How Can Governmental Incentives Inspire Youth to Be More Engaged in Environmental Protection?
An Analysis of Factors Affecting Djiboutian Young People’s Engagement Toward the Environment
Copyright (c) 2023 Aden Kadir
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
During the past years, environmental protection and adopting countermeasures against climate change have been on the agenda of many East African countries, as well as western nations, although a common challenge confronted by policymakers is directing young people’s interest toward the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of certain factors that can be adopted by government bodies as a strategy to make youth more engaged in environmental activities. An electronic questionnaire was completed by Djiboutian young people from February 2022 to late June 2022. We retrieved 440 out of 500 questionnaires; a structural equation model was subsequently employed to assess the effects of government rewards, interactions, capacity building and favourable policies on youth engagement. According to the results, all the factors demonstrated a positive impact on youth engagement; consequently, we conclude that young people have tendencies to engage in activities that revolve around environmental issues when there is a reward system in place. Likewise, establishing an interactive platform that accommodates young people’s opinions while the government provides reasonable feedback will stimulate engagement. Reasonably, embracing policies in favour of the environment will depict the government as an effective, responsible leader, retroactively influencing young people’s perceptions. On the other hand, allowing youths to participate in the process of policies formulation will guarantee a long-term societal engagement, since, pragmatically speaking, these adopted policies will eventually influence their future; at the same time, we conclude that providing proper training and building young people’s capacity will provide them with fundamental personal skills, while simultaneously enhancing their sustainable attitude to respond adequately to environmental challenges consequently assisting the national government with their environmental endeavours. Finally, the following paper contributes to the relevant existing body of literature, by providing empirical evidence on different types of government initiatives that could make young people more engaged and inclined in environmental issues.
How to Cite
Abila, B., & Kantola, J. (2019). The perceived role of financial incentives in promoting waste recycling—Empirical evidence from Finland. Recycling, 4(1), 4. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling4010004
Agence-France Presse (2022, August 20). Horn of Africa drought places 22 million people at risk of starvation, says UN. The Guardian. Online: http://bit.ly/3CVR1ZS
Alford, J. (2009). Engaging public sector clients: From service-delivery to co-production. Springer.
Alicea, S. P. (2012). Step-up: Promoting youth mental health and development in inner-city high schools. Clinical social work journal, 40(2), 175–186. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10615-011-0344-3
Allen, J. D. (1993). Using coupon incentives in recycling aluminium: A market approach to energy conservation policy. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 27(2), 300–318. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.1993.tb00750.x
Arnold, H. E., Cohen, F. G., & Warner, A. (2009). Youth and environmental action: Perspectives of young environmental leaders on their formative influences. The Journal of environmental education, 40(3), 27–36. Online: https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEE.40.3.27-36
Bamberg, S. (2006). Is a residential relocation a good opportunity to change people’s travel behaviour? Results from a theory-driven intervention study. Environment and behaviour, 38(6), 820–840. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/001391650528509
Barber, T. (2009). Participation, citizenship, and well-being: Engaging with young people, making a difference. Young, 17(1), 25–40. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/110330880801700103
Barnett, R. V., & Brennan, M. A. (2006). Integrating youth into community development: Implications for policy planning and program evaluation. journal of Youth Development, 1(2), 5–19. Online: https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2006.382
Bennett, J. V., Ylimaki, R. M., Dugan, T. M., & Brunderman, L. A. (2014). Developing the potential for sustainable improvement in underperforming schools: Capacity building in the socio-cultural dimension. Journal of Educational Change, 15(4), 377–409. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-013-9217-6
Bennett, R., Savani, S., & Ali-Choudhury, R. (2008). Effective strategies for enhancing waste recycling rates in socially deprived areas. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 7(1), 71–97. Online: https://doi.org/10.1362/147539208X290398
Bishop, P., & Davis, G. (2002). Mapping public participation in policy choices. Australian journal of public administration, 61(1), 14–29. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8500.00255
Bouman, T., Steg, L., & Zawadzki, S. J. (2020). The value of what others value: When perceived biospheric group values influence individuals’ pro-environmental engagement. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 71, 101470. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2020.101470.
