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object(Publication)#804 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6940) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-06-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-06-30 16:37:25" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8583) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(6816) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(13184) "Altman, Y. (2018, October 21). Where did the assets of Yemenite immigrants disappear. Israel Hayom (Israeli daily, Hebrew). Archives of the State of Israel, G5543/3631, file 607 (II). See also G5543/3631, file 607 (III). Bächtiger, A, Dryzek, J. S., Mansbridge, J. & Warren, M. (Eds.) (2018). The Oxford Handbook of Deliberative Democracy. Oxford University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198747369.001.0001 Barry, B. (2001). Culture and Equality. Harvard University Press. Benhabib, S. (2002). The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era. Princeton University Press. Bird, G. (Ed.) (2006). A Companion to Kant. Blackwell. Britannica (s. a.). Ancestral Pueblo culture. Online: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ancestral-Pueblo-culture Brown, R. A. (1930). The Indian Problem and the Law. Yale Law Journal, 39(3), 307–331. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/789897 Burton, N. (2018, January 4). The Pros and Cons of Polygamy. Psychology Today. Online: https://bit.ly/45rRpMn Canada (AG) v. Lavell [1974] S.C.R. 1349. Christofferson, C. (1991). Tribal Courts’ Failure to Protect Native American Women: A Reevaluation of the Indian Civil Rights Act. Yale Law Journal, 101(1), 169–185. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/796937 Cohen-Almagor, R. (1994). The Boundaries of Liberty and Tolerance: The Struggle Against Kahanism in Israel. The University Press of Florida. Cohen-Almagor, R. (1995). Cultural Pluralism and the Israeli Nation-Building Ideology. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 27(4), 461–484. 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Katz, Y. & Lehr, J. (2012). The Hutterites in Canada and the United States. University of Regina Press. Kedar, A., Amara, A. & Yiftachel, O. (2018). Emptied Lands: A Legal Geography of Bedouin Rights in the Negev. Stanford University Press. Kukathas, C. (1997). Cultural Toleration. Nomos, 39, 69–104. Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24219972 Kukathas, C. (2003). The Liberal Archipelago: A Theory of Diversity and Freedom. Oxford University Press. Kymlicka, W. (1989). Liberalism, Community, and Culture. Clarendon Press. Kymlicka, W. (1997). Do We Need a Liberal Theory of Minority Rights?: Reply to Carens, Young, Parekh and Forst. Constellations, 4(1), 72–87. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8675.00038 Kymlicka, W. (2000). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority. Oxford University Press. Kymlicka, W. & Cohen-Almagor, R. (2000). Ethnocultural Minorities in Liberal Democracies. In M. Baghramian & A. 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Reconceptualizing Tribal Rights: Can self-determination be actualized within the U.S. constitutional structure? Lewis & Clark Law Review, 15(4), 923–950. Uni, A. (2019, December 17). Israel slips 18 places in Gender Gap Index. Globes. Online: https://bit.ly/3pYPS01 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 61/295 (September 13, 2007). Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Online: http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ U.S. Department of State (2011). Announcement of U.S. Support for the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 1–2 (January 12). Online: https://2009-2017.state.gov/s/srgia/154553.htm Valencia-Weber, G. (2004). Santa Clara Pueblo V. Martinez: Twenty-Five Years of Disparate Cultural Visions an Essay Introducing the Case for Re-Argument Before the American Indian Nations Supreme Court. Kansas Journal of Law & Pubic Policy, 14(1), 49–66. 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" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(515) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "5-22" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6816" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1268) "

The paper examines the limits of state interference in proscribing cultural norms by considering gender discrimination, right of people to leave their community free of penalties, denying women appropriate education, and forced or arranged marriages for girls and young women. The discussion opens by reflecting on the discriminatory practices of the Pueblo tribes against their women and analysing an American court case, Santa Clara v. Martinez. It is argued that the severity of rights violations within the minority group, the insufficient dispute-resolution-mechanisms, and the inability of individuals to leave the community if they so desire without penalty justify state intervention to uphold the dissenters’ basic rights. Next, a Canadian case, Hofer v. Hofer, illustrates the problematics of denying reasonable exit right to members who may wish to leave their community. Subsequently, the discussion turns to the issue of arranged and forced marriages of girls and young women. While the latter is coercive the former is not. While forced marriages should be denounced as unjust, arranged marriages can be accepted. Finally, the paper considers denying education to women, arguing that such a denial is unjust and discriminatory.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(21) "Cohen-Almagor Raphael" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(92) "Should Liberal Democracy Respect Group Rights that Discriminate against Women and Apostates?" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#847 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8583) ["email"]=> string(32) "raphael.cohen-almagor@svet.lu.se" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(6940) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "SE" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5869-9243" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(15) "Lund University" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(13) "Cohen-Almagor" ["hu_HU"]=> string(13) "Cohen-Almagor" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Raphael" ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "Raphael" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(9) { [0]=> string(20) "Canada (AG) v Lavell" [1]=> string(7) "culture" [2]=> string(9) "education" [3]=> string(16) "forced marriages" [4]=> string(21) "gender discrimination" [5]=> string(14) "Hofer v. Hofer" [6]=> string(13) "Pueblo tribes" [7]=> string(8) "religion" [8]=> string(23) "Santa Clara v. Martinez" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#860 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(28476) ["id"]=> int(5397) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(6940) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#77 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(7008) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-06-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-06-30 16:37:25" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8673) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(6884) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2907) "Baker, J. S. Jr. (2009). Wall of Separation. The First Amendment Encyclopedia. Online: https://www.mtsu.edu/first-amendment/article/886/wall-of-separation Barnett, R. E. & Solum, L. B. (2023). Originalism after Dobbs, Bruen and Kennedy: The Role of History and Tradition. Online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4338811 Berg, T. C. (2011). The Story of the School Prayer Decisions: Civil Religion Under Assault. In R. Garnett & A. Koppelman (Eds.), First Amendment Stories. Thomas Reuters Foundation. Cooley, A. H. (2023). Quiet Encroachments on School Prayer Jurisprudence. Online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4357523 Cross, R. & Harris, J. W. (1991). Precedent in English Law. Clarendon. Garry, P. M. (2009). Captive Audience. The First Amendment Encyclopedia. Online: https://bit.ly/3PFNB51 Huntington, S. P. (2004). Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity. Simon & Schuster. Jany, J. (2021). A világ jogrendszerei. Civilizációelmélet és jogtudomány. Ludovika Egyetemi Kiadó. Johnson, P. (1997). The History of the American People. HarperCollins Publishers. Koltay, A. (2009). A szólásszabadság alapvonalai – magyar, angol, amerikai és európai összehasonlításban. Századvég. Koltay, A. (2016). A vallások, az állam és a szólás szabadsága. Századvég. Levine, S. J. (2012). A Look at the Establishment Clause Through the Prism of Religious Perspectives: Religious Majorities, Religious Minorities, and Nonbelievers. Chicago Kent Law Review, 87(3), 775–809. Online: https://scholarship.kentlaw.iit.edu/cklawreview/vol87/iss3/5 Lupu, I. C. & Tuttle, R. W. (2023). The Remains of the Establishment Clause. GW Law School Public Law and Legal Theory Paper No. 2023-05. McGrath, M. S. (2022). Teacher Prayer in Public Schools. Fordham Law Review, 90(5), 2427–2468. Online: https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/flr/vol90/iss5/17 Rode, C. (2016). Faith, Football, and the First Amendment: Threading the Needle Between Establishment and Free Exercise. Online: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2919556 Ruello, J. (2023). Looking Forward After Kennedy v. Bremerton School District. Louisiana Law Review, 83(1). Online: https://bit.ly/44aojjb Smith, S. D. (2022, July 21). A Touchdown for Prayer in Schools in Kennedy. The Blue Brief: Faculty Review of the 2021–22 U.S. Supreme Court Term. Online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4300574 Smith, M. L. (2022). Abandoning Original Meaning. Online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4211660 Ward, A. (2009). Everson v. Board of Education. The First Amendment Encyclopedia. Online: https://bit.ly/3NEOxoF Weaver, R. L. (2017). Understanding the First Amendment (6th ed.). Carolina Academic Press. Williams, R. [1644] (1848). The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, for Cause of Conscience, Discussed in a Conference between Truth and Peace. J. Haddon." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(515) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "23-41" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6884" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(928) "

The Supreme Court of the United States of America has recently issued a decision in several cases that are closely related to First Amendment rights. In doing so, the Court has changed its own set of criteria from its earlier practice. The reasons for these decisions have attracted increased interest among practitioners and academics, as it is a long time since the Court has so clearly distanced itself from its own precedent and called lower courts to account for failing to take certain criteria into account. By analysing the Court’s reasoning on the role of history and tradition and the compelling nature of religious belief, this paper seeks to answer the question whether the change in the Supreme Court’s practice can indeed be considered truly substantial. I argue that the change is significant, but as a process is not without precedent, and is not necessarily unacceptable in terms of its consequences.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(13) "Kovács Helga" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(81) "Changes in Case Law in the Light of the Kennedy v. Bremerton School District Case" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(80) "‘Hamlet Without the Prince’ – The U.S. Supreme Court on Religious Practice" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#833 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8673) ["email"]=> string(24) "helga.m.kovacs@gmail.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7008) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0009-0002-1932-530X" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(36) "Pázmány Péter Catholic University" ["hu_HU"]=> string(34) "Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetem" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(114) "

