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An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. University of California Press. White, J. B. (1973). The Legal Imagination. University of Chicago Press. Wolf, E. R. (2010). Europe and the People Without History (2nd ed.). University of California Press." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(492) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "5-39" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2022.2.1" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1734) "

In contemporary legal sociology research, legal culture and legal consciousness are often used as synonymous or closely related, overlapping concepts. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the possibility of separating the two concepts through a more in-depth analysis. The first part of the paper explores the ideological-historical connections between the two concepts and argues that the conceptual confusion between legal culture and legal consciousness that characterises contemporary legal sociology occurred in the 1970s in American legal scholarship. The concept of social legal consciousness is first discussed in the context of conceptual analysis. After a general definition of legal consciousness, the components of individual legal consciousness, the factors and mediating structures linking individual and social legal consciousness, and finally the theoretical issues of conceptualisation are discussed. The second part of the conceptual analysis focuses on the concept of legal culture. The difficulties of defining the concept are taken into account, starting from a review of the academic debate surrounding the work of Lawrence Friedman. The concept of legal culture is constructed on the basis of the criteria for conceptualisation derived from this. The core concept is culture, and the distinguishing feature is a sociological concept of law. Next, it introduces the distinction between lay and professional culture and examines the extent to which the concept of legal culture thus outlined meets the criteria set out above. The paper concludes by summarising the rationale and yields of the conceptual analysis, highlighting the dynamic relationship between legal culture and social legal consciousness.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(20) "H. Szilágyi István" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(44) "Social Legal Consciousness or Legal Culture?" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#847 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8039) ["email"]=> string(29) "h.szilagyi.istvan@jak.ppke.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(6523) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0347-0764" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(36) "Pázmány Péter Catholic University" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(12) "H. Szilágyi" } ["givenName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "István" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(8) { [0]=> string(19) "legal consciousness" [1]=> string(30) "individual legal consciousness" [2]=> string(26) "social legal consciousness" [3]=> string(15) "legal pluralism" [4]=> string(7) "culture" [5]=> string(27) "sociological concept of law" [6]=> string(17) "lay legal culture" [7]=> string(26) "professional legal culture" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#860 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(26787) ["id"]=> int(5239) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(6523) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#77 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(6517) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-02-14" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-02-14 13:16:24" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8032) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(6393) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(1625) "Ehrlich, E. (1913). Grundlegung der Soziologie des Rechts. Duncker & Humblot. Kawashima, T. (1967). Nihon-jin no Houishiki [ Japanese Legal Consciousness]. Iwanami Shoten. Kinoshita, M. (2010). Nihonjin-no Hou-ni-taisuru Taido-no Kouzou-to-Henyo: 30nenkan-de Hitobitono Kangaekata-ha Donoouni Henka-shitaka [The Structure and Transformation of Japanese Attitudes Toward the Law: How Have People’s Attitudes Changed over the Past 30 Years?]. In M. Murayama & M. Matsumura (Eds.), Hou-Ishiki to Hunsoukoudou (pp. 3–22). Tokyo University Press. Kinoshita, M. (2021). Hou-wo Tsukamaeru: Houishiki Kenkyu kara Houtaido Kenkyu-e [Grasping Laws: From the Study of Legal Consciousness to the Study of Legal Attitude]. Hou-to Shakai Kenkyu, 6, 33–57. Lerner, M. J. (1980). The Belief in a Just World. A Fundamental Delusion. Perspectives in Social Psychology. Plenum Press. Matsumura, Y., Kinoshita, M., Fujimoto, A., Yamada, H., Fujita, M. & Kobayashi, C. (2007). What are the Changes in Attitudes of Japanese People Toward the Law and the Legal System? Surveyed in 1971, 1976, and 2005. Chiba Journal of Law and Politics, 22(3), 112(1)-61(52). Nihon Bunka Kaigi (Ed.) (1973). Nihonjin No Houishiki [ Japanese Legal Consciousness]. Shiseido. Nihon Bunka Kaigi (Ed.) (1982). Gendai Nihonjin no Hou-Ishiki [Modern Japanese Legal Consciousness]. Diichi-houki. Rosenberg, H. J. & Hovland, C. I. (1960). Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Components of Attitudes. In M. J. Rosenberg & C. I. Hovland (Eds.), Attitude Organization and Change: An Analysis of Consistency among Attitude Components (pp. 1–14). Yale University Press." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(492) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "41-58" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2022.2.2" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1278) "

This paper compares and analyses the results of a social survey on legal attitudes conducted from January to February 2022 among Japanese citizens (aged 18 or older) nationwide (hereinafter referred to as the 2022 survey) as a follow-up to the 1976 survey and the 2005 survey, which were conducted in previous years.