Bråten, I., Gil, L., Strømsø, H. I., & Vidal-Abarca, E. (2009). Personal epistemology across cultures: Exploring Norwegian and Spanish university students’ epistemic beliefs about climate change. Social Psychology of Education, 12(4), 529–560. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-009-9097-z
Brennan, M. (2007). Community development in the west of Ireland: twenty years on in the Killala area. Community Development Journal, 42(3), 330–347. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsl017
Browne, L. P., Garst, B. A., & Bialeschki, M. D. (2011). Engaging youth in environmental sustainability: Impact of the Camp 2 Grow program. journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(3). Online: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/2256
Bryson, J., Piper, J., & Rounsevell, M. (2010). Envisioning futures for climate change policy development: scenarios use in European environmental policy institutions. Environmental Policy and Governance, 20(5), 283–294. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/eet.542
Canel, M. J., Barandiarán, X., & Murphy, A. (2022). What does learning by listening bring to citizen engagement? Lessons from a government program. Public Relations Review, 48(1), 102132. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2021.102132
Carlson, A. E. (2001). Recycling norms. California Law Review 89, 1231–1300.
Carlson, C. (2006). The Hampton experience as a new model for youth civic engagement. Journal of Community Practice, 14(1-2), 89–106. Online: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J125v14n01_06
Case, A. D., & Hunter, C. D. (2012). Counterspaces: A unit of analysis for understanding the role of settings in marginalized individuals’ adaptive responses to oppression. American journal of community psychology, 50(1), 257–270. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-012-9497-7
Castelloe, P. W. (2002). Participatory change: An integrative approach to community practice. Journal of Community Practice, 10(4), 7–31. Online: https://doi.org/10.1300/J125v10n04_02
Cavaye, J. (2004). Governance and community engagement: The Australian experience. In W. R. Lovan, M. Murray, & R. Shaffer (Eds.), Participatory Governance: Planning, Conflict Mediation and Public Decision Making in Civil Society (pp. 85–102). Routledge. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315247335
Chamberlin, J. (1978). A Diagrammatic Exposition of the Logic of Collective Action. In C. A. Hooker, J. J. Leach, & E. F. McClennen (Eds), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory (pp. 17–18). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-9792-9_2
Chan, L. L., & Idris, N. (2017). Validity and reliability of the instrument using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(10), 400–410. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i10/3387
Chawla, L., & Cushing, D. F. (2007). Education for strategic environmental behaviour. Environmental education research, 13(4), 437–452. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620701581539
Chen, L., Gao, X., Hua, C., Gong, S., & Yue, A. (2021). Evolutionary process of promoting green building technologies adoption in China: A perspective of government. Journal of Cleaner Production, 279, 123607. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123607
Chen, Y. J. (2015). The role of reward systems in product innovations: An examination of new product development projects. Project Management Journal, 46(3), 36–48. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/pmj.21499
Chiang, F. F., & Birtch, T. A. (2008). Achieving task and extra-task-related behaviors: A case of gender and position differences in the perceived role of rewards in the hotel industry. International journal of hospitality management, 27(4), 491–503. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.08.009
Chin, W. W. (2008). Structural equation modelling in marketing: Some practical reminders. Journal of marketing theory and practice, 16(4), 287–298. Online: https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679160402
Christensen, J., Aarøe, L., Baekgaard, M., Herd, P., & Moynihan, D. P. (2020). Human capital and administrative burden: The role of cognitive resources in citizen‐state interactions. Public Administration Review, 80(1), 127–136. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13134.
Chung, S. S., & C. S. Poon. (1996). The attitudinal differences in source separation and waste reduction between the general public and the housewives in Hong Kong. Journal of Environmental Management, 48(3), 215–227. Online: https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.1996.0074
Cohen, C., Pearlmutter, D., & Schwartz, M. (2017). A game theory-based assessment of the implementation of green building in Israel. Building and Environment, 125, 122–128. Online: https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.1996.0074
Cook, C. W., & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and organizational behaviour. Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Craig, R. T. (2006). Communication as a practice. In G. J. Shepherd, J. St. John, & T. Striphas (Eds.), Communication as … : Perspectives on theory, (pp. 38–49). Sage Publications. Online: https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781483329055.n5
Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305279602
Dardanoni, V., & Guerriero, C. (2021). Young people's willingness to pay for environmental protection. Ecological Economics, 179, 106853. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106853.
