Full Issue


object(Publication)#795 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(7232) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2024-06-27" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-06-27 14:44:58" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(9034) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(7108) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3717) "Axon Enterprise, Inc. (2019). First Report of the Axon AI & Policing Technology Ethics Board. Online: https://shorturl.at/kyEHR Bensinger, K. & Chang, A. (2013, April 20). Boston Bombings: Social Media Spirals out of Control. Los Angeles Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/nstEU Berryhill, J., Heang, K. K., Clogher, R. & McBride, K. (2019). Hello, World: Artificial Intelligence and Its Use in the Public Sector. OECD Working Papers on Public Governance, (36). Online: https://doi.org/10.1787/726fd39d-en Campbell, D. (2001, October 17). US Buys Up All Satellite War Images. Manchester Guardian. CBS News (2013, April 24). Social Media and the Search for the Boston Bombing Suspects. CBS News. Online: https://shorturl.at/gJQTU Connors, B. & Zauderer, A. (2013, January 2). Police Use Facebook to ID Waterford Robbery Suspects. NBC Connecticut. Online: https://shorturl.at/hmW34 Davidson, R. (2019, August 8). Automated Threat Detection and the Future of Policing. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Online: https://shorturl.at/erPZ2 Deeks, A. S. (2018). Predicting Enemies. Virginia Law Review, 104(8), 1529–1592. Online: https://shorturl.at/lxyDM Dutton, T. (2018, December 6). Building an AI World: Report on National and Regional Strategies. CIFAR. Online: https://shorturl.at/dlFJ3 Dyer, J. (2013, April 27). Social Media and the Boston Bombings. BBC Radio. Online: https://shorturl.at/gmoC0 Gianni, R., Lehtinen, S. & Nieminen, M. (2022). Governance of Responsible AI: From Ethical Guidelines to Cooperative Policies. Frontiers in Computer Science, 4. Online: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomp.2022.873437 International Association of Chiefs of Police. (2011). Survey of Law Enforcement’s Use of Social Media Tools. Losavio, J. D. & Losavio, M. M. (2014). Prosecution and Social Media. In C. D. Marcum & G. E. Higgins (Eds.), Social Networking as a Criminal Enterprise (pp. 197–220). Taylor & Francis. Online: https://shorturl.at/tBF69 Losavio, M., Elmaghraby, A. & Losavio, A. (2018). Ubiquitous Networks, Ubiquitous Sensors: Issues of Security, Reliability and Privacy in the Internet of Things. In N. Boudriga, M. S. Alouini, S. Rekhis, E. Sabir & S. Pollin (Eds.), Ubiquitous Networking. UNet 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), 11277. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02849-7_30 Misuraca, G. & Van Noordt, C. (2020). AI Watch. Artificial Intelligence in Public Services. Publications Office of the European Union. Online: https://doi.org/10.2760/039619 Mitrou, L. (2018). Data Protection, Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Services: Is the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) ‘Artificial Intelligence-Proof’? Online: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3386914 Perry, W. L., McInnis, B., Price, C. C., Smith, S. & Hollywood, J. S. (2013). Predictive Policing. The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations. RAND Corporation. Online: https://doi.org/10.7249/RR233 Saravia, E. (2022). Prompt Engineering Guide. GitHub. Online: https://github.com/dair-ai/Prompt-Engineering-Guide Stuart, R. D. (2013, February 5). Social Media: Establishing Criteria for Law Enforcement Use. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Online: https://shorturl.at/intzO Wallach, W. & Marchant, G. E. (2018). An Agile Ethical/Legal Model for the International and National Governance of AI and Robotics. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. Online: https://shorturl.at/deHT7 Winfield, A. F. & Jirotka, M. (2018). Ethical Governance Is Essential in Building Trust in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376(2133). Online: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2018.0085" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "5–20" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7108" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(502) "

There is a tension between state oversight and state intrusion into our personal lives. The analytical powers of artificial intelligence/machine learning and the pervasive data collection of the Internet of Things, the Smart City and all those personal devices we use together permit revelations as to our lives as never seen before. We must consider the impact of this on the relations between citizen and government in this new, ubiquitous world of government cybersurveillance and revelation.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(15) "Losavio Michael" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(51) "Government Cybersurveillance and AI: A New Equation" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#838 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(9034) ["email"]=> string(30) "michael.losavio@louisville.edu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7232) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "US" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4542-8599" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(24) "University of Louisville" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(162) "

Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Justice and Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA

" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Losavio" ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "Losavio" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Michael" ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "Michael" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(4) { [0]=> string(12) "surveillance" [1]=> string(17) "cybersurveillance" [2]=> string(23) "artificial intelligence" [3]=> string(10) "algorithms" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#851 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(34608) ["id"]=> int(5839) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7232) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#79 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(7240) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2024-06-27" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-06-27 14:44:58" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(9044) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(7116) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(6630) "Adair, D. (1957). “That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science”: David Hume, James Madison and the Tenth Federalist. The Huntington Library Quarterly, 20(4), 343–360. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/3816276 Angwin, J., Savage, C., Larson, J., Moltke, H., Poitras, L. & Risen, J. (2015, August 15). AT&T Helped U.S. Spy on Internet on a Vast Scale. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/qN027 Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Belknap Press. Bailyn, B. (Ed.) (1993). The Debate on the Constitution: Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches, Articles, and Letters During the Struggle over Ratification. Part One: September 1787 – February 1788. Library of America. Baker, P. (2014, January 15). Obama’s Path from Critic to Overseer of Spying. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/dfgMP Beeman, R. (Ed.) (2012). The Federalist Papers. Penguin Books. Berman, E. (2018). Digital Searches, the Fourth Amendment, and the Magistrates’ Revolt. Emory Law Journal, 68(1), 49–94. Online: https://scholarlycommons.law.emory.edu/elj/vol68/iss1/2 Calmes, J. & Wingfield, N. (2013, December 17). Tech Leaders and Obama Find Shared Problem: Fading Public Trust. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/mtJL8 Carlson, J. D., Goodale, G. M., Quinlan, G. C., Suarez, S. L., Meyer, J. M., McHugh, R., Petty, K. A. & Weinstein, B. H. (2016). National Security Law. The Year in Review. An Annual Publication of the ABA/Section of International Law, 51, 497–513. Online: https://shorturl.at/ostJU Castle, S. (2013, December 25). TV Message by Snowden Says Privacy Still Matters. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/ghJL6 Cole, D. (2015, May 6). Here’s What’s Wrong with the USA Freedom Act. The Nation. Online: https://shorturl.at/qrL35 Dallal, R. (2018). Speak No Evil: National Security Letters, Gag Orders, and the First Amendment. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 33(4), 1115–1146. Online: https://doi.org/10.15779/Z388911R16 Doernberg, D. L. (1985). “We the People”: John Locke, Collective Constitutional Rights, and Standing to Challenge Government Action. California Law Review, 73(1), 52–118. Online: https://shorturl.at/qARSY Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) (s. a.). National Security Letters. Online: https://shorturl.at/dehG4 Gellman, B. & Soltani, A. (2013, October 30). NSA Infiltrates Links to Yahoo, Google Data Centers Worldwide, Snowden Documents Say. The Washington Post. Online: https://shorturl.at/aDFJL Guariglia, M. & Mackey, A. (2022, August 22). Victory: Government Finally Releases Secretive Court Rulings Sought by EFF. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Online: https://shorturl.at/mIOR8 Hasan, M. (2015, November 30). Why I Miss George W. Bush. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/glpT0 Ketcham, R. (Ed.) (1986). The Anti-Federalist Papers and the Constitutional Convention Debates. New American Library. Konig, D. (2008). Thomas Jefferson’s Armed Citizenry and the Republican Militia. Albany Government Law Review, 1, 250–291. Maass, P. (2013, August 13). How Laura Poitras Helped Snowden Spill His Secrets. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/aoxQ2 Mazzetti, M. & Schmidt, M. S. (2013, June 9). Ex-Worker at C.I.A. Says He Leaked Data on Surveillance. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/qwC28 Mendoza, M. (2013, November 21). Reagan Order Led to NSA’s Broader Spying. The Ithaca Journal. Montesquieu, Baron de, C. (2011). The Spirit of Laws. Cosimo Classics. Myers, S. L. & Kramer, A. E. (2013, August 1). Defiant Russia Grants Snowden Year’s Asylum. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/fuzW6 Paine, T. (1997). Common Sense. Dover Publications. Risen, J. & Wingfield, N. (2013, June 19). Web’s Reach Binds N.S.A. and Silicon Valley Leaders. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/nCDMR Rosenthal, A. (2013, October 24). Clapper and Carney Get Slippery on Surveillance. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/owJP4 Rubin, A. J. (2013, October 21). French Condemn Surveillance by N.S.A. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/dhAFG Savage, C. & Mazzetti, M. (2013, June 10). Cryptic Overtures and a Clandestine Meeting Gave Birth to a Blockbuster Story. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/dgkGT Savage, C. & Shane, S. (2013, June 17). N.S.A. Leaker Denies Giving Secrets to China. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/evB69 Shane, S. (2013a, June 20). Documents Detail Restrictions on N.S.A. Surveillance. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/yPZ23 Shane, S. (2013b, November 2). No Morsel Too Minuscule for All-Consuming N.S.A. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/jmyB1 Shane, S. & Sanger, D. E. (2013, June 30). Job Title Key to Inner Access Held by Leaker. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/cdk08 Shear, M. D. (2015, June 4). Limits Reshape Terror Laws, and Obama’s Legacy: News Analysis. International New York Times. Shoenberger, A. E. (2010). Connecticut Yankee in Europe’s Court: An Alternative Vision of Constitutional Defamation Law to New York Times v. Sullivan? Quinnipiac University Law Review, 28, 431–489. Online: https://shorturl.at/ejkqQ Smale, A. (2013, October 23). Anger Growing among Allies on U.S. Spying. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/AG249 Stanglin, D. (2013, July 31). Report: Snowden Says NSA Can Tap E-Mail, Facebook Chats. USA Today. Online: https://shorturl.at/cioDT Steinhauer, J. & Weisman, J. (2015, June 4). Surveillance in Place Since 2001 is Cut Back Sharply; New Legislation Curtails Sweeping Monitoring of American Phone Records. International New York Times. The Editorial Board of the New York Times (2014, January 1). Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower. The New York Times. Online: https://shorturl.at/fBFG2 Turner, S. (2018). The Secrets of the Secret Court: An Analysis of the Missing Party and Oversight of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Administrative Law Review, 70(4), 991–1019. Online: https://shorturl.at/fgtxT Warren, S. D. & Brandeis, L. D. (1890). The Right to Privacy. Harvard Law Review, 4(5), 193–220. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/1321160 Weaver, R. L. (2011). The James Otis Lecture: The Fourth Amendment, Privacy and Advancing Technology. Mississippi Law Journal, 80, 1131–1227. Weaver, R. L. (2019). From Gutenberg to the Internet. Free Speech, Advancing Technology, and the Implications for Democracy. (2nd edition) Carolina Academic Press. Weaver, R. L., Burkoff, J. M., Hancock, C. & Friedland, S. I. (2021). Principles of Criminal Procedure. (7th edition) West Academic. " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "21–35" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7116" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(780) "

