Online: https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1315603 Beresford, N. A. – S. Fesenko – A. Konoplev – L. Skuterud – J. T. Smith – G. Voigt: Thirty Years after the Chernobyl Accident: What Lessons Have We Learnt? Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 157. (2016). 77–89. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.02.003 Bland, Steven A.: Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Casualty Management Principles. In James M. Ryan – Adriaan P.C.C. Hopperus Buma – Charles W. Beadling – Aroop Mozumder – David M. Nott – Norman M. Rich – Walter Henny – David MacGarty (szerk.): Conflict and Catastrophe Medicine: A Practical Guide. London, Springer, 2014. 747–770. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-2927-1_46 Broughton, Edward: The Bhopal Disaster and Its Aftermath: A Review. Environmental Health, 4. (2005), 6. 1–6. Online: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-4-6 Bushberg, Jerrold T.: Radiation Exposure and Contamination. MSD Manual, 2020. október. Online: https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/injuries-poisoning/radiation-exposure-and-contamination/radiation-exposure-and-contamination European Commission, Directorate-General Home Affairs, Directorate A: Internal security, Unit A.1: Crisis management – Terrorism: CBRN Glossary. Online: http://encircle-cbrn.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/cbrn_glossary_en.pdf Finke, Ernst-Jürgen – Wolfgang Beyer – Ulrike Loderstädt – Hagen Frickmann: Review: The Risk of Contracting Anthrax from Spore-Contaminated Soil – a Military Medical Perspective. European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology, 10. (2020), 2. 29–63. Online: https://doi.org/10.1556/1886.2020.00008 Fry, R. J. Michael: Deterministic Effects. Health Physics, 80. (2001), 4. 338–343. Online: https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-200104000-00009 Halász László – Földi László: Környezetbiztonság. Budapest, Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, Hadtudományi és Honvédtisztképző Kar, 2014. Online: http://m.ludita.uni-nke.hu/repozitorium/bitstream/handle/11410/8583/Teljes%20sz%C3%B-6veg%21?sequence=1&isAllowed=y International Atomic Energy Agency: Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident and Their Remediation: Twenty Years of Experiences. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group ‘Environment’. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2006. International Atomic Energy Agency: The Radiological Accident in Goiânia. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency, 1988. Jiang, Dong – Qian Wang – Zhihua Bai – Heyuan Qi – Juncai Ma – Wenjun Liu – Fangyu Ding – Jing Li: Could Environment Affect the Mutation of H1n1 Influenza Virus? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17. (2020), 9. 3092. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093092 Keenliside, Julia: Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 in Swine and Other Animals. In Jürgen A. Richt – Richard J. Webby (szerk.): Swine Influenza. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin–Heidelberg, Springer, 2012. 259–271. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/82_2012_301 Krammer, Florian: The Human Antibody Response to Influenza A Virus Infection and Vaccination. Nature Reviews Immunology, 19. (2019). 383–397. Online: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0143-6 Kumar, Girish – Daya Shankar Tripathi – Sisir Kumar Roy: Cytological Effects on Plants by an Accidental Leakage of Methylisocyanate (Mic) Gas. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 29. (1989), 2. 261–271. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-8472(89)90058-0 Lage, Leonardo Bastos – Ruffo Freitas-Junior – Rosangela da Silveira Corrêa – Eliane Eugênia dos Santos – Nilson Clementino Ferreira – Nivaldo Carlos Silva – Leonardo Ribeiro Soares: Evaluation of Ionizing Radiation as a Risk Factor for the Incidence of Breast Cancer: Long-Term Analysis after the Cesium-137 Accident in Goiânia, Brazil. An Ecological Study. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 138. (2020), 4. 297–304. Online: https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-3180.2020.0041.r1.04052020 LiVolsi, V. A. – A. A. Abrosimov – T. Bogdanova – G. Fadda – J. L. Hunt – M. Ito – J. Rosai – G. A. Thomas – E. D. Williams: The Chernobyl Thyroid Cancer Experience: Pathology. Clinical Oncology, 23. (2011), 4. 261–267. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2011.01.160 Marqués, Montse – José L. Domingo: Contamination of Inert Surfaces by SARS-CoV-2: Persistence, Stability and Infectivity. A Review. Environmental Research, 193. (2021). 110559. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110559 Mostafa, Mohamed K. – Gamil Gamal – A. Wafiq: The Impact of Covid 19 on Air Pollution Levels and Other Environmental Indicators – a Case Study of Egypt. Journal of Environmental Management, 277. (2021). 