Delli Carpini, M. X. (2000). Gen. com: Youth, civic engagement, and the new information environment. Political communication, 17(4), 341–349. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/10584600050178942
Doherty, S., & Mayer, S. E. (2003). Capacity building programs for nonprofit programs. Journal of Human Development, 4(1), 85–111.
Edelman, M. J. (1964). The symbolic uses of politics. University of Illinois Press.
Elster, J. (1989). The cement of society: A study of social order. Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511624995
EPI. (201). Global Metrics for the Environment. The Environmental Performance Index. Online: https://epi.yale.edu/epi-results/2022/country/dji
Erbstein, N. (2013). Engaging underrepresented youth populations in community youth development: Tapping social capital as a critical resource. New directions for youth development, (138), 109–124. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.20061
Feldman, S., & Conover, P. J. (1983). Candidates, issues and voters: The role of inference in political perception. The Journal of Politics, 45(4), 810–839. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/2130414
Garcés, C. L. (2002). Urban waste recycling behaviour: antecedents of participation in a selective collection program. Environmental management, 30(3), 378–390. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-002-2601-2
Garson, G. D. (2012). Factor Analysis. Statistical Associates Publishers.
Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M. C. (2000). Structural equation modelling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the association for information systems, 4(1), 7. Online: https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.00407
Geldhof, G. J., Bowers, E. P., & Lerner, R. M. (2013). Special section introduction: Thriving in context: Findings from the 4-H study of positive youth development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(1), 1–5. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9855-7
Granger, R. C. (2010). Understanding and improving the effectiveness of after-school practice. American journal of community psychology, 45(3), 441–446. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9301-5
Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106–121. Online: https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128
Hair Jr., J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. 7th Edition. Pearson Education.
Harris, A. W. (2010). Beyond apathetic or activist youth: ‘Ordinary young people and contemporary forms of participation. Young, 18(1), 9–32. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/110330880901800103
Hart, R. A. (2013). Children's participation: The theory and practice of involving young citizens in community development and environmental care. Routledge. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315070728
Hassan, H. A. (2021). Public service motivation and employee change-supportive intention: Utilizing the theory of planned behaviour. Public Personnel Management,, 50(2), 283–304. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0091026020934515
Hawe, P. S. (2009). Theorising interventions as events in systems. American journal of community psychology, 43(3), 267–276. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-009-9229-9
He, C., Wang, X., & Zhao, G. (2018). Developer’s willingness to construct green dwellings in China: Factors and stimulating policies. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 24(5), 378–389. Online: https://doi.org/10.3846/jcem.2018.5185
Heikkila, T. &. (2007). Citizen involvement and performance management in special‐purpose governments. Public Administration Review, 67(2), 238–248. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2007.00710.x
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modelling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1–55. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Hügel, S., & Davies, A. R. (2020). Public participation, engagement, and climate change adaptation: A review of the research literature. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 11(4), e645. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.645
Iwasaki, Y. (2016). The role of youth engagement in positive youth development and social justice youth development for high-risk, marginalised youth. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 21(3), 267–278. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2015.1067893
Jager, N. W., Newig, J., Challies, E., & Kochskämper, E. (2020). Pathways to implementation: Evidence on how participation in environmental governance impacts on environmental outcomes. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 30(3), 383–399. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/muz034
Johnson, L. R., Johnson-Pynn, J. S., Sweeney, S. S., & Williams, C. T. (2009). Youth civic action: Going green, going global. EcoPsychology, 1(2), 75–84. Online: https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2009.0007