PhD student, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Diversity in Education. SAGE Publications. Online: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452218533 Ayodele, J. B., & Adedokun, M. O. (2012). Towards Achieving Functional Adult Literacy in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 8(5), 209–235. Online: https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2012.v8n5p%p Bantekas, L. & Oette, L. (2013). International Human Rights Law and Practice. Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139048088 Beiter, K. D. (2006). The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Online: https://brill.com/display/title/11557 Bowen, J. & Hobson, P. R. (1974). Theories of Education: Studies of Significant Innovation in Western Education Thoughts. Wiley. Coomans, F. (2007). Identifying the Key Elements of the Right to Education: A Focus on Its Core Content. Online: https://bit.ly/3PDzPPY Egbewole, W. O. & Alatise, T. N. (2017). ‘Realizing Socio-Economic Rights in Nigeria and the Justiciability Question: Lessons from South Africa and India. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance, 8(3), 1–24. Online: http://www.onlineresearchjournals.com/ijopagg/art/246.pdf Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. Gawaya, R., & Mukasa, R. S. (2005). The African Women’s Protocol: a new dimension for women’s rights in Africa. In K. Kingma & C. Sweetman (Eds.), Gender, Development, and Advocacy (pp. 42–50). Oxfam GB. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1hj56hg.7 Hodal, K. (2017, October 11). Revealed: the 10 worst countries for girls to get an education. The Guardian. Online: https://bit.ly/43VDeOL Human Rights Watch. (2021, September 29). Africa: Rights progress for pregnant students. Online: https://bit.ly/3NkZlXE Ikejiani, O. (Ed.). (1965). Education in Nigeria. Praeger. Ikpeze, O. V. (2015). Non-justiciability of Chapter II of the Nigerian constitution as an impediment to Economic Rights and Development. Developing Country Studies, 5(18), 48–57. Online: https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/DCS/article/view/25478 Kenyatta, J. (1979). Facing Mount Kenya. The Tribal Life of the Gikuyu. Mercury Books. Mbaziria, C. (2009). Litigating socio-economic rights in South Africa: A choice between corrective and distributive justice. Pretoria University Law Press. Online: https://bit.ly/3pgeP7t Nduka, O. (1975). Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background. Oxford University Press. Ngugi, W. T. (1981). Decolonising the Mind. The Politics of Language in African Literature. James Currey. Ojobo, J. A. (2008). Education: A catalyst for Women Empowerment in Nigeria. (2008 Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences, 4(1), 93–108. Online: https://doi.org/10.4314/ejesc.v4i1.42995 Omondi, S., Waweru, & Srinivasan, D. (2018). Breathing Life into the Maputo Protocol: Jurisprudence on the Rights of Women and Girls in Africa. Equality Now. Online: https://bit.ly/437cxFC Onuora-Oguno, A. (2015). Seeking Solace from a Distance, Jettisoning National Courts: Reliance on Supra National Judicial Bodies to Realize Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) in Nigeria. Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting, 109, 30–32. Online: https://doi.org/10.5305/procannmeetasil.109.2015.0030 Onuora-Oguno, A. C. (2018). Craving for the Message but shooting the Messenger: RBA to teacher Welfare and Quality in Basic Education in Nigeria. In A. C. Onuora-Oguno, W. O. Egbewole, & T. M. Kleven (Eds.), Education Law, Strategic Policy and Sustainable Development in Africa: Agenda 2063 (pp. 101–120). Palgrave Macmillan Cham. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53703-0_5 Onuora-Oguno, A. C. (2019). Development and the Right to Education in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan Cham. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90335-4 Onuora-Oguno, A. & Abdulraheem-Mustapha, M. A. (2018). Beyond the Law to Socio-Legal Interventions: the Boko Haram Insurgency and the Nigerian Child. In J. M. Iyi & H. Strydom (Eds.), Boko Haram and International Law (pp. 371–389). Springer, Cham. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74957-0_16 Onuora-Oguno, A. C., Ike, C., & Barau, C. (2018). Deliberative and struggle theories of rights realisation: examining the protection of women in Nigeria. Journal of Law, Society and Development, 5(1), 1–16. Online: https://doi.org/10.25159/2520-9515/7068 Onuora-Oguno, A. C. & Shannika, S. (2018). Post Conflict rehabilitation of the Child towards the Africa 2063: Link between Psychology and Law. In O. Bialostocka (Ed.), New African Thinkers. HSRC Press. Sefoka, I. M. & Odeku, K. O. (2021). Critical analysis of the right to education for pregnant school-going teenage girls in South Africa. African Journal of Gender, Society and Development (Formerly Journal of Gender, Information and Development in Africa), 10(3), 73–85. https://doi.org/10.31920/2634-3622/2021/v10n3a4 Serra, G. (2022, April 16). 33 teaching staff seriously attacked and one killed on school grounds since 2016. Independent Online. Online: https://bit.ly/46pQeO0 Singh, K. (2016). Right to education. India International Centre Quarterly, 42(3/4), 119–130. Skelton, A. (2012). How far will the courts go in ensuring the right to a basic education? Southern African Public Law, 27(2), 392–408. Online: https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC154768 Tomaševski, K. (2001). Removing obstacles in the way of the right to education. Novum Grafiska AB. Online: https://bit.ly/441gxIQ Usman, M. (2022, January 20). How Kano girl was abducted and killed by her school teacher. Daily Nigerian. Online: https://dailynigerian.com/how-kano-girl-abducted-killed/ World Bank. (2022). Girls’ Education. Online: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/girlseducation Zewide, G. (1994). Education and Gender Equity in Africa: The Case of Ethiopia. Journal of Education Finance, 19(4), 109–112. Online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40703883" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(515) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "43-54" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6692" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1037) "

The right to education is identified as a crucial and classical right. This classification is premised on the fact that it provides the basis on which an individual has the potential to transform their status and build their desired personality. Additionally, it is the basis on which society is projected to be transformed and set on a better pedestal, with individuals playing positive roles. The recognition of the right, though emanating from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) received only tacit recognition through other treaties. The Maputo Protocol recognises the right to education, as it flows from the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. This commentary, therefore, examines the right to education as enshrined in the Maputo Protocol with the aim of restating the grounds covered in the protection of female children and women and exposing lost opportunities. Finally, it makes recommendations on how the lost ground can be covered and give better content and scope to the right to education.