111496. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111496 Nemery, B. – D. Dinsdale – S. Sparrow – D. E. Ray: Effects of Methyl Isocyanate on the Respiratory Tract of Rats. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42. (1985), 12. 799–805. Online: https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.42.12.799 Nigam, Ritwik – Kanvi Pandya – Alvarinho J. Luis – Raja Sengupta – Mahender Kotha: Positive Effects of Covid-19 Lockdown on Air Quality of Industrial Cities (Ankleshwar and Vapi) of Western India. Scientific Reports, 11. (2021). 4285. Online: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83393-9 Poulson, Rebecca – Stephen Tompkins – Roy Berghaus – J. Brown – D. Stallknecht: Environmental Stability of Swine and Human Pandemic Influenza Viruses in Water under Variable Conditions of Temperature, Salinity, and pH. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82. (2016), 13. 3721–3726. Online: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00133-16 Rahal, Rosemar Macedo Sousa – Marina Elias Rocha – Ruffo Freitas-Junior – Rosangela da Silveira Correa – Rodrigues, Danielle – Edesio Martins – Leonardo Ribeiro Soares – Jose Carlos Oliveira: Trends in the Incidence of Breast Cancer Following the Radiological Accident in Goiânia: A 25-Year Analysis. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 20. (2019), 12. 3811–3816. Online: https://doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.12.3811 Saunders-Hastings, Patrick R. – Daniel Krewski: Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission. Pathogens, 5. (2016), 4. 66. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens5040066 Scalera, Nikole – Sherif Mossad: The First Pandemic of the 21st Century: A Review of the 2009 Pandemic Variant Influenza a (H1N1) Virus. Postgraduate Medicine, 121. (2009), 5. 43–47. Online: https://doi.org/10.3810/pgm.2009.09.2051 Sooryanarain, Harini – Subbiah Elankumaran: Environmental Role in Influenza Virus Outbreaks. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences, 3. (2015). 347–373. Online: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022114-111017 Sriramachari, S.: The Bhopal Gas Tragedy: An Environmental Disaster. Current Science, 86. (2004), 7. 905–920. Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24109273 Steinhauser, Georg – Alexander Brandl – Thomas E. Johnson: Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima Nuclear Accidents: A Review of the Environmental Impacts. Science of The Total Environment, 470–471. (2014). 800–817. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.029 Streit, B.: Bioaccumulation Processes in Ecosystems. Experientia, 48. (1992), 10. 955–970. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01919142 UNSCEAR 2008: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR 2008 Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. New York, United Nations, 2010. Varma, Daya R. – Shree Mulay: Methyl Isocyanate: The Bhopal Gas. In Ramesh C. Gupta (szerk.): Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents (Second Edition). Boston, Academic Press, 2015. 287–299. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800159-2.00022-1 Varma, Roli – Daya Varma: The Bhopal Disaster of 1984. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 25. (2005), 1. 37–45. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0270467604273822 World Health Organisation: Chernobyl: The True Scale of the Accident. 2005. szeptember 5. Online: https://www.who.int/news/item/05-09-2005-chernobyl-the-truescale-of-the-accident World Health Organisation: Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 – Update 112. 2010. augusztus 6. Online: https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2010_08_06-en World Health Organisation: SARS-CoV-2 mink-associated variant strain – Denmark. 2020. december 3. Online: https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2020-DON301 Jogi források Az Európai Parlament és a Tanács 1272/2008/EK Rendelete (2008. december 16.) az anyagok és keverékek osztályozásáról, címkézéséről és csomagolásáról, a 67/548/EGK és az 1999/45/EK irányelv módosításáról és hatályon kívül helyezéséről, valamint az 1907/2006/EK rendelet módosításáról (EGT-vonatkozású szöveg) Az Európai Parlament és a Tanács 1907/2006/EK Rendelete (2006. december 18.) a vegyi anyagok regisztrálásáról, értékeléséről, engedélyezéséről és korlátozásáról (REACH), az Európai Vegyianyag-ügynökség létrehozásáról, az 1999/45/EK irányelv módosításáról, valamint a 793/93/EGK tanácsi rendelet, az 1488/94/EK bizottsági rendelet, a 76/769/EGK tanácsi irányelv, a 91/155/EGK, a 93/67/EGK, a 93/105/EK és a 2000/21/EK bizottsági irányelv hatályon kívül helyezéséről " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "67-82" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.5" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(651) "