Johnston, K. A., & Lane, A. B. (2018). Building relational capital: The contribution of episodic and relational community engagement. Public Relations Review, 44(5), 633–644. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2018.10.006
Johnston, K. A., & Lane, A. B. (2019). An authenticity matrix for community engagement. Public Relations Review, 45(4), 101811. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.101811
Kaiser, F. G., & Wilson, M. (2004). Goal-directed conservation behaviour: The specific composition of a general performance. Personality and individual differences, 36(7), 1531–1544. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2003.06.003
Kaiser, F. G., Henn, L., & Marschke, B. (2020). Financial rewards for long-term environmental protection. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 68, 101411. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2020.101411
Kamboj, S. S. (2018). Examining branding co-creation in brand communities on social media: Applying the paradigm of Stimulus-Organism-Response. International Journal of Information Management, 39, 169–185. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2017.12.001
Kauneckis, D., & Andersson, K. (2009). Making decentralization work: A cross-national examination of local governments and natural resource governance in Latin America. Studies in Comparative International Development, 44(1), 23–46. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12116-008-9036-6
Kazdin, A. E. (2009). Psychological science’s contributions to a sustainable environment: Extending our reach to a grand challenge of society. American Psychologist, 64(5), 339. Online: http://doi.org/10.1037/a0015685
Kim, Y., & Darnall, N. (2016). Business as a collaborative partner: Understanding firms’ sociopolitical support for policy formation. Public Administration Review, 76(2), 326–337. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12463
Kinder, D. R., & Sears, D. O. (1985). Public opinion and political action. Handbook of social psychology, 2, 659–741.
Knoepfel, P. L. (2007). Public policy analysis. The Policy Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315693965
Kormos, C., & Gifford, R. (2014). The validity of self-report measures of proenvironmental behaviour: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 359–371. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.09.003
Kotzé, L. J. (2006). Improving unsustainable environmental governance in South Africa: The case for holistic governance. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 9(1). Online: 10.4314/pelj.v9i1.43452
Krosnick, J. A. (1990). Government policy and citizen passion: A study of issue publics in contemporary America. Political behaviour, 12(1), 59–92. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992332
Latopa, A. L. A., & Abd Rashid, S. N. S. (2015). The impacts of integrated youth training farm as a capacity building center for youth agricultural empowerment in Kwara State, Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(5), 524–524. Online: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n5p524
Latulippe, N., & Klenk, N. (2020). Making room and moving over: knowledge co-production, Indigenous knowledge sovereignty and the politics of global environmental change decision-making. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 42, 7–14. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2019.10.010
Li, X. W. (2020). Game analysis on prefabricated building evolution based on dynamic revenue risks in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 267, 121730. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121730
Lin, S. W., & Lo, L. Y.-S. (2015). Mechanisms to motivate knowledge sharing: integrating the reward systems and social network perspectives. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(2), 212–235. Online: https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-05-2014-0209
Lorenzoni, I., Nicholson-Cole, S., & Whitmarsh, L. (2007). Barriers perceived to engaging with climate change among the UK public and their policy implications. Global environmental change, 17(3–4), 445–459. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.01.004
Macnamara, J. (2016). The work and ‘architecture of listening’: Addressing gaps in organization-public communication. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 10(2), 133–148. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/1553118X.2016.1147043
Macnamara, J. (2017). Creating a democracy for everyone: Strategies for increasing listening and engagement by government. The London School of Economics and Political Science and University of Technology Sydney.
Maki, A., Burns, R. J., Ha, L., & Rothman, A. J. (2016). Paying people to protect the environment: A meta-analysis of financial incentive interventions to promote proenvironmental behaviors. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 47, 242–255. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.07.006
Maynard, K. K. (2008). Fostering youth engagement: A model of youth voice, empowerment, and participation. Masters Dissertation. Texas A&M University.