This article provides an update en events since Edward Snowden, an employee of a National Security Agency (NSA) contractor, stole and released thousands of classified documents in 2013, revealing that the U.S. government was engaged in a massive secret cybersurveilance operation that was amassing information about people all over the world, including U.S. citizens. In the U.S., Snowden’s revelations sparked a spirited debate regarding privacy rights, and in particular whether the U.S. cybersurveillance operation was appropriate in a democratic system. This article describes the scope of the cybersuveillance program, and examines how the courts and Congress responded to the Snowden revelations, and (in particular) how U.S. society evolved in the following years.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(16) "Russel L. Weaver" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(38) "Privacy in an Age of Cybersurveillance" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#824 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(9044) ["email"]=> string(26) "russ.weaver@louisville.edu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7240) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "US" ["orcid"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(24) "University of Louisville" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(121) "

Professor of Law & Distinguished University Scholar, University of Louisville, Louis D. Brandeis School of Law

" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Weaver" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Weaver" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(10) "Russell L." ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "Russell" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(10) { [0]=> string(7) "privacy" [1]=> string(7) "secrecy" [2]=> string(4) "FISA" [3]=> string(9) "terrorism" [4]=> string(4) "FISC" [5]=> string(17) "cybersurveillance" [6]=> string(18) "search and seizure" [7]=> string(14) "Bill of Rights" [8]=> string(33) "reasonable expectation of privacy" [9]=> string(17) "Fourth Amendment " } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#874 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(34609) ["id"]=> int(5859) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7240) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#149 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(7258) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2024-06-27" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-06-27 14:44:58" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(9068) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(7134) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(7492) "Bassini, M. (2019). Fundamental Rights and Private Enforcement in the Digital Age. European Law Journal, 25(2), 182–197. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/eulj.12310 Becker, S. & Penfrat, J. (2023). Still Useful. In J. van Hoboken, J. P. Quintais, N. Appelman, R. Fahy, I. Buri & M. Straub (Eds.), Putting the DSA into Practice. Enforcement, Access to Justice and Global Implications (pp. 51–62). Verfassungsbooks. Online: https://doi.org/10.17176/20230208-093135-0 Binns, R. & Veale, M. (2021). Is That Your Final Decision? Multi-stage Profiling, Selective Effects, and Article 22 of the GDPR. International Data Privacy Law, 11(4), 319–332. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/idpl/ipab020 Büchi, M., Fosch-Villaronga, E., Lutz, C., Tamò-Larrieux, A., Velidi. S. & Viljoen, S. (2020). The Chilling Effect of Algorithmic Profiling: Mapping the Issues. Computer Law & Security Review, 36. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2019.105367 Buri, I. (2023). A Regulator Caught Between Conflicting Policy Objectives. In J. van Hoboken, J. P. Quintais, N. Appelman, R. Fahy, I. Buri & M. Straub (Eds.), Putting the DSA into Practice. Enforcement, Access to Justice and Global Implications (pp. 75–90). Verfassungsbooks. Online: https://doi.org/10.17176/20230208-093135-0 Bygrave, L. (2020). Commentary to Article 4(4). In C. Kuner, L. A. Bygrave & C. Docksey (Eds.), The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). A Commentary (pp. 125–131). Oxford University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198826491.003.0010 Dijck, J. van, Poell, T. & Waal, M. de (2018). The Platform Society. Public Values in a Connective World. Oxford University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190889760.001.0001 Egídio, M. M. (2022). Social Networks and the Exercise of Fundamental Rights: Public Administration and the Digitalization of Fundamental Rights. In C. B. de Morais, G. F. Mendes & T. Vesting (Ed.), The Rule of Law in Cyberspace (pp. 217–238). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-07377-9_12 Eifert, M., Metzger, A., Schweitzer, H. & Wagner, G. (2021). Taming the Giants: The DMA/DSA Package. Common Market Law Review, 58(4), 987–1028. Online: https://doi.org/10.54648/cola2021065 Farinho, D. S. (2022). Fundamental Rights and Conflict Resolution in the Digital Services Act Proposal: A First Approach. e-Pública, 9(1), 75–103. Online: https://shorturl.at/ijAQR Farinho, D. S. & Campos, R. R. (2022). Models of Legal Liability for Social Networks: Between Germany and Portugal. In C. B. de Morais, G. F. Mendes & T. Vesting (Eds.), The Rule of Law in Cyberspace (pp. 331–348). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-07377-9_17 Goldman, E. (2020). An Overview of the United States’ Section 230 Internet Immunity. In G. Frosio (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Online Intermediary Liability (pp. 155–171). Oxford University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198837138.013.8 Gregorio, G. De (2020). Democratising Online Content Moderation: A Constitutional Framework. Computer Law & Security Review, 36. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2019.105374 Hartmann, I. A. (2020). A New Framework for Online Content Moderation. Computer Law & Security Review, 36(April), 105376. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2019.105376 Hildebrandt, M. & Gutwirth, S. (Eds.) (2008). Profiling the European Citizen. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6914-7 Jaursch, J. (2023). Platform Oversight. In J. van Hoboken, J. P. Quintais, N. Appelman, R. Fahy, I. Buri & M. Straub (Eds.), Putting the DSA into Practice. Enforcement, Access to Justice and Global Implications (pp. 91–106). Verfassungsbooks. Online: https://doi.org/10.17176/20230208-093135-0 Jørgensen, R. F. (2019). Rights Talk. In R. F. Jørgensen (Ed.), Human Rights in the Age of Platforms (pp. 163–188). MIT Press. Klonick K. (2018). The New Governors: The People, Rules, and Processes Governing Online Speech. Harvard Law Review, 131(6), 1598–1670. Online: https://shorturl.at/bnEO3 Kosseff, J. (2016). The Gradual Erosion of the Law that Shaped the Internet: Section 230’s Evolution Over Two Decades. The Columbia Science & Technology Law Review, 18(1), 1–41. Online: https://doi.org/10.7916/stlr.v18i1.4011 Kurtz, C., Wittner, F., Semmann, M. & Schulz, W. (2019). The Unlikely Siblings in the GDPR Family: A Techno-Legal Analysis of Major Platforms in the Diffusion of Personal Data in Service Ecosystems. Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 52, pp. 5059–5068. Kurtz, C., Wittner, F., Semmann, M., Schulz, W. & Böhmann, T. (2022). Accountability of Platform Providers for Unlawful Personal Data Processing in Their Eco-Systems – A Socio-Techno-Legal Analysis of Facebook and Apple’s iOS According to the GDPR. Journal of Responsible Technology, 9. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrt.2021.100018 Land, M. K. (2019). Regulating Private Harms Online: Content Regulation under Human Rights Law. In R. F. Jørgensen (Ed.), Human Rights in the Age of Platforms (pp. 285–316). MIT Press. Pollicino, O. & Gregorio, G. De (2022). Constitutional Law in the Algorithmic Society. In H.-W. Micklitz, O. Pollicino, A. Simoncini, G. Sartor & G. De Gregorio (Eds.), Constitutional Challenges in the Algorithmic Society (pp. 3–24). Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108914857.002 Quintais, J. P., Appelman, N. & Ó Fathaigh, R. (2023). Using Terms and Conditions to Apply Fundamental Rights to Content Moderation. German Law Journal, 24(5), 881–911. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/glj.2023.53 Scholz, P. (2019). Kommentar zum artikel 4 Nr. 4. In S. Simitis, G. Hornung & I. g. D. Spiecker (Eds.), Datenschutzrecht. DSGVO mit BDSG (pp. 306–311). Nomos. Taddeo, M. & Floridi, L. (2017a). New Civic Responsibilities for Online Service Providers. In M. Taddeo & L. Floridi (Eds.), The Responsibilities of Online Service Providers (pp. 1–10). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47852-4_1 Taddeo, M. & Floridi, L. (2017b). The Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers. In M. Taddeo & L. Floridi (Eds.), The Responsibilities of Online Service Providers (pp. 13–42). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47852-4_2 Turillazzi, A., Taddeo, M., Floridi, L. & Casolari, F. (2023). The Digital Services Act: An Analysis of Its Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications. Law, Innovation and Technology, 15(1), 83–106. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/17579961.2023.2184136 United Nations Human Rights Council (2018). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression. Valcke, P., Clifford, D. & Dessers, V. K. (2022). Constitutional Challenges in the Emotional AI Era. In H.-W. Micklitz, O. Pollicino, A. Simoncini, G. Sartor & G. De Gregorio (Eds.), Constitutional Challenges in the Algorithmic Society (pp. 57–77). Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108914857.005 Wischmeyer, T. (2020). What is illegal offline is also illegal online: the German Network Enforcement Act 2017. In B. Petkova & T. Ojanen (Eds.), Fundamental Rights Protection Online (pp. 28–56). Edward Elgar Publishing. Online: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788976688.00012 York, J. C. & Zuckerman, E. (2019). Moderating the Public Sphere. In R. F. Jørgensen (Ed.), Human Rights in the Age of Platforms (pp. 137–162). MIT Press. " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "37–58" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7134" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1048) "