The worldwide increase in the case number of disasters is a serious challenge for the affected regions, nations. Because  of globalisation, the expanding industrial- technological sector, and the wide-scale utilisation of  radioactive substances, including in nuclear power plants,  the possibility of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear agents’ involvement in these events is imminent.  The goal of this study is to explore and summarise, through real-life examples, the complex mechanisms of action of  chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear disasters in  connection with direct and indirect environmental impact. 

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A katasztrófák világszerte emelkedő esetszámban állítják kihívás elé az általuk érintett régiókat, nemzeteket. A  globalizációnak, a bővülő ipari-technológiai szektornak, valamint a sugárzó anyagok széles körű, nukleáris  létesítményekben történő alkalmazását is felölelő  felhasználásának köszönhetően az esetlegesen  bekövetkező káresemények vonatkozásában veszélyes  vegyi, biológiai, radiológiai és nukleáris ágensek is fontos  szerephez juthatnak. Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy halálos  áldozatokkal is járó, múltban lezajlott vegyi, biológiai,  radiológiai és nukleáris katasztrófák példáján bemutassa  ezek mind az élettelen, mind az élő környezetre gyakorolt  károsító képességét, egyúttal feltárva és összegezve  komplex hatásmechanizmusaikat. 

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object(Publication)#792 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5942) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-06-17" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-06-17 15:54:11" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7273) ["sectionId"]=> int(111) ["seq"]=> int(5) ["submissionId"]=> int(5818) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2655) "Aranyné Rózsavári Anikó – Berényi Ágnes – Csépes Eduárd – Kelemenné Szilágyi Enikő – Teszárné Nagy Mariann – Fejes Lőrinc – Kéri Brigitta – Kovács Pál – Laczi Zoltán – Sólyom Norbert – Szalay Gyula – Végvári Péter: Negyvenéves a Tisza-tó. Szolnok, Közép-Tisza-vidéki Vízügyi Igazgatóság, 2018. 68. Bándi Gyula – Faragó Tibor – Lakosné Horváth Alojzia: Nemzetközi környezetvédelmi és természetvédelmi egyezmények. Budapest, Környezetvédelmi és Területfejlesztési Minisztérium, 1994. Online: http://real.mtak.hu/103304/1/Egyezmenyek-KTM.pdf Bessenyei Mónika – Földi László – Hetesi Zsolt – Zsókai Ágnes: Fenntartható jövőképünk. In Kaiser Tamás (szerk.): A jó állam mérhetősége III. Budapest, Dialóg Campus, 2019. 125–140. Online: https://joallamjelentes.uni-nke.hu/2017_pages/pdf_serve/non-compress/669_jam_iii_xs.pdf Csépes Eduárd – Berényi Ágnes – Teszárné Nagy Mariann: A Kiskörei-tározó növényzet közötti árvaszúnyog faunájának (Diptera: Chironomidae) változása az elmúlt évek szélsőséges tiszai vízjárásának következtében. Hidrológiai Közlöny, 93. (2013), 5–6. 23–6. Földi László – Halász László: Investigation of Climate Vulnerability of Domestic Natural and Artificial Ecosystems. Hadmérnök, 14. (2019), 2. 167–178. Online: https://doi.org/10.32567/hm.2019.2.14 Halász László – Földi László: Környezetbiztonság. Budapest, Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, 2014. Hortobágyi Nemzeti Park: A Tisza-tó (HUHN20003) kiemelt jelentőségű természetmegőrzési terület fenntartási terve. Debrecen, Hortobágyi Nemzeti Park Igazgatóság, 2014. Online: https://www.hnp.hu/uploads/files/termeszetvedelem/natura2000/HUHN20003_tiszat%C3%B3.pdf Közép-Tisza-vidéki Vízügyi Igazgatóság: Tisza-tavi kódex – mellékletek. (É. n.) Online: http://kotivizig.hu/doksik/tisza_tavi_kodex/mellekletek.pdf Rakonczay Zoltán: A természetvédelem története Magyarországon, 1872–2002. Budapest, Mezőgazda, 2009. Jogi források A Tanács 79/409/EGK irányelve (1979. április 2.) a vadon élő madarak védelméről A Tanács 92/43/EGK irányelve (1992. május 21.) a természetes élőhelyek, valamint a vadon élő állatok és növények védelméről 1996. évi LIII. törvény a természet védelméről 120/1999 (VIII. 6.) Korm. rendelet a vizek és a közcélú vízilétesítmények fenntartására vonatkozó feladatokról 314/2005. (XII. 25.) Korm. rendelet a környezeti hatásvizsgálati és az egységes környezethasználati engedélyezési eljárásról " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "83-100" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.6" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(846) "