The 2022 survey focused on three lower-level attitudes that constitute legal attitudes: 1. flexibility; 2. naïve moral sentiment (naïve morality); and 3. severe punishment orientation. First, we examined the attitude toward flexibility, especially the legal attitude toward flexibility in contracts. And we found that the majority of respondents in the 2022 survey, regardless of gender or generation, demanded strictness when concluding contracts, but flexibility when executing contracts. This result is almost the same as in the 1976 and 2005 surveys. Regarding the naïve moral sentiment, a change was observed in the 2022 survey, with a decrease among males aged 60 and over and an increase among females in their 20s. The proportion of each
pattern accounted for by the combination of flexibility, naïve moral sentiment and severe punishment orientation in the 2022 survey did not differ significantly from the 1976 and 2005 surveys.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(16) "Kinoshita Manako" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(68) "Comparing the Results of the Survey Conducted in 1976, 2005 and 2022" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(60) "The Changes of Japanese Attitude toward Law and Legal System" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#833 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8032) ["email"]=> string(28) "mkinoshi@mail.doshisha.ac.jp" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(6517) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "JP" ["orcid"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(19) "Doshisha University" ["hu_HU"]=> string(45) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:19:"Doshisha University";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(9) "Kinoshita" ["hu_HU"]=> string(9) "Kinoshita" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Manako" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Manako" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(24) "Japanese legal attitudes" [1]=> string(31) "attitude changes over the years" [2]=> string(15) "naïve morality" [3]=> string(23) "flexibility of the laws" [4]=> string(32) "orientation to severe punishment" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#883 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(26788) ["id"]=> int(5240) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(6517) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-856X.0010" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(492) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "59-89" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2022.2.3" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1347) "

Following a change of government in 2010, the Hungarian local government system underwent a period of significant transformation. The question of how it is viewed and the effects it may have are currently being debated. The centralising effort of the government had already become clear beyond a shadow of a doubt before the adoption of the Cardinal Act or the Fundamental Law (2011) itself. This was followed by the steps of the local government reform, which transferred many local government powers to the state. Municipalities lost influence over local public education institutions, municipal hospitals and many other areas. In this situation, where there was a significant loss of influence by local elites, it became an interesting question to what extent this changed society’s relationship with local government. Our comprehensive research has conducted a number of quantitative and qualitative studies to answer this question. Between 2016 and 2018, our research group had the opportunity to conduct four empirical studies to assess knowledge, attitudes and opinions related to local government. This paper presents and interprets the results of this research, and an important area of public attitudes towards local government, in particular with regard to the division of responsibilities between the state and municipalities.