Meadowcroft, J. (2007). Who is in charge here? Governance for sustainable development in a complex world. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 9(3–4), 299–314. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/15239080701631544
Mettler, S., & Soss, J. (2004). The consequences of public policy for democratic citizenship: Bridging policy studies and mass politics. Perspectives on politics, 2(1), 55–73. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592704000623
Miklosi, J. (2007). Respecting, listening, and empowering: three vital factors of increasing civic engagement in American teenagers. National Civic Review, 96(2), 36–42. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/ncr.176
Moynihan, D. P. (2012). Responsiveness to reform values: The influence of the environment on performance information use. Public Administration Review, 72(s1), S95–S105. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2012.02653.x
Narksompong, J., & Limjirakan, S. (2015). Youth participation in climate change for sustainable engagement. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, 24(2), 171–181. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/reel.12121.
Nyoni, D. (2009). Youth participation in addressing global challenges: the promise of the future. In P. B. Corcoran, & P. Osano (Eds.), Young people, education, and sustainable development (pp. 85–90). Wageningen Academic Publishers. Online: https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-691-5
O’Donnell, C. R., & Tharp, R. G. (2012). Integrating cultural community psychology: Activity settings and the shared meanings of intersubjectivity. American journal of community psychology, 49(1), 22–30. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-011-9434-1
O'brien, K., Selboe, E., & Hayward, B. M. (2018). Exploring youth activism on climate change. Ecology and Society, 23(3). Online: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10287-230342
Olson, M. (1971). The logic of collective action: public goods and the theory of groups. Harvard University Press.
O'Neill, B. (2007). Indifferent or just different?: The political and civic engagement of young people in Canada. Canadian Policy Research Network.
Onuoha, I. J., Aliagha, G. U., & Rahman, M. S. A. (2018). Modelling the effects of green building incentives and green building skills on supply factors affecting green commercial property investment. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90, 814–823. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.04.012
Pancer, S. M., & M. W. Pratt. (1999). In M. Yates, & J. Youniss (Eds.), Roots of civic identity: International perspectives on community service and activism in youth, (pp. 32-55). Cambridge University Press. Online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23004823
Pereira, T., & Freire, T. (2021). Positive Youth Development in the Context of Climate Change: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. Online: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.786119.
Perri, M. (2007). Vaughan youth cabinet: Youth participation in community planning and design. Children Youth and Environments, 17(2), 581–593. Online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7721/chilyoutenvi.17.2.0581
Phang, C. W., Kankanhalli, A., & Huang, L. (2014). Drivers of quantity and quality of participation in online policy deliberation forums. Journal of Management Information Systems, 31(3), 172–212. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2014.995549
Piqueiras, P., Canel, M. J., & Luoma‐aho, V. (2020). Citizen engagement and public sector communication. In V. Luoma-aho, & M.-J. Canel (Eds.), The Handbook of Public Sector Communication, (pp. 277–287). Wiley-Blackwell. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119263203.ch18
Rose‐Krasnor, L. (2009). Future directions in youth involvement research. Social Development, 18(2), 497–509. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00506.x
Ru, X., Qin, H., & Wang, S. (2019). Young people’s behaviour intentions towards reducing PM2. 5 in China: Extending the theory of planned behaviour. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 141, 99–108. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.10.019
Scharlemann, J. P., Brock, R. C., Balfour, N., Brown, C., Burgess, N. D., Guth, M. K., & Kapos, V. (2020). Towards understanding interactions between Sustainable Development Goals: The role of environment–human linkages. Sustainability science, 15(6), 1573–1584. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-020-00799-6
Schultz, P. W., Oskamp, S., & Mainieri, T. (1995). Who recycles and when? A review of personal and situational factors. Journal of environmental psychology, 15(2), 105–121. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-4944(95)90019-5
Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modelling. Psychology Press.
Schusler, T. M., & Krasny, M. E. (2010). Environmental action as context for youth development. The Journal of Environmental Education, 41(4), 208–223. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/00958960903479803
Scott, D. (1999). Equal opportunity, unequal results: determinants of household recycling intensity. Environment and behaviour, 31(2), 267–290. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/00139169921972100
Shaffer, V. A., & Arkes, H. R. (2009). Preference reversals in evaluations of cash versus non-cash incentives. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30(6), 859–872. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2009.08.001
Shafiei, A., & Maleksaeidi, H. (2020). Pro-environmental behaviour of university students: Application of protection motivation theory. Global Ecology and Conservation, 22, e00908. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00908
Shaharir, B. M. (2012). A new paradigm of sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(1), 91–99. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v5n1p91
Smelser, N. J., & Baltes, P. B. (2001). International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (Vol. 11). Elsevier.