In Hungary, there is often a conflict between nature conservation and water management interests, the main  reason of which is to be found in the endowments, size and  recent history of our country. In the article, the author  evaluates the water management reconstruction works of  Lake Tisza as a protected natural area along the overlaps of  nature conservation and water management activities. It  presents the international and domestic development of  nature conservation, and covers the declaration of Lake  Tisza as an artificial facility as a protected natural area. It  evaluates the impact of the reconstruction works carried  out within the framework of the investment on the wildlife  of the lake and makes findings on the possible forms of  cooperation between water management and nature  conservation managers.

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Hazánkban gyakran tapasztalható a természetvédelem és a vízgazdálkodási érdekek ütközése, amelynek oka főként országunk  adottságaiban, méretében, illetve a közelmúlt  történelmében keresendő. A cikkben a szerző a  természetvédelem és a vízgazdálkodási  tevékenységek  átfedései mentén értékeli a Tisza-tó  mint védett természeti  terület vízgazdálkodási  szempontú rekonstrukciós munkáit. Bemutatja a  természetvédelem nemzetközi és hazai  kialakulását,  valamint kitér a Tisza-tó mint mesterséges létesítmény védett természeti területté nyilvánítására.  Értékeli a beruházás keretében  végzett rekonstrukciós  munkák hatását a tó  élővilágára, és megállapításokat tesz a vízgazdálkodási és természetvédelmi kezelők  lehetséges együttműködésének formáira.   

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Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/cyto.990110506 Srinivas, Upadhyayula S, Jerzy Dyczkowski, Tim Beißbarth, Jochen Gaedcke, Wael Y Mansour, Kerstin Borgmann and Matthias Dobbelstein, ‘5-Fluorouracil sensitizes colorectal tumor cells towards double stranded DNA breaks by interfering with homologous recombination repair’. Oncotarget 6, no 14 (2015), 12574–12586. Online: https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.3728 Steinritz, Dirk and Horst Thiermann, ‘Sulfur Mustard’, in Critical Care Toxicology, ed. by Jeffrey Brent, Keith Burkhart, Paul Dargan, Benjamin Hatten, Bruno Megarbane, Robert Palmer and Julian White. Cham: Springer, 2017, 2683–2712. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17900-1_149 Vazquez, Alexei, Philip M Tedeschi and Joseph R Bertino, ‘Overexpression of the Mitochondrial Folate and Glycine–Serine Pathway: A New Determinant of Methotrexate Selectivity in Tumors’. Cancer Research 73, no 2 (2013), 478–482. Online: https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-3709 Weber, Georg F, ‘DNA Damaging Drugs’, in Molecular Therapies of Cancer. Cham: Springer, 2015, 9–112. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13278-5_2 Wróbel, Agnieszka, Karolina Arciszewska, Dawid Maliszewski and Danuta Drozdowska, ‘Trimethoprim and other nonclassical antifolates an excellent templat Agnieszkae for searching modifications of dihydrofolate reductase enzyme inhibitors’. The Journal of Antibiotics 73 (2020), 5–27. Online: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41429-019-0240-6 " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "101-115" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.7" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1081) "

Radiomimetic substances are drugs producing similar symptoms in living organisms as ionising radiation does.  They constitute a special subgroup of carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen compounds; their common characteristic is to  cause DNA breaks and/or to inhibit their repair. Mustard  gas and its derivatives – alkylating agents – were the first  known group of radiomimetic substances, later, it was  observed, that some purine and pyrimidine analogues  playing an antimetabolic role show a resembling outcome.  Initially mustards were used in warfare, but now their  usage for military purpose is prohibited by the Chemical  Weapons Convention. Other radiomimetic substances have  also become important tools in medicine, as they have  been shown to be useful against certain pathogens and  tumours. This review is a brief summary about the  mechanism of action and the most common applications of  alkylating agents and antimetabolites. In the coming second part, the radiomimetic substances of bacterial  origin are reviewed from similar perspectives. 