The new EU Digital Services Act (DSA) aims to regulate intermediary service providers and special attention is given to online platforms and search engines. The bulk activity of these two online players is personal data processing, under the guise of content moderation or recommendations to users. This means that both the EU GDPR and DSA interconnect when protection of personal data is concerned and it is the task of lawyers to determine how is the interplay between these two keys pieces of legislation in the EU digital domain. The paper sets out to try to understand how both EU Regulations connect and what is the end result. Beyond the introduction, section 2 describes how the GDPR applies to online platforms, focusing on grounds for lawful personal data processing. In section 3 the main interplay is presented and analysed and the normative relation between the GDPR and the DSA is assessed with special attention being given to specific data protection duties and prohibitions arising from the DSA and its regulatory framework.

" } ["additionalMetadatafield"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(306) "

The author wishes to express his thanks to the two anonymous reviewers and to the participants of the Lisbon Digital Rights Research Group’s (Lisbon Public Law, University of Lisbon) Workshop on Ongoing Work (May 2023) for all their comments on and suggestions for a previous version of the paper.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(23) "Farinho Domingos Soares" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(116) "Personal Data Processing of Online Platforms’ and Search Engines’ Users: The case of the EU Digital Services Act" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#878 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(9068) ["email"]=> string(29) "domingosfarinho@fd.ulisboa.pt" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7258) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "PT" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1187-5975" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(20) "University of Lisbon" ["hu_HU"]=> string(20) "University of Lisbon" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Farinho" ["hu_HU"]=> string(14) "Soares Farinho" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(15) "Domingos Soares" ["hu_HU"]=> string(8) "Domingos" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(6) { [0]=> string(20) "Digital Services Act" [1]=> string(4) "GDPR" [2]=> string(15) "data protection" [3]=> string(13) "personal data" [4]=> string(18) "content moderation" [5]=> string(9) "profiling" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#848 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(34610) ["id"]=> int(5939) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7258) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#156 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(7184) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2024-06-27" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-06-27 14:44:59" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8958) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["submissionId"]=> int(7060) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3908) "Bacsó, R. (2016). Virtuális valuta mint a modern kori pénzpiaci szabályozás kihívása [Virtual Currency as a Challenge of the Modern Financial Market Regulation]. Polgári Szemle, 12(1–3), 244–251. Online: https://shorturl.at/nuCF3 Cifrino, C. (2014). Virtual Property, Virtual Rights: Why Contract Law, Not Property Law, Must be the Governing Paradigm in the Law of Virtual Worlds. Boston College Law Review, 55(1), 235–264. Online: https://shorturl.at/amqY1 De Filippi, P. & Wright, A. (2019). Blockchain and the Law. The Rule of Code. Harvard University Press. European Central Bank (2015). Virtual Currency Schemes – A Further Analysis. Online: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/other/virtualcurrencyschemesen.pdf Frye, B. L. (April 19, 2021). NFTs & the Death of Art. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3829399 Garbers-von Boehm, K., Haag, H. & Gruber, K. (2022). Intellectual Property Rights and Distributed Ledger Technology with a focus on art NFTs and tokenized physical artwork. Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs Directorate-General for Internal Policies. Online: https://shorturl.at/hjySU Juhász, Á. (2021). Intelligent Contracts – A New Generation of Contractual Agreements? European Integration Studies, 16(1), 41–53. Online: https://ojs.uni-miskolc.hu/index.php/eis/article/view/963 Juhász, Á. (2023). Hagyományos magánjogi megoldások – 21. századi kihívások [Conventional Private Law Solutions – 21st Century Challenges]. In Karlovitz, János Tibor (Ed.), What Will Our Future Be Like? (pp. 222–234). Sozial und Wirtschafts Forschungsgruppe. Kőhidi, Á. (2022). A virtuális valóság pszeudoreáliáinak polgári jogi vizsgálata [Civil Law Analysis of Virtual Reality Pseudorealia]. In Medias Res, 11(2), 55–66. Online: https://inmediasresfolyoirat.hu/imr/article/view/251 Kulakova, O. S. (2022). Digital Art in the Light of NFT: Market Role and Legal Uncertainty. Digital Law Review, 3(2), 36–50. Online: https://doi.org/10.38044/2686-9136-2022-3-2-36-50 Radin, J. M. (1982). Property and Personhood. Stanford Law Review, 34(5), 957–1015. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/1228541 Rohr, J. & Wright, A. (2019). Blockchain-Based Token Sales, Initial Coin Offerings, and the Democratization of Public Capital Market. Hastings Law Journal, 70(2), 463–524. Online: https://shorturl.at/bcv12 Szilágyi, F. (2022a). Kié a digitális adat? Az allokatív adatjog létjogosultsága a magánjogi (dologi jogi) megközelítés margóján. I. rész [Who Owns the Digital Data? The Justification of Allocative Data Law in the Context of the Private Law (in Rem) Approach. Part I]. Polgári Jog, 7(9–10). Online: https://doi.org/10.55413/193.A2200501.POJ Szilágyi, F. (2022b). Kié a digitális adat? Az allokatív adatjog létjogosultsága a magánjogi (dologi jogi) megközelítés margóján. II. rész [Who Owns the Digital Data? The Justification of Allocative Data Law in the Context of the Private Law (in Rem) Approach. Part II]. Polgári Jog, 7(11–12). Online: https://doi.org/10.55413/193.A2200602.POJ Sztermen, O. L. (2022). A digitális műalkotások megjelenési kérdései I. terminológiai problémák [Appearance and Legal Terminology of Digital Artworks: Part One: Thoughts on Terminology]. Miskolci Jogtudó, 6(3), 70–83. Online: https://shorturl.at/beoyP Wang, G., Gunasekaran, A., Ngai, E. W. T & Papadopoulos, T. (2016). Big Data Analytics in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Certain Investigations for Research and Applications. International Journal of Production Economics, 176(June), 98–110. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2016.03.014 Woebbeking, M. K. (2019). The Impact of Smart Contracts on Traditional Concepts of Contracts Law. JIPITEC – Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and E-Commerce Law, 10(1), 106–113. Online: https://shorturl.at/btGJM" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "59–73" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7060" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1215) "