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Online: https://doi.org/10.5964/ijpr.v7i2.151 Adetayo, O. (2021, October 7). Nigeria’s Legislature Is Siding with Autocracy. Democracy Is at Risk as Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari’s Power Grows Unchecked. Foreign Policy. Online: https://bit.ly/3CF7Ojq Afolabi, A. (2021, May 27). You Can’t Cure Defects in 1999 Constitution, Babalola Tells NASS. The Guardian. Online: https://bit.ly/46cKZ4d Aramide, M. (2020, May 3). Civil Servants Have Tremendous Roles to Play in Ensuring Due Process. The Guardian. Online: https://bit.ly/3XjFug7 Britannica (s. a.). Constitutional Government. Online: https://www.britannica.com/topic/political-system/Constitutional-government Channels Television (2019, August 27). I Have Compiled 32 Court Orders Being Disobeyed by Nigerian Govt – Falana. Online: https://bit.ly/3p6UUYB Cronus Law (2019, September 2). The Purpose of Law and Its Functions in Society. Cronusprod. Online: https://bit.ly/3PFCbhF Dhyani, N. (2022). Difference Between Administrative Law and Constitutional Law. Online: https://bit.ly/42TJZ25 Encyclopedia.com (2018). Constitutional Law. Online: https://bit.ly/3NB5u3f Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999). 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Lagos: Federal Government Press. Hassan, I. (2021, July 26). Nigeria’s Constitutional Review: The Continuing Quest for a Legitimate Grundnorm. International IDEA. Online: https://bit.ly/43R2oxF Henkel, F. (2013). Preface. In E. E. O. Alemika (Ed.), The Impact of Organised Crime on Governance in West Africa. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Ipadeola, O. (2016). Qualitative Study on the Patterns, Experiences and Manifestations of Corruption in Nigeria. A Research Report Funded by the European Union for the United Nations Office on Drug and Crime, to Support Anti-Corruption Project in Nigeria. Online: https://bit.ly/46iJNw7 Iroanusi, Q. E. (2022, January 2). In 2021, Nigerian Senate Sat for only 66 days, Broke Own Rules. Premium Times. Online: https://bit.ly/3CGwzvA Keman, H. (2000). Constitutional Government. In M. Sekuchi (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). UNESCO & Oxford University Press. Online: https://research.vu.nl/en/publications/constitutional-government Monye, J., Obiagbaoso, P. & Obidegwu, R. (2020, October 13). Where Are We in Curbing Delays in Administration of Justice in Nigeria? Punuka. Online: https://bit.ly/449iUc7 Nnochiri, I. (2011, September 29). Corruption in Judiciary: CJN, NBA to the Rescue? Vanguard. Online: https://bit.ly/43Rqatq Nottingham Law School (2020). Constitutional & Administrative Law. Online: https://bit.ly/441ovRU Obasanjo Olusegun (1987). Nzeogwu: An Intimate Portrait of Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited. OECD (2005). Investments in Weak Governance Zones. Paris: OECD. Online: https://www.oecd.org/corporate/mne/35397593.pdf Ogboye, L. & Yekini, A. O. (2014). Constitutionalism and Good Governance in Nigeria (1999–2014). Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law & Jurisprudence, 5, 118–130. Oikhala, G. I. (2020). An Assessment of Administrative Law and Governance System in Nigeria. Kampala International University Journal of Social Sciences, 6(3), 75–90. Ojelu, H. & Dania, O. (2022, February 3). FG’s Disobedience to Court Judgments Dangerous – Lawyers. Vanguard. Online: https://bit.ly/3Jkro8v Oluwole, J. (2015, September 11). You Are More Corrupt than Politicians, Fayose Tells Nigerian Civil Servants. Premium Times. Online: https://bit.ly/3qTcjo1 Omolaja, M. A. (2009). Administrative Practice in Nigeria: Implications for National Development, Economic Analysis 1–2, 53–64. Onyekwere, J. (2021, October 19). Lawyer, Others Decry Recurring Executive Disobedience to Valid Court Orders. The Guardian. Online: https://bit.ly/46d3fKR Policy and Legal Advocacy Centre (2016). Guide to Legislative Oversight in the National Assembly. Abuja: Policy and Legal Advocacy Centre. Prunty, R. (2018). Constitutional Law and Public Administration. In A. Farazmand (Ed.), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. Springer, Cham. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20928-9_1093 Robson, W. A. & Page, E. C. (2023). Administrative Law. Encyclopedia Britannica. Online: https://www.britannica.com/topic/administrative-law Sayuti, U. (2016). Legislative Oversight, Good Governance and the Future of Nigeria’s Democracy. International Journal of Comparative Studies in International Relations and Development, 4(1), 13–25. Online: https://bit.ly/3NlPxg8 Shrivas, S. (2022). Definitions of Law and its Functions. Legal Service India e-journal. Online: https://bit.ly/3NkqZnv Strictly Legal (2022). Constitutional Law and Administrative Law. Online: https://bit.ly/46clDDB Tobi, A. A. & Adegbami, A. (2020). Legislative-Executive Relations in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. Dynamics of Public Administration, 37(1), 1–12, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. University of Strathclyde (s. a.). Constitutional & Administrative Law. Online: https://bit.ly/3JqG066 Usman, A., Romle, A. R. & Bashir, A. (2015). Institutional Weakness and Conflict Management in Nigeria: The Need for Collaborative Governance. International Journal of Administration and Governance, 1(11), 1–7. West-Idahosa, E. (2021, February 16). Independence of the Judiciary: A Recipe for True Democracy in Nigeria. The Nation. Online: https://bit.ly/3NCzKuH" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(515) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "55-71" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6650" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1590) "

Are constitutional and administrative laws in operation in the institutions and agencies of government in Nigeria? How effective are these laws at regulating the activities of the government in the country? Has the law enhanced the quality of services delivered by the government? What are the factors influencing the practice of public administration in Nigeria? Are these factors in consonance with administrative law? These are germane questions to which this study attempted to provide answers. It relies on secondary data, which were subjected to content analysis. The study argues that the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria, prepared by the government without legitimacy (the military), and handed over to the civilian administration some twenty-three years ago, with little or minor amendment to date, made the legitimacy of the government of Nigeria’s Fourth Republic questionable. And, apart from the faulty preparation of the constitution and some amendments made to it by the National Assembly, the elite, who appear to be above the law, do not allow the constitution to work. These elite are mainly among the legislature, the judiciary and the executive; they are all guilty of stemming and whittling down the power of the constitution, and the law of administration by their flagrant disregard for the rule of law and the constitution in their various capacities. This study therefore, concludes that, until Nigeria’s constitution is redrafted, and constitutional law and administrative law properly applied, quality or good governance will continue to elude the country.

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Wolters Kluwer. 70–90. Boros, A. (2018). Európai közigazgatási eljárásjog – megjegyzések a Parlament rendelettervezetének margójára [European Law of Administrative Procedures – Notes on the Draft Regulation of Parliament]. Jogtudományi Közlöny, 4, 202–209. Della Cananea, G. (2017). The ‘Common Core’ of Administrative Laws in Europe: A Research Agenda. In The Common Core of European Administrative Law. Working Papers Series, 1/2017. Della Cananea, G. & Bussani, M. (2019). The ‘Common Core’ of Administrative Laws in Europe: A Framework for Analysis. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 26(2), 217–250. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/1023263X19827817 Della Cananea, G. & Caranta, R. (2020). Tort Liability of Public Authorities in European Laws. Oxford University Press. Della Cananea, G. & Andenas, M. (2021). Judicial Review of Administration in Europe. Oxford University Press. Conticelli, M. & Perroud, T. (2021). Procedural Requirements for Administrative Limits to Property Rights. Oxford University Press. European Commission (2018). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A credible enlargement perspective for and enhanced EU engagement with the Western Balkans. COM(2018) 65 final. Online: https://bit.ly/3JADrPh Grabbe, H. (2003). Europeanisation Goes East: Power and Uncertainty in the EU Accession Process. In K. Featherstone & C. M. Radaelli (Eds.), The Politics of Europeanisation. Oxford University Press. 319–320. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/0199252092.003.0013 Heidbreder, E. G. (2011). Structuring the European Administrative Space: Policy Instruments of Multi-level Administration. Journal of European Public Policy, 18(5), 709–727. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2011.586800 Józsa, Z. (2003). Az európai közigazgatási tér összefüggéseiről [On the Context of the European Administrative Area]. Magyar Közigazgatás, 53(12), 723–735. Láncos, P. L. & Gerencsér, B. Sz. (2015). Az európai közigazgatási jog [European Administration Law]. In B. Sz. Gerencsér (Ed.), Összehasonlító és Európai Uniós Közigazgatási Jog [Comparative and EU Administration Law]. Pázmány Press. Polt, P. (2019). A költségvetés büntetőjogi védelmének egyes elméleti és gyakorlati kérdései. Hazai gyakorlat és uniós mechanizmusok [Certain Theoretical and Practical Issues of the Criminal Protection of the Budget. Domestic Practices and Union Mechanisms]. Dialóg Campus. ReNEUAL (2014). Model Rules on EU Administrative Procedure. Version for online publication. Online: https://bit.ly/45ZODyd ReNEUAL (2017). Model Rules on EU Administrative Procedure. Updated Version 2015 for publication in print by Oxford University Press. Online: https://bit.ly/3Ntsl0J Rose-Ackerman, S., Lindseth, P. L. & Emerson, B. (2019). Introduction. In S. Rose-Ackerman, P. Lindseth & B. Emerson (Eds.), Comparative Administrative Law. Edward Elgar. Schindler, B. (2017). Der Kodifikationsentwurf für ein EU-Verwaltungsverfahrensrecht aus schweizerischer Perspektive [ReNEUAL Model Rules on EU Administrative Procedure – A Swiss Perspective]. Die Verwaltung, 50(1), 51–76. Online: https://doi.org/10.3790/verw.50.1.51 Sántha, Gy. (2021). A menedzselt állam. A menedzsmentciklusok és az öntökéletesítő folyamatok jelentősége a közigazgatás-fejlesztésben [The Managed State. The Significance of Management Cycles and Self-Perfecting Processes in the Development of Public Administration]. Doctoral thesis, PPKE JÁK. SIGMA (1999). European Principles for Public Administration. SIGMA Papers, No. 27. CCNM/SIGMA/PUMA(99)44/REV1. Online: https://www.sigmaweb.org/publicationsdocuments/36972467.pdf SIGMA–OECD (2017). The Principles of Public Administration. Online: https://www.sigmaweb.org/publications/Principles-of-Public-Administration-2017-edition-ENG.pdf SIGMA–OECD (2019). Methodological Framework for the Principles of Public Administration. Online: https://bit.ly/3Jd2DuP SIGMA–OECD (2021). Monitoring Report of Serbia. Online: https://www.sigmaweb.org/publications/Monitoring-Report-2021-Serbia.pdf Tamás, A. (2010). A közigazgatási jog elmélete [The Theory of Administration Law]. Szent István Társulat. Torma, A. (2011). Az Európai Közigazgatási Térségről – magyar szemmel [On the European Administrative Area – From a Hungarian Perspective]. Miskolci Jogi Szemle, 6, 196–210. Varga, Zs. A. (2017). A közigazgatás és a közigazgatási jog alkotmányos alapjai (The constitutional basis of public administration and administration law), Dialog Campus, 2017. 91. Varga, Zs. A. (2020). Magyarország szuverenitása [Hungary’s Sovereignty]. In L. Csink, B. Schanda & Zs. A. Varga (Eds.), A magyar közjog alapintézményei [The Basic Institutions of Hungarian Public Law]. Pázmány Press. Waldo, D. (2006). The Administrative State: A Study of the Political Theory of American Public Administration. Routledge." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(515) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "73-89" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6850" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1174) "

Administrative regimes are no longer isolated phenomena: they are constantly confronted with international influences, which shape the internal structure and system of the states. The cooperation between the European Union and the Member States’ administration is today a kind of convergence in principles. This is what the EU expects from the candidate countries and in the neighbourhood policy. The main question of the study is whether the content of the principles used by the EU is cognisable and consistent. The study covers two policy instruments: the SIGMA project, which is a joint EU–OECD collaboration, and the comparative legal activities of the ReNEUAL. These instruments testify two completely different attitudes: one does not explain the principle but holds it accountable, the other seeks the means to understand its content and the reasons for the differences in interpretations. Both programs have undergone internal development, but while SIGMA has moved away from its administrative procedural roots, ReNEUAL has confirmed it. The paper is another argument in favour of the need for administrative research using the tools of comparative law.

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Tax law, as a branch of law belonging to the hard core of public law, is one of its branches that are characterised by instability rather than the stability of its rules. The reasons for the frequent changes in tax law can be found not only in political agendas and the economic view of taxes, but equally in external impacts, to which the legislature tries to respond promptly. The paper aims at clarifying the competing views on the position of tax law in the legal system and defining its functions, as they have been interpreted differently in different periods of social development. The paper then examines the significant changes in tax law in recent years, triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic, digital transformation and inflation, and assesses the extent to which these changes contribute to the fulfilment of the core, the fiscal function of taxes.

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object(Publication)#884 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(6685) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-06-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-06-30 16:37:26" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8263) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(7) ["submissionId"]=> int(6561) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2596) "Balogh, J. (2012). Az önálló szabályozó szervek. In L. Trócsányi & B. Schanda (Eds.), Bevezetés az alkotmányjogba. HVG–ORAC. Chronowski, N., Drinóczi, T. & Kocsis, M. (2011). Mozaikok, azaz milyen értelmezési kérdéseket vet fel az Alaptörvény? In T. Drinóczi (Ed.), Magyarország új alkotmányossága. Pécsi Tudományegyetem Állam- és Jogtudományi Kar. Csink, L. & Mayer, A. (2012). Variációk a szabályozásra. Médiatudományi Intézet. Fazekas, J. (2010). A 2006. évi közigazgatási szervezeti törvény négy éve a Kormány szervezetalakítási szabadságának szemszögéből. In M. Nagy (Ed.), Jogi tanulmányok II. kötet. ELTE Állam- és Jogtudományi Kar. Fazekas, J. (2015). Az önálló szabályozó szervek rendeletalkotási tevékenysége Magyarországon. Új Magyar Közigazgatás, 8(2), 15–21. Fazekas, J. (2018). Önálló szabályozó szerv. In A. Jakab & B. Fekete (Eds.), Internetes Jogtudományi Enciklopédia. Online: http://ijoten.hu/szocikk/onallo-szabalyozo-szerv Fazekas, J. (2020). Autonóm államigazgatási szervek. In A. Jakab & B. Fekete (Eds.), Internetes Jogtudományi Enciklopédia. Online: https://ijoten.hu/szocikk/autonom-allamigazgatasi-szervek Fazekas, M. Ed. (2017). Közigazgatási jog. Általános rész I. ELTE Eötvös Kiadó. Ferenczi, E. (2000). Az önálló szabályozó szerv tevékenysége mint parakodifikációs jelenség. Állam- és Jogtudomány, 41(3–4), 311–326. Jakab, A. (2011). Magántervezet, szakmai álláspont kialakítása céljából. Online: http://www.jak. ppke.hu/tanszek/alkotm/letolt/alkt.pdf Jakab, A. (2012). Az új Alaptörvény keletkezése és gyakorlati következményei. HVG–ORAC. Kovács, A. Gy. (2009). Mitől szabályozó egy hatóság? In P. Valentiny & F. L. Kiss (Eds.), Verseny és szabályozás 2008. MTA Közgazdaságtudományi Intézet. Rozsnyai, K. (2013): A hatékony jogvédelem biztosítása a közigazgatási bíráskodásban. Acta Humana, 1(1), 117–130. Lapsánszky, A., Patyi, A. & Takács, A. (2017). A közigazgatás szervezete és szervezeti joga. Dialóg Campus Kiadó. Lapsánszky, A. (2014). A szabályozó hatóságok jogállásának, szervezetének és „szabályozó” feladatainak elméleti alapjai, sajátosságai. Új Magyar Közigazgatás, 7(3), 1–10. Temesi, I. (2013). Az önálló szabályozó szervek. In A. Patyi & A. Téglási (Eds.), Államtan és a magyar állam szervezete. Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem. Trócsányi, L. (1991). A közigazgatási bíráskodás és az alapjogok védelmének egyes aspektusai. Acta Humana, 2(4), 39–51." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(515) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "105-119" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6561" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1062) "

Independent regulatory organs as a type of administrative body were included among the central state administrative bodies upon the entry into force of the Fundamental Law of Hungary. The key feature of independent regulatory organs is that they also have the power to legislate within the framework of the regulatory authority’s activity; in other words, they can intervene in the relations of their administered sector through the creation of generally binding rules of conduct, which are enforced through the official activities falling within their scope of duties and powers. The characteristics of the legal status of independent regulatory organs and the components of their independence are therefore of particular importance in the system of public administration. The content and strength of their independence are not identical but are adapted to the professional content and EU and constitutional requirements of the specialised area of administration for which the Fundamental Law authorises the National Assembly to establish these bodies.

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object(Publication)#896 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(6935) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-06-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-06-30 16:37:25" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8578) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(8) ["submissionId"]=> int(6811) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(4371) "Babnik, J. (1894). Nemško–slovenska pravna terminologija [German–Slovene Legal Terminology]. Dvorna in državna tiskarnica. Barberis, M. (2012). Pravo in morala danes [Law and Morality Today]. Revus,16, 13–54. Online: https://doi.org/10.4000/revus.2091 David, R. & Grasmann, G. (1988). Einführung in die grossen Rechtssysteme der Gegenwart. Rechtsvergleichung. C. H. Beck Verlag. Falcón y Tella, M. J. (2010). A Three-Dimensional Theory of Law. Martinus Njihoff Publishers. Friedman, L. M. (1975). The Legal System. A Social Science Perspective. Russell Sage Foundation. Granda, S. (2008). Slovenia: An Historical Overview. Government Communication Office. Heindl, G. & Schambeck, H. (1979). Prozesse sind ein Silberschweiss oder Juristen Brevier. Paul Neff Verlag Wien. Igličar, A. (2004). Sociologija prava [The Sociology of Law]. Pravna fakulteta in Cankarjeva založba. Kantorowicz, H. (1925). Staatsauffassungen: Eine Skizze. Braun. Kühn, Z. (2011). The Judiciary in Central and Eastern Europe. Mechanical Jurisprudence in Transformation? Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Lima, A. C. (2008). A Brazilian Perspective on Jurisprudence: Migule Reale’s Tridimensional Theory of Law. Oregon Review of International Law, 9, 77–148. Online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1124461 Manko, R. (2013a). Survival of the Socialist Legal Tradition? A Polish Perspective. Comparative Law Review, 4(2), 1–28. Manko, R. (2013b). Weeds in the Gardens of Justice: The Survival of Hyperpositivism in Polish Legal Culture as a Symptom/Sinthome. Polemos – Journal of Law, Literature and Culture, 7(2) 207–233. Novak, M. (2010). Uvod v pravo [An Introduction to Law]. Evropska pravna fakulteta v Novi Gorici. Novak, M. (2012). Slovenska pravna država v luči integralne teorije prava [The Slovene Rule of Law State in the Light of the Integral Theory of Law]. Poligrafi, 17(67–68), 93–105. Novak, M. (2016). The Type Theory of Law. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30643-8 Olivecrona, K. (1971). Law as Fact. Stevens & Sons. Pavčnik, M. (2007). Teorija prava [The Theory of Law]. GV Založba. Pavlin, N. (2012). Pravna kultura slovenskega sodstva [The Legal Culture of Slovene Judiciary]. Evropska pravna fakulteta v Novi Gorici. Pitamic, L. (2005). Na robovih čiste teorije prava [At the Borders of the Pure Theory of Law]. Pravna fakulteta v Ljubljani in SAZU. Pokrovac, Z. (2018). Slobodno stvaranje prava. Hermann U. Kantorowicz i slobodnopravni pokret [Free Creation of Law. Hermann U. Kantorowicz and Free School of Law]. Naklada Breza. Pound, R. (1910). Law in Books and Law in Action. American Law Review, 44(1), 12–36. Radbruch, G. (1973). Gesetzliches Unrecht und übergesetzliches Recht. [1946] In E. Wolf & H.-P. Schneider (Eds.), Rechtsphilosophie (pp. 339–350). K. F. Koehler. Razdrih, A. & Premzl, P. (Eds.) (2018). Slavni slovenski pravdarji [The Famous Slovene Litigants]. Odvetniška zbornica Slovenije. Reale, M. (1968). Teoria Tridimensional do Direito [The Theory of Three-Dimensional Law]. Saraiva. Robinson, O. F., Fergus, T. D. & Gordon, W. M. (2000). European Legal History. Butterworths. Ross, A. (2004). On Law and Justice. The Lawbook Exchange. Silbey, S. S. (2001). Legal Culture and Legal Consciousness. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 8623–8629). Pergamon Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/02913-2 Škrubej, K. (2010). Pravo v zgodovini: s poudarkom na razvoju na današnjem slovenskem prostoru [Law in History: With an Emphasis on Developments in Today’s Slovene Territory]. GV Založba. Uzelac, A. (2010). Survival of the Third Legal Tradition? Supreme Court Law Review, 49, 377–396. Online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2498760 Varga, Cs. (1992). Comparative Legal Cultures. Dartmouth. Vilfan, S. (1996). Pravna zgodovina Slovencev: od naselitve do zloma stare Jugoslavije [From the Settlement until the Break of the Old Yugoslavia]. Slovenska matica. Visković, N. (1976). Pojam prava: prilog integralnoj teoriji prava [The Concept of Law: A Contribution to the Integral Theory of Law]. Biblioteka Pravnog fakulteta u Splitu. Visković, N. (2006). Teorija države i prava [The Theory of State and Law]. CDO Birotehnika. Zweigert, K. & Kötz, H. (2011). An Introduction to Comparative Law. Oxford University Press." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(515) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "121-137" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6811" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1758) "

According to David and Grasmann, the recognised comparative law scholars, there are basically three main criteria for differentiating between legal families and their subgroups: 1. meta-legal considerations; 2. legal sources; and 3. dogmatic legal structures. Concerning the last two criteria, which could also be designated as formal elements of a country’s legal identity, Slovenia has been deeply “immersed” in the civil law of a Central European type. Even after the decline of the Habsburg Empire, what remained to apply on the territory of nowadays Slovenia as part of the then Kingdom of Yugoslavia, was to an important extent Austrian law. Moreover, even the “decadent capitalist code” such as the Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (ABGB) more or less survived in spite of the communist “withering away of the state and law”, and can today still be applicable to some older cases. After one thousand years of Germanic dominance, the Slovenes turned to the East in trying to build their national identity, one hundred years ago when the Empire collapsed. Although that seemed to be a necessary move towards stronger national identity, it was their first step away from the rule of law. The second step away from that was the period of communism that endured almost half a century. Nevertheless, the formal part of the Central European legal identity somehow survived in Slovene law, with certain “injuries” of course, but it is mainly the meta-legal considerations, their sociological and psychological elements in particular, that nowadays make a difference between the situations of the rule of law in the Republic of Slovenia and, for example, in the Republic of Austria, both parts of the onetime joint Empire.

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