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PDF (English)

Védeleminformatika

Hierarchikus fuzzy alapú kiberbiztonsági kockázatértékelő modell

Gózon Fanni Zsuzsanna, Váczi Dániel, Laufer Edit
doi: 10.32567/hm.2022.1.8
117-137.
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With the rise of IT systems, cyberattacks are becoming more sophisticated, allowing for more intense and complex  attacks. According to the source of the threats, we can  distinguish between attacks based on hardware, software,  physical and human factors. In this study the human factor  is in the focus, because humans are the weakest link;  however, other factors affecting company security are also  taken into account. The authors propose a risk assessment  model that can predict the level of cybersecurity risk in a  company. In this hierarchical model, fuzzy-based  subsystems are applied, as in the field of cybersecurity, the  uncertainties and subjectivity that often arise in the data  and evaluation process, must also be addressed. 

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Az informatikai rendszerek térnyerésével a kibertámadások egyre kifinomultabbá válnak, ami egyre intenzívebb és  összetettebb támadásokat tesz lehetővé. A  fenyegetettségek forrása szerint megkülönböztethetünk  hardver-, szoftver-, fizikai és emberi tényező alapú  támadásokat. Tanulmányunkban elsősorban az emberi  tényezővel foglalkozunk, hiszen általában a leggyengébb  láncszem az ember, de az egyéb cégbiztonságra ható  tényezőket is figyelembe vettük. Egy olyan kockázatértékelési modellt dolgoztunk ki, amely képes megjósolni a vállalat kiberbiztonsági kockázati szintjét. A  javasolt hierarchikus modellben fuzzy alapú alrendszereket  alkalmazunk, hiszen kiberbiztonsági területen az adatokban  és a kiértékelési folyamatban gyakran felmerülő  bizonytalanságot és szubjektivitást is kezelni kell.  

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Online: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219649216500076 Australian Government Department of Home Affairs: Security Legislation Amendment (Critical Infrastructure) Bill 2020. Explanatory Document. 2020. november. Online: https://doi.org/10.31915/NWS.2018.1 Ballard, Paul J.: Measuring Performance Excellence: Key Performance Indicators for Institutions Accepted into the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP). PhD-értekezés. Kalamazoo, MI, Western Michigan University, 2013. FireEye Inc.: Why Cyber Attackers are Targeting Higher Education, and What Universities Can Do about It. White Paper. 2015. Giszczak, James J. – Dominic A. Paluzzi: Pass or Fail? Data Privacy and Cybersecurity Risks in Higher Education, McDonald Hopkins, 2016. augusztus 23. Online: https://mcdonaldhopkins.com/Insights/August-2016/Pass-or-fail-Data-privacy-and-cybersecurity-risks Koczka Ferenc: Információbiztonsági teszt az Eszterházy Károly Egyetemen. In Networkshop 2018 konferenciakiadvány. Hungarnet Egyesület, Budapest, 2018. 4–14. Online: https://doi.org/10.31915/NWS.2018.1 Kwaa-Aidoo, Ephrem K. – Mathias Agbeko: An Analysis of Information System Security of a Ghanaian University. International Journal of Information Security Science, 7. (2018), 2. 90–99. Loo, Ling Wee: Student Hacking into University’s Learning Management System to Save His Grades: A Cautionary Tale. Singapore Management University, 2016. Online: https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/cases_coll_all/172/ NAIH-6298-2/2021: Állásfoglalás a koronavírus elleni védettség tényének felsőoktatási intézmény általi megismerhetőségéről, nyilvántarthatóságáról kollégiumi elhelyezés és egyetemi rendezvények kapcsán. Online: https://naih.hu/adatvedelmi-allasfoglalasok/file/417-allasfoglalas-a-koronavirus-elleni-vedettseg-tenyenek-felsooktatasi-intezmeny-altali-megismerhetosegerol-nyilvantarthatosagarol-kollegiumi-elhelyezes-es-egyetemi-rendezvenyek-kapcsan NAIH/2020/54: Rendszeres szociális ösztöndíjakkal kapcsolatos adatkezelés a Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetemen. Online: https://naih.hu/hatarozatok-vegzesek/file/325-1-rendszeres-szocialis-osztondijakkal-kapcsolatos-adatkezeles-a-budapesti-muszaki-es-gazdasagtudomanyi-egyetemen-modositasokkal-egyseges-szerkezetben Rahim, Nazahah – Zaleha Othman – Fathilatul Zakimi Hamid: Cyber Security and the Higher Education Literature: A Bibliometric Analysis. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 12. (2020), 12. Online: https://www.ijicc.net/images/vol12/iss12/121282_Rahim_2020_E_R.pdf Ulven, Joachim B. – Gaute Wangen: A Systematic Review of Cybersecurity Risks in Higher Education. Future Internet, 13. (2021), 39. 1–40. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13020039 Unit-Department for ICT and Joint Services in Higher Education and Research. Technical Report, 2019. Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/26441233.pdf?ab_segments=0%2Fbasic_search_gsv2%2Fcontrol&refreqid=fastly-default%3A5966892c9e805357cc27fd4374cc012d Vámosi Gergő: Ezerhétszáz hallgató adatait vesztette el a veszprémi egyetem. Origo, 2008. december 10. Online: https://www.origo.hu/techbazis/20081210-1717-hallgato-adatait-vesztette-el-a-veszpremi-egyetem.html Wangen, Gaute – Even Ø. Brodin – Bent H. Skari – Christopher Berglind: Unrecorded Security Incidents at NTNU 2018 (Mørketallsundersøkelsen ved NTNU 2018). Bachelor’s Thesis. Trondheim, Sweden, NTNU Open Gjøvik, 2019. Zsarolóvírus-támadás érte a Pázmányt, leállt a Neptun. HVG.hu, 2020. április 24. Online: https://hvg.hu/tudomany/20200424_pazmany_peter_katolikus_egyetem_zsarolovirus_neptun_tanulmanyi_rendszer_szakdolgozat_leadasi_hatarido Jogi források 2011. évi CCIV. törvény a nemzeti felsőoktatásról 2013. évi L. törvény az állami és önkormányzati szervek elektronikus információbiztonságáról 41/2015. (VII. 15.) BM rendelet az állami és önkormányzati szervek elektronikus információbiztonságáról szóló 2013. évi L. törvényben meghatározott technológiai biztonsági, valamint a biztonságos információs eszközökre, termékekre, továbbá a biztonsági osztályba és biztonsági szintbe sorolásra vonatkozó követelményekről 2009/2015. (XII. 29.) Korm. határozat a nemzetbiztonsági védelem alá eső szervek és létesítmények köréről" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "139-153" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.9" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(1043) "

Due to the special properties of higher education  institutions, their IT systems are also different from the  usual ones, which in some areas significantly differ from those of market players. The consequences of the open  university environment, the need to make information  more widely available and the promotion of academic and  research freedom make it much more difficult to fulfil IT  security tasks. Therefore, the university environment  requires specific attitudes and specific methods from IT  professionals in certain areas, while there is little literature  available on the identification of its values, the analysis of  its threats and incidents, and its specificities, with no  Hungarian relevance. The aim of the article is to review the  academic literature on IT protection in the academic sector,  to identify the problems specific to the sector and  their Hungarian implications, and to identify similarities and  differences based on the author’s experience as an IT  manager in a university. 

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A felsőoktatási intézmények sajátosságai következtében az informatikai rendszereik is a szokványostól eltérők, amelyek egyes területeken markánsan különböznek a gazdasági  szektor rendszereitől. A nyitott egyetemi környezet  következményei, az információk minél szélesebb körű  közzététele, az oktatói és kutatói szabadság támogatása  jelentősen megnehezíti az informatikai védelmi feladatok  ellátását. Ezért az egyetemi környezet bizonyos területeken  egyedi attitűdöket és speciális módszereket kíván meg az  üzemeltetőktől, miközben értékeinek tudományos értékű azonosítására, fenyegetettségének és incidenseinek  elemzésére és specialitásainak vizsgálatára csak néhány, a  hazai vonatkozásokat teljesen mellőző szakirodalom áll rendelkezésre. A cikk célja az akadémiai szféra informatikai  védelmét tárgyaló tudományos szakirodalom áttekintése, a  szektorra jellemző problémák feltárása és magyar vonatkozásainak bemutatása, valamint azonosságok és különbségek meghatározása a szerző egyetemi  informatikai vezetői tapasztalatai alapján. 