By writing this paper, the authors intended to answer questions raised by the transfer of digital artworks in the online space. At the beginning of the study, the basic expressions, including NFT digital artwork, will be explained. Then, it will be examined how these new forms of artwork can be treated by civil law. Although NFTs change hands daily, their legal nature, i.e. if they shall be deemed as things in the civil law sense, is unclear. If NFTs are treated as things, they can be a subject of ownership, and the provisions on the transfer of ownership rights shall be applied, which raises several further questions. According to another approach, NFTs embody the right to dispose, while there are other opinions as to which NFTs, following the model of bank account money, shall be deemed as claims facilitating the application of the provisions of the law of obligations. After reviewing the different approaches to the legal nature of NFTs, features of online auctions of NFT artworks will be introduced. Then, it will be examined if the platforms enabling online auctions fall under the scope of the recently adopted Digital Market Act and if so, which rules of the Act are applicable for them.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(37) "Juhász Ágnes, Sztermen Lili Orsolya" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(56) "Transferring Digital Artworks on Online Market Platforms" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(2) { [0]=> object(Author)#875 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8966) ["email"]=> string(27) "agnes.juhasz@uni-miskolc.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7184) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6029-6988" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(21) "University of Miskolc" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(108) "

Associate Professor, Department of Civil Law, Faculty of Law, University of Miskolc, Miskolc, Hungary

" } ["familyName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Juhász" } ["givenName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Ágnes" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } [1]=> object(Author)#876 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8958) ["email"]=> string(31) "orsolya.sztermen@uni-miskolc.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7184) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0009-0000-0273-5842" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(21) "University of Miskolc" ["hu_HU"]=> string(28) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:3:"Dr.";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(96) "

PhD Student, Ferenc Deák Doctoral School of Law, University of Miskolc, Miskolc, Hungary

" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(8) "Sztermen" ["hu_HU"]=> string(8) "Sztermen" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(12) "Lili Orsolya" ["hu_HU"]=> string(12) "Lili Orsolya" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(7) { [0]=> string(3) "NFT" [1]=> string(18) "non-fungible token" [2]=> string(15) "digital artwork" [3]=> string(14) "online auction" [4]=> string(22) "online market platform" [5]=> string(10) "gatekeeper" [6]=> string(3) "DMA" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#852 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(34611) ["id"]=> int(5796) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7184) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#76 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(7192) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2024-06-27" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-06-27 14:44:59" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8968) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(5) ["submissionId"]=> int(7068) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(11129) "Abdulkareem, A. K. (2015). Challenges of E-Government Implementation in the Nigerian Public Service. Journal of Creative Writing, 1(4), 45–56. Abdulkareem, A. K., Abdulkareem, Z. J., Ishola, A. A. & Akindele, I. T. (2022a). Does E-Government Impact E-Participation? The Influence of Trust in E-Government. International Review of Public Administration, 27(2), 91–110. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/12294659.2022.2071540 Abdulkareem, A. K., Abdulkareem, Z. J., Ishola, A. A., Bello, M. L. & Oladimeji, K. A. (2022b). The Influence of Openness of Public Organizations and Social Media Use on E-Participation: The Mediating Effect of Trust in E-Government. International Review of Public Administration, 27(4), 281–296. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/12294659.2022.2136054 Abdulkareem, A. K. & Ishola, A. A. (2016). E-government in Nigeria: Progress and Prospects. Ilorin Journal of Administration and Development, 2(1), 59–67. Abdulkareem, A. K., Ishola, A. A. & Abdulkareem, Z. J. (2021). E-Government and Bureaucratic Corruption in Nigeria: Successes and Challenges. Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan, 12(1), 1–20. Online: https://doi.org/10.18196/jgp.121125 Abdulkareem, A. K. & Ramli, R. M. (2021). Does Digital Literacy Predict E-Government Performance an Extension of Delone and Mclean Information System Success Model. Electronic Government, an International Journal, 17(4), 466–493. Online: https://doi.org/10.1504/EG.2021.118103 Alexopoulos, C., Charalabidis, Y., Androutsopoulou, A., Loutsaris, M. A. & Lachana, Z. (2019, January 8–11). Benefits and Obstacles of Blockchain Applications in e-Government. Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-52), Wailea, Hawaii, US. Androutsopoulou, A., Karacapilidis, N., Loukis, E. & Charalabidis, Y. (2019). Transforming the Communication between Citizens and Government through AI-Guided Chatbots. Government Information Quarterly, 36(2), 358–367. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2018.10.001 Androutsopoulou, A. S., Karacapilidis, N. I., Loukis, E. & Charalabidis, Y. K. (2021). Combining Technocrats’ Expertise with Public Opinion through an Innovative E-Participation Platform. LEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, 9(1), 174–187. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/TETC.2018.2824022 Balaji, M. & Yuvaraj, N. (2019). Intelligent Chatbot Model to Enhance the Emotion Detection in Social Media Using Bi-Directional Recurrent Neural Network. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1362. Online: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1362/1/012039 Baldauf, M. & Zimmermann, H.-D. (2020, July 19–24). Towards Conversational E-Government: An Experts’ Perspective on Requirements and Opportunities of Voice-Based Citizen Services. HCI in Business, Government and Organizations: 7th International Conference, HCIBGO 2020, Held as Part of the 22nd HCI International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark. Cantador, I., Viejo-Tardío, J., Cortés-Cediel, M. E. & Rodríguez Bolívar, M. P. (2021). A Chatbot for Searching and Exploring Open Data: Implementation and Evaluation in E-Government. DG. O2021: The 22nd Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 168–179). Online: https://doi.org/10.1145/3463677.3463681 Chatterjee, S. (2020). AI Strategy of India: Policy Framework, Adoption Challenges and Actions for Government. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 14(5), 757–775. Online: https://doi.org/10.1108/TG-05-2019-0031 Chohan, S. R. & Akhter, Z. H. (2021). Electronic Government Services Value Creation from Artificial Intelligence: AI-Based E-Government Services for Pakistan. Electronic Government, 17(3), 374–390. Online: https://doi.org/10.1504/EG.2021.116003 Chui, M., Hazan, E., Roberts, R., Singla, A. & Smaje, K. (2023, June 14). The Economic Potential of Generative AI. McKinsey Digital. Online: https://shorturl.at/lAIMT De Bruijn, H., Warnier, M. & Janssen, M. (2022). The Perils and Pitfalls of Explainable AI: Strategies for Explaining Algorithmic Decision-Making. Government Information Quarterly, 39(2). Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2021.101666 Dev, S., Goyal, J., Tewari, D., Dave, S. & Prabhakaran, V. (2023). Building Socio-culturally Inclusive Stereotype Resources with Community Engagement. Online: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2307.10514 Duberry, J. (2022). Artificial Intelligence and Democracy. Risks and Promises of AI-Mediated Citizen–Government Relations. Edward Elgar Publishing. Dwivedi, Y. K., Kshetri, N., Hughes, L., Slade, E. L., Jeyaraj, A., Kar, A. K., Baabdullah, A. M., Koohang, A., Raghavan, V., Ahuja, M., Albanna, H., Albashrawi, M. A., Al-Busaidi, A. S., Balakrishnan, J., Barlette, Y., Basu, S., Bose, I., Brooks, L., Buhalis, D., Carter, L. et al. (2023). Opinion Paper: “So What If ChatGPT Wrote It?” Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Opportunities, Challenges and Implications of Generative Conversational AI for Research, Practice and Policy. International Journal of Information Management, 71. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2023.102642 Guenduez, A. A. & Mettler, T. (2023). Strategically Constructed Narratives on Artificial Intelligence: What Stories Are Told in Governmental Artificial Intelligence Policies? Government Information Quarterly, 40(1). Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2022.101719 Guo, M., Zhang, X., Zhuang, Y., Chen, J., Wang, P. & Gao, Z. (2023). Exploring the Intersection of Complex Aesthetics and Generative AI for Promoting Cultural Creativity in Rural China after the Post-Pandemic Era. Online: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2309.02136 Joo, Y.-M. (2023). Developmentalist Smart Cities? The Cases of Singapore and Seoul. International Journal of Urban Sciences, 27(sup1), 164–182. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/12265934.2021.1925143 Ju, J., Meng, Q., Sun, F., Liu, L. & Singh, S. (2023). Citizen Preferences and Government Chatbot Social Characteristics: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment. Government Information Quarterly, 40(3). Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2022.101785 Leewis, S. & Smit, K. (2023, January 3–6). What Other Factors Might Impact Building Trust in Government Decisions Based on Decision Support Systems, Except for Transparency and Explainability? 56th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-56 2023), Maui, Hawaii. Loukis, E., Saxena, S., Rizun, N., Maratsi, M. I., Ali, M. & Alexopoulos, C. (2023). ChatGPT Application vis-a-vis Open Government Data (OGD): Capabilities, Public Values, Issues and a Research Agenda. In I. Lindgren et al. (Eds.), Electronic Government (pp. 95–110). Springer, Cham. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-41138-0_7 Mahapatra, R., Sharma, N., Trivedi, A. & Aman, C. (2012). Adding Interactive Interface to E-Government Systems Using AIML Based Chatterbots. 2012 CSI Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering (CONSEG). Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/CONSEG.2012.6349510 National eGovernment Strategies (2019). National eGovernment Strategies. Online: https://shorturl.at/uxAMS Ojeda, C. (2021). The Political Responses of Virtual Assistants. Social Science Computer Review, 39(5), 884–902. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439319886844 Omotoso, F. (2014). Public-service Ethics and Accountability for Effective Service Delivery in Nigeria. Africa Today, 60(3), 119–139. Online: https://doi.org/10.2979/africatoday.60.3.119 Oni, A. A. & Okunoye, A. O. (2019). Critical Success Factors in E-Democracy Implementation. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Advanced Methodologies and Technologies in Government and Society (pp. 186–194). Information Science Reference. Online: https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-7661-7.ch016 Oyedele, S. O. (2015). The Nigerian Public Service and Service Delivery under Civil Rule. Journal of Public Administration, Finance and Law, 7, 33–43. Seböck, W., Biron, B. & Lampoltshammer, T. J. (2023). Barriers to the Introduction of Artificial Intelligence to Support Communication Experts in Media and the Public Sector to Combat Fake News and Misinformation. In N. Edelmann, L. Danneels, A. S. Novak, P. Panagiotopoulos & I. Susha (Eds.), Electronic Participation (pp. 67–81). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-41617-0_5 Shang, G., Low, S. P. & Lim, X. Y. V. (2023). Prospects, Drivers of and Barriers to Artificial Intelligence Adoption in Project Management. Built Environment Project and Asset Management, 13(5), 629–645. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/BEPAM-12-2022-0195 Smith, S. & Jamieson, R. (2006). Determining Key Factors in E-Government Information System Security. Information Systems Management, 23(2), 23–32. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/1078.10580530/45925.23.2.20060301/92671.4 Strauss, S. (2023). Some Emerging Hypotheses about Using Generative AI in Public Sector Operations. Online: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4544943 Symeonidis, S., Samaras, S., Stentoumis, C., Plaum, A., Pacelli, M., Grivolla, J., Shekhawat, Y., Ferri, M., Diplaris, S. & Vrochidis, S. (2023). An Extended Reality System for Situation Awareness in Flood Management and Media Production Planning. Electronics, 12(12). Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12122569 Tisland, I., Sodefjed, M. L., Vassilakopoulou, P. & Pappas, I. O. (2022). The Role of Quality, Trust, and Empowerment in Explaining Satisfaction and Use of Chatbots in E-Government. In S. Papagiannidis, E. Alamanos, S. Gupta, Y. K. Dwivedi, M. Mäntymäki & I. O. Pappas (Eds.), The Role of Digital Technologies in Shaping the Post-Pandemic World (pp. 279–291). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-15342-6_22 Ukiwo, U. (2006). Creation of Local Government Areas and Ethnic Conflicts in Nigeria. The Case of Warri, Delta State. Unpublished manuscript. Valle-Cruz, D. & García-Contreras, R. (2023). Towards AI-driven Transformation and Smart Data Management: Emerging Technological Change in the Public Sector Value Chain. Public Policy and Administration. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/09520767231188401 Vrabie, C. (2023). E-Government 3.0: An AI Model to Use for Enhanced Local Democracies. Sustainability, 15(12). Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129572 Wirtz, B. W., Langer, P. F. & Fenner, C. (2021). Artificial Intelligence in the Public Sector – A Research Agenda. International Journal of Public Administration, 44(13), 1103–1128. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2021.1947319 Wirtz, B. W., Weyerer, J. C. & Kehl, I. (2022). Governance of Artificial Intelligence: A Risk and Guideline-based Integrative Framework. Government Information Quarterly, 39(4). Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2022.101685 Yang, L. & Wang, J. (2023). Factors Influencing Initial Public Acceptance of Integrating the ChatGPT-Type Model with Government Services. Kybernetes. Online: https://doi.org/10.1108/K-06-2023-1011 Yusuf, Y. A., Yusoff, K. Z. H. & Zengeni, K. T. (2018). The Implications of the Legislative Corrupt Practices on the Democratic Consolidation in the Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. Journal of Techno Social, 10(1), 15–22. Online: https://doi.org/10.30880/jts.2018.10.01.002" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "75–90" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7068" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1410) "