Sommerfeldt, E. J. (2013). The civility of social capital: Public relations in the public sphere, civil society, and democracy. Public Relations Review, 39(4), 280–289. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.12.004
Stewart, M. (2010). Transforming higher education: a practical plan for integrating sustainability education into the student experience. Journal of Sustainability Education, 1(1), 195–203.
Stoneman, D. (2002). The role of youth programming in the development of civic engagement. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 221–226. Online: https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS0604_9
Szagun, G., & Pavlov, V. I. (1995). Environmental awareness: A comparative study of German and Russian adolescents. Youth & Society, 27(1), 93–112. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X950270010
Talwar, S., Wiek, A., & Robinson, J. (2011). User engagement in sustainability research. Science and Public Policy, 38(5), 379–390. Online: https://doi.org/10.3152/030234211X12960315267615
Taylor, M., & Kent, M. L. (2014). Dialogic engagement: Clarifying foundational concepts. Journal of public relations research, 26(5), 384–398. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/1062726X.2014.956106
Thew, H., Middlemiss, L., & Paavola, J. (2020). “Youth is not a political position”: Exploring justice claims-making in the UN Climate Change Negotiations. Global Environmental Change, 61, 102036. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102036
Timlett, R. E., & Williams, I. D. (2008). Public participation and recycling performance in England: A comparison of tools for behaviour change. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 52(4), 622–634. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.08.003
Tommasetti, A., Singer, P., Troisi, O., & Maione, G. (2017). Extended theory of planned behaviour (ETPB): investigating customers’ perception of restaurants’ sustainability by testing a structural equation model. Sustainability, 10(7), 2580. Online: https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072580
Varney, D. (2007). Splitting the ranks: Youth as leaders, laborers, and learners in US public space participation projects. Children Youth and Environments, 17(2), 646–673. Online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7721/chilyoutenvi.17.2.0646
Wallis, H., & Loy, L. S. (2021). What drives pro-environmental activism of young people? A survey study on the Fridays For Future movement. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 74, 101581. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101581
Watts, R. J., & Flanagan, C. (2007). Pushing the envelope on youth civic engagement: A developmental and liberation psychology perspective. Journal of community psychology, 35(6), 779–792. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20178
Webler, T., & Tuler, S. (2000). Fairness and competence in citizen participation: Theoretical reflections from a case study. Administration & Society, 32(5), 566–595. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/00953990022019588
Westland, J. C. (2010). Lower bounds on sample size in structural equation modelling. Electronic commerce research and applications, 9(6), 476–487. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2010.07.003
Wheeler, W., & Edlebeck, C. (2006). Leading, learning, and unleashing potential: Youth leadership and civic engagement. New Directions for Youth Development, (109), 89–97. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.156
Williams, I. D., & Taylor, C. (2004). Maximising household waste recycling at civic amenity sites in Lancashire, England. Waste Management, 24(9), 861–874. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2004.02.002
Willis, P. (2012). Engaging communities: Ostrom's economic commons, social capital and public relations. Public Relations Review, 38(1), 116–122. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.08.016
Yang, K., & Callahan, K. (2005). Assessing citizen involvement efforts by local governments. Public Performance & Management Review, 29(2), 191–216. Online: 10.1080/15309576.2005.11051865
Yohalem, N., & Martin, S. (2007). Building the evidence base for youth engagement: Reflections on youth and democracy. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(6), 807–810. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20180
Zamir, E., & Sulitzeanu‐Kenan, R. (2018). Explaining self‐interested behaviour of public‐spirited policy makers. Public Administration Review, 78(4), 579–592. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12825
Zilans, A. (2013). Assessment of urban development policies in the context of sustainability in Latvia. WIT Trans Ecol Environ, 175, 135–147. Online:10.2495/ECO130121