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Head of IT

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Informatikai Osztályvezető

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Online: https://aerialservicesinc.com/2012/12/just-how-accurate-is-lidar/ Uysal, Murat and Nizar Polat, ‘Investigating Performance of Airborne Lidar Data Filtering with Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) Algorithm’. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XL-7 (2014), 199–202. Online: https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-7-199-2014 Weibao, Zuo, Li Yan, Li Zhilin and Ding Xiaoli, ‘Improvement of the Accuracy of InSAR Image Co-Registration Based On Tie Points – A Review’. Sensors 9, no 2 (2009), 1259–1281. ONline: https://doi.org/10.3390/s90201259 ; DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s90201259 Westoby, Matthew J, James Brasington, Neil F Glasser, Michael J Hambrey and John M Reynolds, ‘‘Structure-from-Motion’ photogrammetry: A low-cost, effective tool for geoscience applications’. Geomorphology 179 (2012), 300– 314. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.08.021 Xie,Weiming, Qing He, Keqi Zhang, Leicheng Guo, Xianye Wang, Jian Shen and Zheng Cui, ‘Application of terrestrial laser scanner on tidal flat morphology at a typhoon event timescale’, Geomorphology 292 (2017), 47–58. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.04.034 " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "155-170" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(21) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.10" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(836) "

In the last 10 years, the technological developments have  changed the paradigm in remote sensing science. Nowadays, very diverse technologies can be employed to  capture and/or extract very accurate terrain elevation data  and prepare digital elevation models. This article aims at  reviewing the existing remote sensing technologies which  could support disaster remediation (by excavation of the  soil) with very accurate elevation data acquisition. Ground  based technologies (like terrestrial laser scanning, InSAR  and SfM) and airborne technologies (airborne laser  scanning [ALS], UAV photogrammetric approach, UAV with  LiDAR) are reviewed. Their capacities are examined  according to the following technical criteria: spatial  efficiency, point density, accuracy and applicability in  disaster situation. 

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Della Valle, Emanuele, Dario Cerizza, Irene Celino, Jacky Estublier, Germán Vega, Mick Kerrigan, Jaime Ramirez, Boris M Villazon, Pascal Guarrera, Gang Zhao and Gabriella Monteleone, ‘SEEMP: An Interoperability Infrastructure for e-Government Services in the Employment Sector’, in The Semantic Web: Research and Applications, 4th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2007, ed. by Enrico Franconi, Michael Kifer and Wolfgang May. Berlin–Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, 220–234. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-72667-8_17 Duan, Yucong, Guohua Fu, Nianjun Zhou, Xiaobing Sun, Nanjagund C Narendra and Bo Hu, ‘Everything as a Service (XaaS) on the Cloud: Origins, Current and Future Trends’. 2015 IEEE 8th International Conference on Cloud Computing, 2015, 621–628. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/CLOUD.2015.88 e-Government Interoperability Framework Version 6.1. Cabinet Office UK, 2005. European Interoperability Framework – Implementation Strategy. Brussels: European Commission, 2017, 4–5. 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Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "171-191" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(21) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.11" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(684) "

In our globalised world the interoperability of organisational IT systems has become an indispensable  condition for the cooperation of organisations, so IT  interoperability is now a priority demand of all application.  In practice, we can essentially only find solutions based on  standardised intermediary representations, but these have a number of limitations, the analysis of which is not covered in the literature. Novel interoperability solutions have also  emerged in connection with the development of  information technology, but little is said about the general  requirements for innovative solutions. This publication  seeks to contribute to these tasks. 