This paper examines the potential for using generative artificial intelligence (AI) to boost civic participation in Nigeria’s developing e-government ecosystem. Emerging generative technologies like ChatGPT demonstrate intriguing capabilities to make governance more interactive and engaging through conversational interfaces. Thoughtfully implemented AI tools could increase access and understanding of e-government, particularly for underserved groups. However, risks around bias, privacy, security and capability limitations pose challenges for public sector applications. Additionally, Nigeria’s substantial digital divides and defective trust in government institutions hamper e-government participation currently. This paper analyses opportunities and limitations for applying generative AI to advance civic engagement given Nigeria’s unique socio-cultural context. Findings suggest that while AI holds promise, targeted strategies focused on inclusion, accessibility, education and institutional legitimacy building are critical to realise benefits. Cautious optimism, human-centric design and responsible governance frameworks are needed to employ generative systems successfully. If challenges are addressed, AI could open innovative possibilities for energising civic participation. But further research and controlled pilot applications are required to determine optimal implementation.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(30) "Abdulkareem Abdulrazaq Kayode " } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(55) "Can Generative AI Serve as a Tool for Civic Engagement?" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(23) "E-Government in Nigeria" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#886 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8968) ["email"]=> string(30) "abdulkareem.ka@unilorin.edu.ng" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7192) ["seq"]=> int(5) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "NG" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0180-8709" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(21) "University of Ilorin " ["hu_HU"]=> string(104) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:78:"Department of Public Administration, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. ";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(104) "

Lecturer at the Department of Public Administration, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria

" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(11) "Abdulkareem" ["hu_HU"]=> string(11) "Abdulkareem" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(18) "Abdulrazaq Kayode " ["hu_HU"]=> string(10) "Abdulrazaq" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(13) "Generative AI" [1]=> string(7) "ChatGPT" [2]=> string(19) "Civil Participation" [3]=> string(16) "Digital Literacy" [4]=> string(12) "E-government" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#888 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(34612) ["id"]=> int(5840) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7192) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#80 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(7410) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2024-06-27" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-06-27 14:44:58" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(9272) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(6) ["submissionId"]=> int(7286) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(6356) "Auers, D. (2013). Latvia. In S. Berglund, J. Ekman, K. Deegan-Krause & T. Knutsen (Eds.), The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe (pp. 85–123). Edward Elgar. Council of Europe (s. a.). Latvia, Country-specific Monitoring of the Implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Online: https://www.coe.int/en/web/minorities/latvia Di Federico, G. & Martinico, G. (2023). Official Languages, National Identities and the Protection of Minorities: A Complex Legal Puzzle. Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) 7 September 2022, Case C-391/20, Boriss Cilevičs et al., ECLI:EU:C:2022:638. European Constitutional Law Review, 19(2), 346–370. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/S157401962300010X Dimitrovs, A. (2019, May 2). A Dangerous Precedent for Minority Rights: the Latvian Constitutional Court’s Ruling on Minority Schools. VerfassungsBlog. Online: https://doi.org/10.17176/20190517-144117-0 Dimitrovs, A. (2020, June 23). Riga and Venice on a Collision Course: On the Controversial New Constitutional Court Decisions on Minority Languages in Latvia. VerfassungsBlog. Online: https://doi.org/10.17176/20200624-003808-0 Fourth Opinion (2024, February 22). Fourth Opinion on Latvia: Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. ACFC/OP/IV(2023)1. Online: https://rm.coe.int/4th-op-latvia-en/1680ae98f6 Ganty, S. & Kochenov, D. V. (2022, July 22). Citizenship Imposition Is the New Non-Discrimination Standard: ECtHR Blames the Victims in Savickis. VerfassungsBlog. Online: https://doi.org/10.17176/20220722-113542-0 Ganty, S. & Kochenov, D. V. (2023, November 23). Hijacking Human Rights to Enable Punishment by Association: Valiullina, Džibuti and Outlawing Minority Schooling in Latvia. Strasbourg Observers. Online: https://shorturl.at/hEP12 Government comments (2011, March 30). Comments of the Government of Latvia on the First Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Latvia. Online: https://rm.coe.int/1st-com-latvia-en/090000168008c94c Government comments (2014, January 3). Comments of the Government of Latvia on the Second Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Latvia. Online: https://rm.coe.int/2nd-com-latvia-en/090000168008f51e Government comments (2018, September 21). Comments of the Government of Latvia on the Third Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Latvia. Online: https://rm.coe.int/3rd-com-latvia-en/16808d91a6 Government comments (2024, February 19). Comments of the Government of Latvia on the Fourth Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Latvia. Online: https://rm.coe.int/4th-com-latvia-en/1680ae98f5 Kascian, K. (2019, October 3). Judicial Path to Nowhere? Challenging the Minority Education Reform before Latvia’s Constitutional Court. VerfassungsBlog. Online: https://doi.org/10.17176/20191003-232709-0 Kascian, K. (2023). Evolution of Lithuania’s Approach towards Writing of Personal Names in the Official Documents: On the Verge of Liberalisation? Public Governance, Administration and Finances Law Review, 8(2), 73–86. Online: https://doi.org/10.53116/pgaflr.6746 Kolstø, P. & Tsilevich, B. (1997). Patterns of Nation Building and Political Integration in a Bifurcated Postcommunist State: Ethnic Aspects of Parliamentary Elections in Latvia. East European Politics and Societies, 11(2), 366–391. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325497011002008 Krivcova, E. (2023, July 28). Language litigation in the field of higher education in the Constitutional Court of Latvia and the EU Court of Justice. ICELDS. Online: https://shorturl.at/bsA17 Muižnieks, N. (2011). Latvian–Russian Memory Battles at the European Court of Human Rights. In N. Muižnieks (Ed.), The Geopolitics of History in Latvian–Russian Relations (pp. 219–238). Academic Press of the University of Latvia. Morris, H. M. (2005). The Non-Citizens of the EU. In D. J. Smith (Ed.), The Baltic States and Their Region. New Europe or Old? Vol. 3. On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral Imagination in the Baltics (pp. 251–273). Rodopi. National Statistical System of Latvia (s. a.). Population by ethnicity at the beginning of year 1935–2023. Online: https://shorturl.at/nDEI5 Nugraha, I. Y. (2023). Protection of Constitutional Identity as a Legitimate Aim for Differential Treatment: ECtHR 9 June 2022, No. 49270/11, Savickis and Others v. Latvia. European Constitutional Law Review, 19(1), 141–162. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1574019622000463 Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs (2024, January 24). Latvijas iedzīvotāju sadalījums pēc nacionālā sastāva un valstiskās piederības (Datums = 01.01.2024) [Distribution of Latvia’s population according to ethnic composition and nationality (Date = 01.01.2024)]. Online: https://www.pmlp.gov.lv/lv/media/11043/download Phillips, A. (2002, September 1). FCNM: From Analysis to Action – Protecting minorities in Europe. Minority Rights Group. Online: https://shorturl.at/wCGQ3 Purs, A. (2012). Baltic Facades. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Since 1945. Reaktion Books. Salnītis, V. & Skujenieks, M. (1937). Ceturtā tautas skaitīšana Latvijā 1935. gadā. IV: Tautība [Fourth Population Census in Latvia in 1935. IV: Nationality]. State Statistical Office. Online: https://shorturl.at/ahjHK Smooha, S. (2002). The Model of Ethnic Democracy: Israel as a Jewish and Democratic State. Nations and Nationalism, 8(4), 475–503. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-8219.00062 TVP Wilno (2022, January 18). V. Čmilytė-Nielsen o oryginalnej pisowni nazwisk: jest to kwestia godności ludzkiej [V. Čmilytė-Nielsen on the Original Writing of Names: It Is a Question of Human Dignity]. Online: https://tinyurl.com/4a4pxfhy Ziemele, I. (2020). A Non-Recognition Policy with Regards to the Occupation of Latvia. In A. Sprūds, V. Ščerbinskis & K. Bukovskis (Eds.), The Centenary of Latvia’s Foreign Affairs. Global Thought and Latvia (pp. 100–116). Latvian Institute of International Affairs." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(8) "91–104" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7286" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1018) "