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object(Publication)#149 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(6573) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-02-14" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-02-14 13:16:24" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8102) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["submissionId"]=> int(6449) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3660) "Adler de Lomnitz, L. (1993). Cómo Sobreviven los Marginados. Siglo XXI Editores. Ajzenman, N. (2021). The Power of Example: Corruption Spurs Corruption. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 13(2), 230–257. Online: http://doi.org/10.1257/app.20180612 Almond, G. & Verba, S. (1989). The Civic Culture. Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Sage Publications. Online: http://doi.org/10.1515/9781400874569 Amparo Casar, M. (2015). Mexico. Anatomía de la Corrupción. CIDE/IMCO. Barrett, J. & Gaus, G. (2020). Laws, Norms, and Public Justification: The Limits of Law as an Instrument of Reform. In S. A. Langvatn, M. Kumm & W. Sadurski (Eds.), Public Reason and Courts (pp. 201–228). Cambridge University Press. Online: http://doi.org/10.1017/9781108766579.009 Bicchieri, C. (2006). The Grammar of Society. The Nature and Dynamics of Social Norms. Cambridge University Press. Online: http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511616037 Bicchieri, C., Lindemans, J. W., & Jiang, T. (2014). A Structured Approach to a Diagnostic of Collective Practices. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(1418), 1–14. Online: http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01418 Bicchieri, C. (2017). Norms in the Wild. How to Diagnose, Measure, and Change Social Norms. Oxford University Press. Online: http://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190622046.001.0001 Bjerring, J. C., Hansen, J. U., & Linding Pedersen, N. J. L. (2014). On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance. Synthese, 191(11), 2445–2470. Online: http://doi.org/10.1007/sl1229-014-0434-1 Camacho Beltrán, E. & García González, F. (2020). El concepto de corrupción y el pacto constitucional mexicano. In J. A. Cruz Parcero (Eds.), Los Derechos Sociales en México. Reflexiones sobre la Constitución de 1917 (pp. 389–433). Instituto de Estudios Constitucionales del Estado de Querétaro. ENCUP – Encuesta Nacional Sobre Cultura Política. Online: https://www.encup.gob.mx/Encup/Encup Fix Fierro, H., Flores, J. I. & Valadés, D. (Eds.) (2017). Los Mexicanos y su Constitución. Tercera Encuesta Nacional de Cultura Constitucional. Centenario de la Constitución de 1917. IIJ/UNAM. Online: https://bit.ly/3FCohHs Girola, L. (2011). La Cultura de la Transgresión. Anomias y Cultura del ‘Como si’ en la Sociedad Mexicana. Estudios Sociológicos, 29(85), 99–129. Online: http://doi.org/10.24201/es.2011v29n85.131 González Casanova, P. (1981, September 1). La cultura política de México. Nexos. Online: https://www.nexos.com.mx/?p=3914 Kahan, D. M. (2000). Gentle Nudges vs Hard Shoves: Solving the Sticky Norms Problem. The University of Chicago Law Review, 67(3), 607–645. Online: http://doi.org/10.2307/1600336 Morris, S. D. (2011). Mexico’s Political Culture: The Unrule of Law and Corruption as a Form of Resistance. Mexican Law Review, 3(2), 327–342. Online: https://bit.ly/3Y9JH5W Resultados de la Quinta Encuesta Nacional sobre Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas (ENCUP). (2012). IIJ/UNAM. Sarsfield, R. (2012). The Bribe Game: Microfoundations of Corruption in Mexico. The Justice System Journal, 33(2), 215–234. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/0098261X.2012.10768012 Stuntz, W. J. (2000). Self-Defeating Crimes. Virginia Law Review, 86(8), 1871–1899. Online: http://doi.org/10.2307/1073832 Tomlinson, K. D. (2016). An Examination of Deterrence Theory: Where Do We Stand? Federal Probation Journal, 80(3), 33–38. Online: https://bit.ly/3BlagLQ Transparency International (2021). Corruption Perception Index. Online: https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/2021 Tyler, T. R. (2006). Why People Obey the Law. Princeton University Press. Online: http://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1j66769" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(492) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "91-108" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2022.2.4" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1188) "

This paper presents the results of an experimental research project on the causes of Mexicans’ law-abiding and non-abiding behaviour. Firstly, it explains the theories tested, namely, deterrence and normative theory of law-abidance, and defines the concepts measured. Regarding deterrence theory, the causal efficacy of knowledge of legal punishment was measured and of normative theory that of social and personal norms. Second, it describes how these concepts were operationalised and how the two-stage experimental survey was conducted. Finally, the paper outlines the main results. The statistical analyses show that neither social norms explain
unlawful behaviour nor knowledge of legal punishment influence law-abiding behaviour among Mexicans in specific situations. However, the analysis did show a statistically significant disagreement between Mexicans’ behaviour and normative beliefs, which reveals a case of pluralistic ignorance whereby Mexicans behave illegally and believe others approve of illegal behaviour, but they personally disapprove of it. These results, however, would have to be confirmed in a study with a representative sample to be conclusive.