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object(Publication)#708 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5723) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-06-17" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-06-17 15:54:12" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(6967) ["sectionId"]=> int(71) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(5599) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2944) "Davidson, Phil, ‘China Power: Up for Debate’. U.S. Indo-Pacific Command, 30 November 2018. Online: https://www.pacom.mil/Media/Speeches-Testimony/Article/1702301/china-power-up-for-debate Davidson, Phil, ‘China’s Challenge to a Free and Open Indo-Pacific’. U.S. Indo- Pacific Command, 1 October 2019. Online: https://www.pacom.mil/Media/Speeches-Testimony/Article/1976518/chinas-challenge-to-a-free-and-open-indo-pacific/ Department of State, ‘A Free and Open Indo-Pacific: Advancing a Shared Vision’, 4 November 2019. Online: https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Freeand-Open-Indo-Pacific-4Nov2019.pdf DoD News, ‘Pacific Command Change Highlights Growing Importance of Indian Ocean Area’, 31 May 2018. Online: https://www.pacom.mil/Media/News/News-Article-View/Article/1537107/pacific-command-change-highlights-growing-importance-of-Indo-ocean-area/ Garamone, Jim, ‘Biden Announces DOD China Task Force’. DoD News, 10 February 2021. Online: https://www.defense.gov/Explore/News/Article/Article/2500271/bidenannounces-dod-china-task-force/ Hoang, Viet, ‘The Code of Conduct for the South China Sea: A Long and Bumpy Road’. The Diplomat, 28 September 2020. Online: https://thediplomat.com/2020/09/the-code-of-conduct-for-the-south-china-sea-a-long-and-bumpy-road Paskal, Cleo, ‘Indo-Pacific strategies, perceptions and partnerships’. Chatham House Research Paper, 23 March 2021. Online: https://www.chathamhouse.org/2021/03/indo-pacific-strategies-perceptions-and-partnerships/02-us-and-indo-pacific Reeves, Jeffrey and Joanne Wallis, ‘A Free and Open Indo-Pacific: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Opportunities for Engagement (Introduction)’. Asia Policy 15, no 4 (2020). Online: https://www.nbr.org/publication/a-free-and-open-indo-pacific-strengths-weaknesses-and-opportunities-for-engagement-introduction/#_ftn5 The Department of Defense, ‘Indo-Pacific Strategy Report: Preparedness, Partnerships and Promoting a Networked Region’, 2019. Online: https://media.defense.gov/2019/Jul/01/2002152311/-1/-1/1/DEPARTMENT-F-DEFENSE-INDO-PACIFIC-STRATEGY-REPORT-2019.PDF The White House, ‘National Security Strategy of the United States of America’, 2017. Online: https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf Varga, Gergely, ‘Az Egyesült Államok katonai jelenléte a csendes-óceáni térségben’, 2014. Online: https://svkk.uni-nke.hu/document/svkk-uni-nke-hu-1506332684763/svkk-elemzesek-2014-10-az-egyesult-allamok-katonai-jelenlete-a-csendes-oceani-tersegben-varga-g.original.pdf USINDOPACOM, ‘Area of Responsibility’, s. a. Online: www.pacom.mil/About-USINDOPACOM/ USPACOM-Area-of-Responsibility/ USINDOPACOM, ‘Headquarters, United States Indo-Pacific Command’, s. a. Online: https://www.pacom.mil/About-USINDOPACOM/ USINDOPACOM, ‘Organization Chart’, s. a. Online: https://www.pacom.mil/Organization/ Organization-Chart/ " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(443) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "139-201" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(21) "10.32567/hm.2022.1.12" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(561) "

An essential element of U.S. foreign policy strategy is an active presence in Asia. China’s economic strengthening  and the American–Chinese trade war have also given  America a greater emphasis on projecting military forces  into the region. One key element of this is the  establishment of the United States Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM). In this article, I detail the reasons for  setting up the headquarters, its task and its area of  responsibility. I describe the military factors that affect U.S.–China foreign policy relations. 

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PDF (English)
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The purpose of this study is to illustrate the special cases of a fire in a hospital especially in a perinatal intensive  department, that may be encountered by the firefighters.  Due to these special circumstances, the evacuation time of  the facility can be significantly increased. There are unusual  evacuation and rescue methods, which require  special devices and more intense human resources. The  evacuation requirement of a hospital is more than a usual  evacuation plan, the goal is to maintain the health care  services during and after the evacuation, so it is necessary  to apply the Evacuation Plan of the Hospital Disaster Plan  during a fire evacuation. This requires much more accurate  and complex training from both the firefighters and the  medical staff. Also, its effectiveness depends to a large extent on the architectural and fire protection design of the building, its modernity, the available medical and rescue  equipment and the number of medical staff. The study  examines the approximation and joint applicability of the  plans above, based on the experience of a hospital  evacuation exercise. 

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PDF (English)