On 22 February 2024, the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities published a critical opinion on Latvia within the framework of the fourth monitoring cycle. This text is centred on government comments as an important element of the standardised FCNM monitoring mechanisms provided by the Latvian Government during the four monitoring circles. This study identifies and assesses the key arguments and techniques employed by Latvia in this sectoral dialogue framework. It shows that the Latvian authorities view diversity as a threat to social cohesion, and their endeavours, inter alia, in the minority education domain, combine references to Latvia’s traumatic historical experience, constitutional identity, and the margin of state discretion that camouflage the absence of political will to advance minority rights. Among other negative factors, this signals a dangerous path that could likely be followed by other states that are parties to this Convention.

" } ["additionalMetadatafield"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(173) "

The author dedicates this article to the memory of Aleksandr Kuzmin aka Aleksandrs Kuzmins (1984–2021), lawyer, politician and minority rights activist from Latvia.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(13) "Kascian Kiryl" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(128) "Latvia’s Ambiguous Attitude towards the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities: Is Diversity a Threat?" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#849 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(9272) ["email"]=> string(23) "kiryl.kascian@gmail.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7410) ["seq"]=> int(6) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "CZ" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1777-5895" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(64) "International Centre for Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity Studies" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(109) "

Board Member, International Centre for Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity Studies, Prague, Czech Republic

" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Kascian" ["hu_HU"]=> string(8) "Kaścian" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(5) "Kiryl" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Kirył" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(6) { [0]=> string(6) "Latvia" [1]=> string(19) "national minorities" [2]=> string(30) "European Court of Human Rights" [3]=> string(62) "Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities" [4]=> string(8) "equality" [5]=> string(23) "constitutional identity" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#884 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(34613) ["id"]=> int(5864) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7410) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#882 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(7418) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2024-06-27" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-06-27 14:44:58" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(9280) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(7) ["submissionId"]=> int(7294) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(9890) "Baba, S. (1993). The Super Aged Society. World Health, 46(3), 9–11. Barclay, G. W. (1954). A Report on Taiwan’s Population to the Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction. Princeton: Office of Population Research, Princeton University. Bloom, D. E. & Williamson J. G. (1998). Demographic transitions and economic miracles in emerging Asia. The World Bank Economic Review, 12(3), 419–455. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/wber/12.3.419 Bloom, D. E., Canning, D. & Sevilla, J. (2003). The Demographic Dividend: A New Perspective on the Economic Consequences of Population Change. RAND Publications. Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (2004). Measures for an Aging Society with a Decreasing Fertility Rate (これまでの少子化社会対策の経纬). Online: https://tinyurl.com/ydmjrydn Chang, K. S. & Song, M. Y. (2010). The stranded individualizer under compressed modernity: South Korean women in individualization without individualism. British Journal of Sociology, 61(3), 539–564. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2010.01325.x Chang, M. C. & Lee, M. H. (2001). Fertility Trends in Below-Replacement Levels. Journal of Population Studies, 23, 93–112. Chen, C. N. & Liu, K. C. (2007). Is Taiwan’s Lowest-low Fertility Reversible via Socio-economic Development? Journal of Population Studies, 34, 1–36. Online: https://www.psc.ntu.edu.tw/jps/pub/34/assets/1.pdf Chen, J. P. (2016). Demographic Dividend, Aging Society and Inclusive Growth. Beijing: Economic Science Press. Chen, Y. H. (2008). Demographic Dividend and China’s Economic Growth. Journal of Jiangsu Administration Institute, 4, 58–63. Chen, Y. & Ye, W. Z. (2013). Dynamic Relationship between Aging and Evolution of Industrial Structure in Taiwan. Population Journal, 35, 63–72. Chen, Y. M. (2016). A Triple Win Strategy for Long-Term Care: Family Caregiver Support Services. Community Development Journal, 153, 199–213. Online: https://cdj.sfaa.gov.tw/Journal/FileLoad?no=179916 Chiang, M. H. (2023). Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company: A Key Chip in the Global Political Economy. East Asian Policy, 15(1), 36–46. Online: https://doi.org/10.1142/S179393052300003X Deaton, A. & Paxon, C. (1999). Growth, Demographic Structure, and National Saving in Taiwan. Working Paper No. 224. Research Program in Development Studies, Princeton University. Online: https://shorturl.at/8Yr3W Department of Population Affairs, Ministry of Interior (Taiwan) (2013). Population Policy White Paper. Fewer Children, Population Aging and Immigration. Online: https://www.ris.gov.tw/documents/data/en/4/Population-Policy-White-Paper.pdf Freedman, R. (1986). Policy Options after the Demographic Transition: The Case of Taiwan. Population and Development Review, 12(1), 77–100. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/1973352 Gender Equality Committee, Executive Yuan (Taiwan) (2020). Annual date of average age of first marriage and first childbirth for women. Online: https://shorturl.at/scmfc Hale, E. (2021, November 2). Taiwan’s tech boom masks a daily struggle for the masses. Nikkei Asia. Online: https://shorturl.at/iMipM Huang, D. X., Liu, B. J. & Young, Z. H. (2014). The Stagnation of Real Wages in Taiwan: Global Trends and Taiwanese Characteristics. IEAS Working Paper. Academia Sinica: Taiwan. Online: https://www.econ.sinica.edu.tw/~econ/pdfPaper/14-A012.pdf Huang, W. H., Lin, Y. J. & Lee, H. F. (2019). Impact of Population and Workforce Aging on Economic Growth: Case Study of Taiwan. Sustainability, 11(22), 6301. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226301 International Labour Organization (2013). Wages and equitable growth. Global Wage Report 2012/13. Geneva: International Labour Office. Jafrin, N. & Masud, M. M. (2020). The Demographic Dividend and Economic Growth: An Integrated Theoretical Framework. Demografie, 62(4), 240–252. Online: https://shorturl.at/mfybL Jin, X. T. & Dai, M. H. (2012). Analysis on the Impact of Population Aging on Economic Society in Taiwan Area. Population Journal, 5, 72–80. Jones, G. W. (2005). The “Flight from Marriage” in South-East and East Asia. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(1), 93–119. Online: https://doi.org/10.3138/jcfs.36.1.93 Jones, G. W. (2007). Delayed Marriage and Very Low Fertility in Pacific Asia. Population and Development Review, 33(3), 453–478. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00180.x Jones, G. W. & Hamid, W. (2015). Singapore’s pro-natalist policies: To what extent have they worked? In R. R. Rindfuss & M. K. Choe (Eds.), Low and lower fertility: Variations across developed countries (pp. 33–61). Springer. Jones, G. W. (2019). Ultra-low fertility in East Asia: policy responses and challenges. Asian Population Studies, 15(2), 131–149. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/17441730.2019.1594656 Li, S. M., Chen, K. J. & Tu, J. C. (1990). Population Growth and Economic Development: A Critical Review. Journal of Population Studies, 13, 107–124. Online: https://www.psc.ntu.edu.tw/jps/pub/13/assets/6.pdf Lin, C. H., Wang, K. C. & Hsu, C. P. (2010). Population Aging, Forecast of Labor Supply, and Effect on Asset Demand: The Empirical Analyses of Taiwan. Chang Gung Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3, 171–219. Online: http://cgjhsc.cgu.edu.tw/data_files/3-1%2007.pdf Lin, H. C., Lee, H. L., Hsu, S. M., Lin, K. J., Lee, D. H., Chang, C. C. & Hsu, S. H. (2015). Baseline Forecasting for Taiwan's Population in the Face of Low Fertility Rate and Ageing Problems. Taiwan Economic Forecast and Policy, 46, 113–156. Online: https://ir.sinica.edu.tw/handle/201000000A/58007 Lin, Tung-Fa. (2018). Population Migration of Taiwan in the Early Post-War Period to the 1950s. Newsletter of Taiwan Studies, 103, 4–7. Online: https://wwwacc.ntl.edu.tw/public/Attachment/811615572091.pdf Mason, A., Lee, R. & Jiang, J. X. (2016). Demographic Dividends, Human Capital, and Saving. The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, 7, 106–122. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeoa.2016.02.004 Ministry of Health and Welfare (Taiwan) (2017). Report of the Senior Citizen Condition Survey. Online: https://shorturl.at/2RQ0t Misra, R. (2015). Impact of Demographic Dividend on Economic Growth: A Study of BRICS and the EU. International Studies, 52(1–4), 99–117. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0020881717714685 Mueller, E. (1972). Economic Motives for Family Limitation: A Study Conducted in Taiwan. Population Studies, 26(3), 383–403. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/00324728.1972.10405909 Mueller, E. (1977). The Impact of Demographic Factors on Economic Development in Taiwan. Population and Development Review, 3(1–2), 1–22. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/1971757 Ogawa, N., Kondo, M. & Matsukura, R. (2005). Japan’s Transition from the Demographic Bonus to the Demographic Onus. Asian Population Studies, 1(2), 207–226. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/17441730500317451 Peng, S. L., Kuo, N. F., Chou, J. & Fang, W. H. (2009). The Impact and Evaluation for the Age Structure, Income Distribution and Industrial Structure on Taiwan’s Consumption and Output. Taiwan Economic Forecast and Policy, 39, 51–101. Sanchez-Romero, M. (2009). Demographic Transition and Rapid Economic Growth: The Case of Taiwan. Working Paper. Center on the Economics and Economics of Aging (CEDA), University of California: Berkeley. Online: https://paa2009.populationassociation.org/papers/90928 Schirrmacher, F. (2008). Minimum. Vom Vergehen und Neuentstehen unserer Gemeinschaft. Karl Blessing Verlag. Suzuki, Y. (2023). Impact of Japan’s Aging Population in 2030: Focusing on the Effect on the Social Security System and Local Economies. Mitsui & Co. Global Strategic Studies Institute Monthly Report, 1–8. Online: https://tinyurl.com/2bhnc6ee Tsai, H. J. (2004). The Analysis of Regional Political Economy on Taiwanese Immigration. Review of Global Politics, 7, 111–130. Online: https://doi.org/10.29899/JRM.200407.0006 Tsai, H. J. (2007). Historical Formation of Population Policy in Taiwan. Taiwanese Journal of Sociology, 39, 65–106. Online: https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200712_(39).0002 Tsai, I. J., Chu, C. Y. & Chung, C. F. (2000). Demographic Transition and Household Savings in Taiwan. Population and Development Review, 26, 174–193. Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3115216 Tsuya, N. O. (2017). Low Fertility in Japan—No End in Sight. Asian Pacific Issues, (131), 1–4. Online: https://www.eastwestcenter.org/sites/default/files/private/api131.pdf Tung, S. L. (1984). An Econometric Analysis of The Effects of Population Change on Economic Growth: A Study of Taiwan. Applied Economics, 16(4), 523–538. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/00036848400000067 United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Viet Nam (2010). Taking Advantage of the Demographic Bonus in Viet Nam: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Options. Online: https://vietnam.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/Demographic_Bonus_Eng.pdf Wang, F. & Mason, A. (2006). Demographic Factor in China’s Transition. Chinese Journal of Population Science, 3, 2–18. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511754234.006 Wang, J. M. (2017). On the Aging Population and the Declining Birth Rate in Taiwan and Their Implications for Economic and Social Development. Journal of Beijing Union University, 15, 52–58. Online: https://doi.org/10.16255/j.cnki.11-5117c.2017.0042 Wang, S. (2021). The Second Demographic Dividend and Economic Growth: Theories, Mechanisms, and Simulations. Population Research, 45, 82–97. Yu, Z. X. & Wang, J. L. (2009). Population Changes and Economic Development in Taiwan. Taipei: Linking Publishing Company. Zhou, J., Deng, J. J., Li, L. & Wang, S. (2023). The Demographic Dividend or the Education Dividend? Evidence from China’s Economic Growth. Sustainability, 15(9), 7309. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097309 " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(9) "105–127" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7294" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1719) "