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During the past years, environmental protection and adopting countermeasures against climate change have been on the agenda of many East African countries, as well as western nations, although a common challenge confronted by policymakers is directing young people’s interest toward the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of certain factors that can be adopted by government bodies as a strategy to make youth more engaged in environmental activities. An electronic questionnaire was completed by Djiboutian young people from February 2022 to late June 2022. We retrieved 440 out of 500 questionnaires; a structural equation model was subsequently employed to assess the effects of government rewards, interactions, capacity building and favourable policies on youth engagement. According to the results, all the factors demonstrated a positive impact on youth engagement; consequently, we conclude that young people have tendencies to engage in activities that revolve around environmental issues when there is a reward system in place. Likewise, establishing an interactive platform that accommodates young people’s opinions while the government provides reasonable feedback will stimulate engagement. Reasonably, embracing policies in favour of the environment will depict the government as an effective, responsible leader, retroactively influencing young people’s perceptions. On the other hand, allowing youths to participate in the process of policies formulation will guarantee a long-term societal engagement, since, pragmatically speaking, these adopted policies will eventually influence their future; at the same time, we conclude that providing proper training and building young people’s capacity will provide them with fundamental personal skills, while simultaneously enhancing their sustainable attitude to respond adequately to environmental challenges consequently assisting the national government with their environmental endeavours. Finally, the following paper contributes to the relevant existing body of literature, by providing empirical evidence on different types of government initiatives that could make young people more engaged and inclined in environmental issues.

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Fleck, Z., Gadó, G., Halmai, G., Hegyi, Sz., Juhász, G., Kis, J., Körtvélyesi, Zs., Majtényi, B. & Tóth, G. A. (2011). Opinion on the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Online: http://lapa.princeton.edu/hosteddocs/amicus-to-vc-english-final.pdf Fournier, T. (2019). From Rhetoric to Action, a Constitutional Analysis of Populism. German Law Journal, 20(3), 362–381. Online: http://doi.org/10.1017/glj.2019.22 Gidron, N. & Bonikowski, B. (2013). Varieties of Populism: Literature Review and Research Agenda. Harvard Working Paper Series, 13004. Online: https://bit.ly/3JbpTtY Ginsburg, T., Huq, A. Z. & Versteeg, M. (2018). The Coming Demise of Liberal Constitutionalism. University of Chicago Law Review, 85(2), 239–255. Online: https://bit.ly/3XShAra Ginsburg, T., Melton, J. & Elkins, Z. (2011). On the Evasion of Executive Term Limits. William & Mary Law Review, 52(6), 1807–1872. Online: https://bit.ly/3RfDxOV Inglehart, R. & Norris, P. (2016). Trump, Brexit, and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash. Harvard Kennedy School Faculty Research Working Paper Series, RWP16-026. Invernizzi Accetti, C. & Zuckermann, I. (2017). What’s Wrong with Militant Democracy? Political Studies, 65(1_suppl), 182–199. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321715614849 Kazai, Z. V. (2019, May 1). Administrative Judicial Reform in Hungary: Who Gives a Fig about Parliamentary Process? Verfassungsblog on Matters Constitutional. Online: http://bit.ly/3Hu5q2q Kombos, C. & Laulhé Shaelou, S. (2019). The Cypriot Constitution Under the Impact of EU Law: An Asymmetrical Formation. In A. Albi & S. Bardutzky (Eds.), National Constitutions in European and Global Governance: Democracy, Rights, the Rule of Law (pp. 1373–1432). T.M.C. Asser Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-273-6_29 Kovács, K. & Tóth, G. A. (2016). Hungary’s Constitutional Transformation. European Constitutional Law Review, 7(2), 183–203. 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The Constitution as an Instrument of Everyday Party Politics: The Basic Law of Hungary. In A. von Bogdandy & P. Sonnevend (Eds.), Constitutional Crisis in the European Constitutional Area (pp. 33–109). Hart Publishing. Stumpf, I. (2017). The Hungarian Constitutional Court’s Place in the Constitutional System of Hungary. Polgári Szemle, 13(Special Issue), 239–258. Online: http://doi.org/10.24307/psz.2017.0314 Szente, Z. (2015). The Decline of Constitutional Review in Hungary – Towards a Partisan Constitutional Court? In Z. Szente, F. Mandák & Zs. Fejes (Eds.), Challenges and Pitfalls in the Recent Hungarian Constitutional Development (pp. 185–210). L’Harmattan. Szentgáli-Tóth, B. (2014, September 12). Mi és miért változott? Az új önkormányzati választási rendszer háttere. Arsboni. Online: http://bit.ly/3RbeEDN Szentgáli-Tóth, B. (2015, July 16). Some Points against Legislating with Two-Thirds Majority. Lawyr.it. Online: http://bit.ly/3XA8krU Szentgáli-Tóth, B. (2018a). Hogyan tovább, kétharmad? A minősített többségű törvényalkotás múltja, jelene, jövője Magyarországon. HVG Orac Könyvkiadó. Szentgáli-Tóth, B. (2018b). A minősített törvények mint az alapvető jogok védelmének eszközei Közép- és Kelet-Európában. Magyar Jog, (3), 155–161. Szentgáli-Tóth, B. (2018c). Puede la mayoría cualificada socavar la democracia? El caso de Hungría. Teoria y realidad constitucional, 41, 419–431. Tamanaha, B. Z. (2006). The Tensions Between Legal Instrumentalism and the Rule of Law. UC Berkeley. The Sound of Economics (2020, May 4): An Analysis of the German Constitutional Court’s Ruling on the ECB QE Programme. The Sound of Economics. Online: http://bit.ly/3kzNREV Tormey, S. (2018). Populism: Democracy’s Pharmakon? Policy Studies, 39(3), 260–273. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/01442872.2018.1475638 Urbinati, N. (2017). Populism and the Principle of Majority. In C. Rovira Kaltwasser, P. A. Taggart, P.O. Espejo & P. Ostiguy (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Populism (pp. 571–587). Oxford University Press. Versteeg, M., Horley, T., Meng, A., Guim, M. & Guirguis, M. (2020). The Law and Politics of Presidential Term Limit Evasion. Columbia Law Review, 120(1), 173–248. Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26868346 Waldron, J. (2006). The Core of the Case against Judicial Review. The Yale Law Journal, 115(6), 1346–1406. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/20455656 Walker, N. (2019). Populism and Constitutional Tensions. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 17(2), 515–535. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/moz027 Zakaria, F. (1997). The Rise of Illiberal Democracy. Foreign Affairs, 76(6), 22–43. 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Our paper focuses on the impact of populism on the functioning of constitutional democracy in Europe. To analyse such a complex issue, a survey has been elaborated, which tries to outline how the current populist tendencies influence the institutional framework of constitutional democracy and to what extent such parties aim and are able to undermine the long-term prevalence of rule of law. To achieve this goal, the survey monitors, amongst others, the use of referenda in European countries; the presence of instruments of participatory and direct democracy; which are the political programme of populist parties, and in particular what are their ambitions concerning institutional reforms; whether the status, the independence, the competence and the composition of the constitutional court and the judiciary are contested. The survey also examines whether the protection standard of the most important fundamental rights are relativized, or are intended to be relativized by the populist parties of the different countries. We approached young constitutional scholars from certain member states, at the initial stage of their academic career, and asked them to fill the survey.

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The emanation of the Covid-19 global pandemic has managed to influence specific legal, political and socio-economic aspects. Public health, public institutions, as well as concepts such as: the rule of law, restriction of certain human rights and socio-economic wellbeing became characteristics of the global pandemic and as such triggered a state of emergency. The pandemic cannot be a justified pretext for an unlimited suspension of democracy. Indeed, restrictions on civil rights and liberties ought to be interim, proportional and transparent. Although the emergency measures taken by governments against the Covid-19 should be provisional, timebound and in congruence with democracy as any contemporary political regime or state governed by the rule of law. This situation once again revealed to us the importance of a constitutional state of emergency guided by public law in its forms and examples of comparative constitutional law regarding events which in 2020 demanded the emergence and function of public institutions in an effort to protect society. The state of emergency is regulated by the Constitution of the Republic of North Macedonia of 1991 in general which gives the government expansive power, such as bypassing the parliament’s power through issuing acts by force of law. It is worth mentioning that in North Macedonia there is no lex specialis or special legislative act that regulates a state of emergency.

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Emerging Topics on Inter-municipal Cooperation in the Czech Republic: Policy Networking, Regionalization and Financial Indicators. Lex Localis – Journal of Local Self-Government, 18(3), 579–602. Online: https://doi.org/10.4335/18.3.579-602(2020) Balázs, I. (2014). L’intercommunalité en Hongrie. In M. C. Steckel-Assouère (Ed.), Regards croisés sur les mutations de l’intercommunalité (pp. 425–435). L’Harmattan. Bel, G., Fageda, X. & Mur, M. (2013). Why Do Municipalities Cooperate to Provide Local Public Services? An Empirical Analysis. Local Government Studies, 39(3), 435–454. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/03003930.2013.781024 Boyer, A. (2012). La cooperation intercommunale en France. Istituzioni del federalismo: Rivista di Studi Giuridici e Politici, 3, 583–598. Camões, P. J., Tavares, A. & Teles, F. (2021). Assessing the Intensity of Cooperation: A Study of Joint Delegation of Municipal Functions to Inter-municipal Associations. Local Government Studies, 47(4), 593–615. 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Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13147-016-0447-y Marotta, M., Bolgherini, S. & Casula, M. (2018). Il dilemma del riordino. Unioni e fusioni dei comuni italiani. Il Mulino. Matschek, M. (2011). Interkommunale Zusammenarbeit. Recht & Finanzenfur Gemeinden, 2, 11–94. Ministerstwo Administracji i Cyfryzacji. (2013). Biała księga obszarów metropolitalnych. Warszawa. Moll, T. (2017). Ustawa o związkach metropolitalnych – rozwiązanie słuszne czy kompromisowe? Przegląd Prawa Publicznego, 7–8, 149–151. Niziołek, M. (2007). Problemy ustroju aglomeracji miejskich (ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Warszawy). Wolters Kluwer. Ofiarska, M. (2017). Supervision of the Metropolitan Union’s Financial Issues in Poland. Acta Universitatis Brunensis. Iuridica, Editio Scientia, 580, 156–171. Ofiarska, M. (2022). Determinants and Directions of Evolution of Intermunicipal Cooperation Forms: From the Perspective of 30 Years of Experience in the Creation of Municipal Associations in Poland. Journal of Eastern Europe Research in Business and Economics, 2022, 1–16. Online: http://doi.org/10.5171/2022.349212 Ofiarska, M. & Ofiarski, Z. (2021). Związki komunalne i metropolitalne w Polsce. Wolters Kluwer. Pyka, R. (2018). Górnośląsko-Zagłębiowska Metropolia jako innowacja w samorządzie terytorialnym. Szanse i wyzwania pierwszego w Polsce Związku Metropolitalnego. Studia Regionalne i Lokalne, 71(1), 1–25. Online: http://doi.org/10.7366/1509499517101 Rakar, I., Tičar, B. & Klun, M. (2015). Inter-municipal Cooperation: Challenges in Europe and in Slovenia. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 45, 185–200. Da Silva, D. P., Silvestre, H. C. & Embalo, A. A. (2020). Inter-municipal Cooperation in Brazil: The Case of Solid Waste Consortia. Revista de Administração Pública, 54(5), 1239–1259. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-761220180151x Spicer, Z. (2015). Cooperation and Capacity: Inter-municipal Agreements in Canada. 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Wyzwania legislacyjne w zakresie zarządzania obszarami metropolitalnymi w Polsce. Przegląd Prawa i Administracji, 114(3833), 387–409. Online: http://doi.org/10.19195/0137-1134.114.25 Teles, F. (2016). Local Governance and Inter-municipal Cooperation. Palgrave Macmillan. Warner, M., Austin, A. & Yunji, K. (2021). Privatization and Intermunicipal Cooperation in US Local Government Services: Balancing Fiscal Stress, Need and Political Interests. Public Management Review, 23(9), 1359–1376. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2020.1751255 Wiberg, U. & Limani, I. (2015). Intermunicipal Collaboration – A Smart Alternative for Small Municipalities? Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, 19(1), 63–82. Yurisch, A. K., Soto, K. & Fuenzalida, C. R. (2019). Inter-municipal Cooperation in Latin America: Current Situation and Future Research Challenges. Revista de Administração Pública, 53(3), 575–591. 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For nearly 25 years, the problem of managing public affairs in metropolitan areas in Poland has been present in the public debate and the legislative process. The aim of the study is to analyse and evaluate the projects and adopted acts dedicated to such areas. Using legal dogmatics and historical and legal methods, successive attempts have been made to adopt a legal basis for managing metropolitan areas and performing and financing metropolitan tasks, both in the form of a single act, regulating the organisation and functioning of metropolitan selfgovernment throughout the country using a comprehensive and framework approach and legal solutions dedicated to only one metropolitan area. In 2017, the first and so far the only metropolitan union in Poland was established in the Silesian Voivodeship. It was determined that the search for appropriate organisational forms for the performance and sources of financing metropolitan tasks had not yet been completed. So far, an agreement has been reached on the choice of a statutory functional solution based on the structure of a metropolitan union and a catalogue of metropolitan tasks, separate from the public tasks of municipalities and districts. The metropolitan union was provided with financing from the state budget.

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