The driving force behind population change lies in fertility. Over the past 70 years, Taiwan has undergone a fertility transition, rapidly declining from a high peak of natural fertility levels to an ultralow rate. This transition has released a substantial labor force and lead to a significant shift in resource allocation, contributing to rapid economic development in the late 20th century. During the same period, Taiwan’s population aging has progressed faster than that of most countries worldwide. The dependency ratio has negatively impact economic development, making social security an important aspect of resource allocation. The changes in age structure have introduced the concepts of “demographic bonus” and “demographic onus”. As a vibrant economy with a population of over 23 million, Taiwan has enjoyed the demographic bonus for more than a quarter of a century but is now facing the challenges of an aging society and declining fertility rates towards demographic onus. This article examines demographic transitions, economic performance and development in Taiwan from 1950 to 2020, elaborating on the definition, criteria, and quantitative delineation of the demographic bonus and demographic onus. It utilized population and economic statistics for a comparative analysis of the historical evolution, current situation, and prospects of the bonus and onus periods in Taiwan, providing a comprehensive narrative of its historical and empirical developments. Finally, the study underscores the complexity of balancing economic growth with demographic sustainability, emphasizing the necessity for multiple policy adjustments to address the adverse effects of demographic transitions.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(23) "Kuang-Ho Yeh, Guihua Ni" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(96) "From Bonus to Onus: Taiwan’s Demographic Transition and Economic Development from 1950 to 2020" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(2) { [0]=> object(Author)#889 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(9280) ["email"]=> string(16) "ry1207@gmail.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7418) ["seq"]=> int(7) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "TW" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0009-0002-4505-4670" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(25) "Nanjing University, China" ["hu_HU"]=> string(44) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:18:"Nanjing University";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(3) "Yeh" ["hu_HU"]=> string(3) "Yeh" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(8) "Kuang-Ho" ["hu_HU"]=> string(8) "Kuang-Ho" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(12) "Kuang-Ho Yeh" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } [1]=> object(Author)#890 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(9655) ["email"]=> string(20) "niguihua@cuhk.edu.cn" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7418) ["seq"]=> int(7) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "CN" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0009-0002-9199-6044" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(38) "Chinese University of Hong Kong, China" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(2) "Ni" } ["givenName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Guihua" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(9) "Guihua Ni" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(22) "demographic transition" [1]=> string(17) "demographic bonus" [2]=> string(16) "demographic onus" [3]=> string(25) "sub-replacement fertility" [4]=> string(16) "population aging" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#887 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(34614) ["id"]=> int(5940) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7418) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#895 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(7490) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2024-06-27" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2024-06-27 14:44:57" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(9389) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(8) ["submissionId"]=> int(7366) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(7435) "Anghel, R., Herczog, M. & Dima, G. (2013). The challenge of reforming child protection in Eastern Europe: The cases of Hungary and Romania. Psychosocial Intervention, 22(3), 239–249. Online: https://doi.org/10.5093/in2013a27 Browne, K. D., Hamilton-Giacritsis, C. E., Johnson, R. & Chou, S. (2005). Young children in institutional care in Europe. Early Childhood Matters, 105, 15–18. Diósi, Á. (1993). Cigány hivatásos nevelőszülők [Roma professional foster parents]. Család, gyermek, ifjúság, 2(6), 30–39. Eurochild (2018). Opening Doors for European Children: Hungary. Online: https://www.openingdoors.eu/category/resources/publications/ Eurochild (2019). New opportunities for investing in children 2019: Eurochild report on the European semester. Online: https://shorturl.at/NgLPv European Expert Group on the Transition from Institutional to Community-Based Care (2012, November). Common European guidelines on the transition from institutional to community-based care. Online: https://shorturl.at/iaACA European Expert Group on the Transition from Institutional to Community-Based Care (2014, June). Toolkit on the use of European Union funds for the transition from institutional to community based care (Rev. ed.). Online: https://shorturl.at/OiERT Fundamental Rights Agency (2023). Mapping Child Protection Systems in the EU (27). Online: https://shorturl.at/fwDPw Goldman, P. S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Bradford, B., Christopoulos, A., Ken, P. L. A., Cuthbert, C., Duchinsky, R., Fox, N. A., Grigoras, S., Gunnar, M. R., Ibrahim, R. W., Johnson, D., Kusumaningrum, S., Agastya, N. L. P. M., Mwangangi, F. M., Nelson, C. A., Ott, E. M., Reijman, S., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Zeanah, C. H., Zhang, Y. & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2020). Institutionalisation and deinstitutionalisation of children 2: Policy and practice recommendations for global, national, and local actors. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(8), 606–633. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30060-2 Herczog, M. (1997). Hungary. In M. Colton & W. Margaret (Eds.), The World of Foster Care. An International Sourcebook on Foster Family Care Systems (pp. 107–121). Arena. Hungarian Central Statistical Office (2024). Summary Tables (STADAT). Online: https://www.ksh.hu/stadat_eng Kaasbøll, J., Lassemo, E., Paulsen, V., Melby, L. & Osborg, S. O. (2019). Foster parents’ needs, perceptions and satisfaction with foster parent training: A systematic literature review. Children and Youth Services Review, 101, 33–41. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.03.041 Knuiman, S., Rijk, C. H., Hoksbergen, R. A. & van Baar, A. L. (2015). Children without parental care in Poland: Foster care, institutionalization and adoption. International Social Work, 58(1), 142–152. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0020872812473138 Kolankiewicz, M. (2006). Zapiski o instytucjonalnej opiece nad dziećmi [Remarks on the institutional care of children]. Dziecko krzywdzone: Teoria. Badania. Praktyka, 5(4), 6–35. Łuczyński, A. (2007). Rodziny zastępcze – ich rola i zadania w systemie opieki całkowitej [Foster Families – Their Role and Tasks in the Care System]. In J. Kuźma (Ed.), Opieka i wychowanie dzieci sierocych w Polsce (pp. 67–97). Krakowskie Towarzystwo Edukacyjne. Lumos (2018). Investing in Children. The case for diverting Czech government finances away from institutions towards families and communities. Online: https://tinyurl.com/mwvt9pyj Moravkova, S. (2018). Identification of the benefits of care about children in professional families in the Slovak Republic. NORDSCI Conference on Social Sciences. Online: https://doi.org/10.32008/NORDSCI2018/B1/V1/52 Muhari, J. (2024, May 3). Annyi elhagyott baba vár nevelőszülőre, hogy már a csecsemőosztályt tehermentesítő otthon is megtelt a miskolci kórházban [There are so many abandoned children waiting for foster parents that even the infant home replacing the postnatal ward is full]. Népszava. Online: https://shorturl.at/pJpSe National Assembly (2024, June 10). A gyermekek védelméről és a gyámügyi igazgatásról szóló 1997. évi XXXI. törvény módosítása [Draft Amendment of Act XXXI of 1997 on the protection of children and guardianship administration]. Online: https://www.parlament.hu/irom42/08560/08560.pdf Neagoe, A., Neag, D. L. M. & Lucheș, D. (2019). Reasons to care: Personal motivation as a key factor in the practice of the professional foster carer in Romania. PLOS ONE, 14(9). Online: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222716 OHCHR Expert Consultation on the Rights of the Child (2021). Online: https://tinyurl.com/bddtpujd Ruszkowska, M. & Lovašová, S. (2023). The foster care system in Poland and Slovakia. A comparative analysis/study. Rozprawy Spoleczne, 17(1), 227–238. https://doi.org/10.29316/rs/175191 Schmidt, V. & Bailey, J. D. (2014). Institutionalization of Children in the Czech Republic: A Case of Path Dependency. The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 41(1), 53–75. Online: https://doi.org/10.15453/0191-5096.3833 Stelmaszuk, Z. W. (2002). Residential Care in Poland: Past, Present and Future. International Journal of Child and Family Welfare, 5(3), 102–111. SzocOkos (2023, April 12). Nevelőszülők [Foster parents]. Online: https://tamogatoweb.hu/neveloszulok-2/ The Budapest Beacon (2018, March 28). EMMI sued for taking away too many Roma children from their families due to poverty. The Budapest Beacon. Online: https://tinyurl.com/2j9ptfbb The League of Human Rights (2017, March 31). Czech Ministers at Loggerheads over Infant Homes & Foster Care. Liberties. Online: https://tinyurl.com/4tr5m5n4 Tobis, D. (2000). Moving from residential institutions to community-based social services in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. World Bank. Truhlárová, Z. & Levická, T. (2012). Facilities for children needing immediate assistance – controversial institutions intended for substitute childcare in the Czech Republic. Social Work in Ukraine: Theory and Practice, 2, 132–147. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (2021). Day of General Discussion, Children’s Rights and Alternative Care, Outcome Report. Online: https://shorturl.at/gRXFf UN General Assembly (2020). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 18 December 2019. Rights of the Child. Online: https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/74/133 UNICEF (2012). Moving forward: Implementing the guidelines for the alternative care of children. Online: https://shorturl.at/dq3OK UNICEF (2013). Fifteen years of de-institutionalization reforms in Europe and Central Asia: Key results achieved for children and remaining challenges. Online: https://shorturl.at/sXWIn UNICEF & Eurochild (2021). Better data for better child protection systems in Europe: Mapping how data on children in alternative care are collected, analysed and published across 28 European countries. DataCare Project Technical Report. Online: https://shorturl.at/T5uzY Vecchiato, T., Maluccio, A. N. & Canali, C. (Eds.) (2002). Evaluation in Child and Family Services. Comparative Client and Program Perspectives. De Gruyter. Whenan, R., Oxlad, M. & Lushington, K. (2009). Factors associated with foster carer well-being, satisfaction and intention to continue providing out-of-home care. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(7), 752–760. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.02.001" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(576) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(9) "129–147" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7366" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1536) "

Reforms of the child protection systems, provision of family- and community-based alternative care has been developed to a certain level in all countries in Central and Eastern Europe and has increased the role of care provided by foster families replacing institutions to ensure that the best interests principle is taken into consideration when children are separated from their families. The research describes the foster care system in the so-called Visegrád countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, and the results based on at least 50 interviews in each country conducted by local experts on subjective well-being of foster parents, their perceptions about their roles and place in their respective countries and their needs.

The article includes the legal framework, recruitment, preparation and support to foster families, their subjective well-being and needs in the four countries, including the history of their child protection systems to better understand the current situation.

The outcomes show differences in approach to foster care, the perception on the roles, responsibilities and needs based on the different traditions, earlier and current policies and practices. Understanding the attitude changes related to the rights of children, those in vulnerable situations, and to their families of origin would be essential to further develop and improve the child welfare and protection systems, and listening to children on their perceptions and the realisation of their rights.

" } ["additionalMetadatafield"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(301) "

The project on “The perspectives of foster families in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia” was funded by the Visegrad Fund in 2016–2017. Thanks to all the families, foster parents participating, those working in the project, and contributing to its completion and success. 

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(14) "Herczog Mária" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(90) "The Perspectives of Family Foster Care in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#885 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(9389) ["email"]=> string(19) "herczogmaria@me.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7490) ["seq"]=> int(8) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3278-1089" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(32) "Family, Child, Youth Association" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(113) "

Chair, Family, Child, Youth Association, Budapest, Hungary. President, Missing Children, Brussels, Belgium

" } ["familyName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Herczog" } ["givenName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Mária" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(16) "child protection" [1]=> string(11) "foster care" [2]=> string(14) "foster parents" [3]=> string(19) "children’s rights" [4]=> string(12) "V4 countries" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#897 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(34615) ["id"]=> int(5941) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(7490) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }