Full Issue


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Online: https://doi.org/10.53116/pgaflr.2021.1.6 " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(3) "5-6" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.1" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(68) "András Koltay, Miklós Könczöl, András Lapsánszky; Tussay Ákos" } ["prefix"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(37) "Privacy and Governmental Transparency" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(9) "Editorial" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(4) { [0]=> object(Author)#872 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7454) ["email"]=> string(24) "koltay.andras@uni-nke.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(6045) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) 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["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Tussay" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Tussay" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(5) "Ákos" ["hu_HU"]=> string(5) "Ákos" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(9) "editorial" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#881 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(21335) ["id"]=> int(4762) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(6045) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> 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Conference Proceedings

object(Publication)#81 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(5919) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-01-10" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-01-24 11:09:30" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7245) ["sectionId"]=> int(105) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(5795) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3619) "Brems, E. et al. (2014). The Belgian “burqa ban” confronted with insider realities. In E. Brems (Ed.), The Experiences of Face Veil Wearers in Europe and the Law (pp. 77–114). Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415591 Edwards, S. S. M. (2014). No Burqas We’re French! The Wide Margin of Appreciation and the ECtHR Burqa Ruling. Denning Law Journal, 26, 246–260. Online: https://doi.org/10.5750/dlj.v26i0.931 Gabriel, S. (2014, May 14). Unsere politischen Konsequenzen aus der Google-Debatte. FAZ. Giles, B. (2017, August 23). Legislator to draft law to unmask protesters he compares to Ku Klux Klan. Arizona Capitol Times. Online: https://bit.ly/3kOWtok Johnson, J. H. (2001). Versailles, meet Les Halles: Masks, carnival, and the French Revolution. Representations, (73), 89–116. Online: https://doi.org/10.1525/rep.2001.73.1.89 Judkis, M. (2017, August 14). Charlottesville White Nationalist Demonstrator Loses Job at a Libertarian Hot Dog Shop. The Washington Post. Online: https://wapo.st/3DsRe5b Kahn, R. (2019a). The Long Road Back to Skokie: Returning the First Amendment to Mask Wearers. Brooklyn Journal of Law and Policy, 28 (1), 71–149. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3451477 Kahn, R. (2019b). Mask bans as expressions of memory politics in the United States. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3434689 Kahn, R. (2020). Masks, culture wars, and public health expertise: Confessions of a mask “expert”. University of St. Thomas Legal Studies, Working Paper, No. 20-08. Online: https://bit.ly/32i35W4 Kahn, R. (2021). “My face, my choice?” Mask mandates, bans, and burqas in the COVID age. New York University Journal of Law and Liberty, 14 (3), 651–708. Kahn, R. A. (2011). Are Muslims the new Catholics? Europe’s headscarf laws in comparative political perspective. University of St. Thomas Legal Studies, Working Paper, No. 20-08. Kashmir, J. (2020, January 18). The secretive company that may end privacy as we know it. The New York Times, updated 18 March 2021. Online: https://nyti.ms/32gMQbP Lawrence, C. V. et al. (2020). Masking up: A COVID-19 face-off between anti-mask laws and mandatory mask orders for black Americans. California Law Review, 11, 479–516. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3695257 Mastrangelo, D. (2021, April 27). Tucker Carlson: “Contact child protective services” if you see kids wearing masks outdoors. The Hill. Online: https://bit.ly/3nuKk9U Mechoulan, S. (2018). The case against the face-veil: A European perspective. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 16 (4), 1267–1292. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/moy099 Michaels, R. (2018). Banning burqas: The perspective of postsecular comparative law. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 28, 213–245. Mitsutoshi H. (2014). Why Do the Japanese Wear Masks. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies, 14 (2). Shakargy, S. (2020). You name it: On the cross-border regulation of names. American Journal of Comparative Law, 68 (3), 647–688. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcl/avaa026 Skinner-Thompson, S. (2017). Performative privacy. University of California Davis Law Review, 50 (4), 1673–1740. Solove, D. J., & Schwarz, P. M. (Eds.) (2017). Information Privacy Law. Aspen. Strucke, J. (2006, October 6). Straw: “I’d rather no one wore veils”. The Guardian. Online: https://bit.ly/3qSsTlK Westin, A. (1967). Privacy and Freedom. Atheneum. Whitman, J. Q. (2004). The two Western cultures of privacy: Dignity versus liberty. Yale Law Journal, 113, 1151–1221. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/4135723" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "7-20" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.2" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(922) "

The “living together” concept poses a puzzle. Why did Europeans decide that life in a modern democracy requires showing one’s face? One explanation is opposition to Muslims and Islam. But the enforcement of face veil bans against non-religious mask wearing raises doubts. This essay poses an alternative explanation. What if the face veil bans persist because of European conceptions of privacy? Von Hannover v. Germany held that one be private in public. Given this, why wear a mask? What is there to hide? To explore this idea, the essay turns to the United States, where one cannot be “private in public” and mask wearing has been opposed on narrow grounds such as public security and the content of specific masks. At the same time, the United States respects the decisional privacy of someone to wear a mask even for “irrational” reasons, something the “living together” idea tends to ignore.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(11) "Robert Kahn" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(35) "What’s Privacy Got to Do with It?" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(47) "Masks, Face Veil Bans and “Living Together”" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#841 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7245) ["email"]=> string(19) "rakahn@stthomas.edu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5919) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "US" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7246-9252" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(23) "Saint Thomas University" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(4) "Kahn" ["hu_HU"]=> string(4) "Kahn" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Robert" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Robert" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(5) "masks" [1]=> string(10) "face veils" [2]=> string(16) " living together" [3]=> string(7) "privacy" [4]=> string(23) "Von Hannover v. Germany" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#871 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(20637) ["id"]=> int(4739) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5919) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
object(Publication)#845 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(5918) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-11-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-01-17 09:42:17" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7244) ["sectionId"]=> int(105) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(5794) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2891) "Aougab, T. et al. (2020). Letter to American Mathematics Society Notices: Boycott collaboration to police. Online: https://bit.ly/312vLls Calo, R. (2018). Artificial Intelligence Policy: A Primer and Roadmap. University of Bologna Law Review, 3 (2), 180–218. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3015350 Chalmers, D. (2010). The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17 (9–10), 7–65. Davidson, R. (2019, August 8). Automated Threat Detection and the Future of Policing. US FBI Bulletin. Deeks, A. S. (2018). Predicting Enemies. Virginia Law Review, 104 (8). First Report of the Axon Artificial Intelligence and Policing Technology Ethics Board, June 2019. Franke, K. & Srihari, S. N. (2007, August 29–31). Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/IAS.2007.84 Gotterbarn, D., Miller, K. & Rogerson, S. (1997). Software engineering code of ethics. Communications of the ACM, 40 (11), 110–118. Online: https://doi.org/10.1145/265684.265699 Gouvernement de France (2020, June 17). Launch of the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence. Online: https://bit.ly/3r6jxTz Keneally, E. et al. (2012, August 3). The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communication Technology Research. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2445102 Makker, S. R. (2017). Overcoming “Foggy” Notions of Privacy: How Data Minimization Will Enable Privacy in the Internet of Things. UMKC Law Review, 85 (4), 895–915. Office of the Inspector General (2019, June 12). Review of Selected Los Angeles Police Department Data-Driver Policing Strategies. Online: https://bit.ly/3cIfEvJ O’Neil, C. (2016). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Crown Publishing. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2020, June 15). OCED to host Secretariat of new Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence. Online: https://bit.ly/3l89BFl Uberti, D. (2020, June 1). Algorithms Used in Policing Face Policy Review. Artificial Intelligence Daily, Wall Street Journal. Yampolskiy, R. V. (2012a). Leakproofing the Singularity Artificial Intelligence Confinement Problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19 (1–2), 194–214. Yampolskiy, R. V. (2012b). Artificial Intelligence Safety Engineering: Why Machine Ethics Is a Wrong Approach. In V. C. Müller (Ed.), Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence (pp. 389–396). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31674-6_29 Yampolskiy, R. V. & Fox, J. (2013). Safety Engineering for Artificial General Intelligence. Topoi, 32 (2), 217–226. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11245-012-9128-9 Yemini, M. (2018). The New Irony of Free Speech. Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, 20 (1). Online: https://doi.org/10.7916/stlr.v20i1.4769" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "21-34" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.3" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(566) "

Pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence offer tremendous opportunities for efficient operations, management and governance. They can optimise processes for object, text, graphics, speech and pattern recognition. In doing so the algorithmic processing may be subject to unknown biases that do harm rather than good. We examine how this may happen, what damage may occur and the resulting ethical/legal impact and newly manifest obligations to avoid harm to others from these systems. But what are the risks, given the Human Condition?

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(15) "Michael Losavio" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(99) "Risks in Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence for Justice and Fairness" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(31) "Algorithms of Machines and Law:" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#873 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7244) ["email"]=> string(30) "michael.losavio@louisville.edu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5918) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "US" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4542-8599" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(24) "University of Louisville" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Losavio" ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "Losavio" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Michael" ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "Michael" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(7) { [0]=> string(19) "pattern recognition" [1]=> string(23) "artificial intelligence" [2]=> string(10) "governance" [3]=> string(10) "management" [4]=> string(7) "justice" [5]=> string(6) "ethics" [6]=> string(15) "human condition" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#893 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(20638) ["id"]=> int(4740) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5918) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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(2020). Rättigheter I. Svensk Juristtidning, pp. 759–786. Bohlin, A. (2015). Offentlighetsprincipen (8th edition). Stockholm: Norstedts förlag. Bull, T. (1999). Självständighet och pluralism – om vertikal maktdelning i Sverige. In L. Marcusson (Ed.), Festskrift till Fredrik Sterzel (pp. 107–133). Iustus. Bull, T. (2013). Global governance; need for a new theory or the return of an old friend? In A.-S. Lind & J. Reichel (Eds.), Administrative law beyond the state: Nordic Perspectives (pp. 230–239). Nijhoff Publishers. Bull, T. & Sterzel, F. (2015). Regeringsformen: En kommentar (3rd edition). SNS förlag. Chamberlain, J. (2020). Integritet och skadestånd: Om skyddet för personuppgifter och privatliv i svensk rätt. Iustus. D’Arcy, M., Nistotskaya, M. & Elis, R. (2015). State-building, democracy and taxation: Why Ireland will never be Sweden. University of Tokyo Journal of Law and Politics, 12(Summer), 110–123. Edquist, S. (2017). Ethical Destruction? Privacy concerns regarding Swedish social services records. In P. Jonason & A. Rosengren (Eds.), The Right to access to information and the right to privacy. A democratic balancing act (pp. 11–39). Södertörns högskola. Edling, N. (2013). The Primacy of Welfare Politics. Notes on the language of the Swedish Social Democrats and their adversaries in the 1930s. In H. Haggrén, J. Rainio-Niemi & J. Vauhkonen (Eds.), Multi-layered Historicity of the Present: Approaches to Social Science History (pp. 125–150). University of Helsinki. Enzell, M. (2002). Requiem for a Constitution: Constitutionalism and Political Culture in Early 20th Century Sweden. Stockholm University. Friberg von Sydow, R. (2017). Medical Records – the different Data Carriers Used in Sweden from the End of the 19th Century Until Today and Their Impact on Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. In P. Jonason & A. Rosengren (Eds.), The Right to Access to Information and the Right to Privacy. A democratic balancing act (pp. 41– 60). Södertörns högskola. Gartner, D. (2013). Uncovering Bretton Woods: Conditional Transparency, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. George Washington International Law Review, 45, 121–148. Hall, P. (2016). The Swedish Administrative Model. In J. Pierre (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics (pp. 299–314). Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199665679.013.17 Hirschfeldt, J. (2017). Free Access to Public Documents – A Heritage From 1766. In A.-S. Lind, J. Reichel & I. Österdahl (Eds.), Transparency in the Future – Swedish Openness 250 Years (pp. 21–28). Ragulka. Jacobsson, B. & Sundström, G. (2016). Governing the State. In J. Pierre (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics (pp. 348–362). Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199665679.013.20 Kingsbury, B. (2009). The Concept of ‘Law’ in Global Administrative Law. The European Journal of International Law, 20(1), 23–57. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/chp005 Kumlien, M. (2019). Professorspolitik och samhällsförändring. En rättshistorisk undersökning av den svenska förvaltningsrättens uppkomst. Stockholm: Institutet för rättshistorisk forskning. Lind, A.-S. (2009). Sociala rättigheter i förändring: En konstitutionellrättslig studie. Iustus. Lind, A.-S. (2015). Sweden: Free Press as a First Fundamental Right. In M. Suksi, M. Nowak, K. Agapiou-Josephides & J.-P. Lehners (Eds.), First Fundamental Rights Documents in Europe. Commemorating 800 Years of Magna Carta (pp. 151–162). Intersentia. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781780685281.013 Lindvall, J. & Rothstein, B. (2006). Sweden: The Fall of the Strong State. Scandinavian Political Studies, 29(1), 47–63. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2006.00141.x Öman, S. (2006). Särskilda registerförfattningar. In C. Magnusson Sjöberg & P. Wahlgren (Eds.), Festskrift till Peter Seipel (pp. 685–705). Norstedts juridik. Österdahl, I. (1998). Openness v. Secrecy: Public Access to Documents in Sweden and the European Union. European Law Review, 23(4), 336–356. Österdahl, I. (2015). Transparency versus secrecy in an international context: a Swedish dilemma. In A.-S. Lind, J. Reichel & I. Österdahl (Eds.), Information and Law in Transition: Freedom of Speech, the Internet, Privacy and Democracy in the 21st Century (pp. 74–99). Liber. Reichel, J. (2018). Public Access or Data Protection as a Guiding Principle in the EU’s Composite Administration? An Analysis of the ReNEUAL Model Code in the Light of Swedish and European Case law. In P. Wahlgren (Ed.), 50 Years of Law and IT (pp. 285–308). Jure. Reichel, J. (2020a). Transparency and Openness. In P. Cane, H. C. H. Hofmann, E. C. Ip & P. L. Lindseth (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Administrative Law (pp. 935–956). Oxford University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198799986.013.52 Reichel, J. (2020b). What is it the public has a right to know? The right to privacy for public officials and the right of access to official documents – European and Swedish perspectives. In A. Koltay & P. Wragg (Eds.), Comparative Privacy and Defamation: Research Handbook in Comparative Law (pp. 112–129). Edward Elgar Publishing. Online: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788970594.00014 Rothstein, B. (2020). Myndigheter att lita på. Den svenska demokratins grundbult. In L. Sandström & C. Peterson (Eds.), Den svenska förvaltningsmodellen (pp. 44–77). Institutet för rättshistorisk forskning. Rynning, E. (2007). Public Trust and Privacy in Shared Electronic Health Records. European Journal of Health Law, 14(2), 105–112. Online: https://doi.org/10.1163/092902707X211668 Stenbeck, M., Eaker Fält, S. & Reichel, J. (2021): Swedish law on personal data in biobank research: permissible but complex. In S. Slokenberga, O. Tzortzatou & J. Reichel (Eds.), Individual Rights, the Public Interest and Biobank Research – Article 89 GDPR and European Legal Responses (pp. 379–394). Springer International. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-49388-2_21 Sterzel, F. (2009). Författning i utveckling: Tjugo studier kring Sveriges författning (2nd edition). Iustus. Taube, C. (2004). Regeringsformen: positiv rätt eller redskap för rättshaverister? In E. Smith & O. Petersson (Eds.), Konstitutionell demokrati (pp. 42–70). SNS förlag. Warnling-Nerep, W. (2008). Rätten till domstolsprövning och rättsprövning (3rd edition). Stockholm Jure. Zamboni, M. (2019). The Positioning of the Supreme Courts in Sweden – A Democratic Oddity? European Constitutional Law Review, 15(4), 668–690. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1574019619000361" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "35-52" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.4" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1161) "

Sweden has a long tradition of transparency and keeping public archives and registries for the benefit of the society at large. Access to comprehensive public information, including registries with containing individualised data, has been an integral part in the building of the Swedish welfare state. An important explanatory factor for the acceptance of is the high level of social trust in the Swedish society, in that citizens to a large extent trust each other, the government and the public authorities and other institutions in the society. Over the last few decades, changes have taken place connected to digitalisation of the society and an increased awareness of the possible privacy intrusion that may follow. A number of Swedish “register scandals” have been unearthed in media, involving both private and public entities. In order to protect the Swedish cultural heritage of accessible archives and public information and retain social trust, the Swedish legislator should carefully balance the interest in transparency against the right to privacy and data protection following case law of the European Court of Human Rights and EU law.

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Professor in Administrative Law

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Post doc at the Department of Business Studies

Uppsala University

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Over the centuries, new forms of surveillance technology have emerged. At the founding of the U.S., the government did not have sophisticated spying and surveillance technologies at its disposal. In the eighteenth century, the police might have tried to eavesdrop on their fellow citizens in taverns or other public settings, or they might have listened outside a suspect’s window. However, without the advanced technologies that exist today, the opportunities for successful eavesdropping were very limited. Today, surveillance technologies have gone high tech, creating Orwellian possibilities for snooping. As one commentator observed as far back as 1974, “rapid technological advances and the consequent recognition of the ‘frightening paraphernalia which the vaunted marvels of an electronic age may visit upon human society’ have underlined the possibility of worse horrors yet to come”. This article examines how the U.S. courts are dealing with three different types of technology: CCTV, facial recognition and drones.

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The most significant project of governmental HRM after 2010 has been the “Strategic Support for Succession Planning in a Competitive Civil Service”. The name of the project underlines the focus placed on enhancing competitiveness and ensuring a sustainable, continuous supply of the workforce. Neither can be pursued without data-driven HR planning, so having an HRM decision support system in place is a critical element of the improvement. This study aims to address the issue of optimal headcount with regard to both domestic and foreign context, emphasise the importance of strategic HR planning and explore its results abroad. It suggests that by establishing the new HRM system, Hungary may become a country at the forefront of public service HRM and digitalisation.

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Socio-economic Governance in the EU

Orosz Ágnes, Szijártó Norbert
doi: 10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.7
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(2007). Beyond the Welfare State? The New Political Economy of Welfare. Polity Press, Cambridge. Pierson, P. (1994). The Path to European Integration: A Historical Institutionalist Perspective. CES Germany & Europe Working Papers No. 5.2. Online: https://bit.ly/3xWyZ62 Scharpf, F. W. (2002). The European social model: Coping with the challenges of diversity. Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(4), 645–670. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00392 Scharpf, F. W. (2003). Problem-Solving Effectiveness and Democratic Accountability in the EU. Max-Planck- Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung, Working Paper No. 1. Online: https://bit.ly/3pwZuLC Thelen, K. (1999). Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 2, 369–404. Online: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.2.1.369 Thelen, K. & Steinmo, S. (1992). Historical institutionalism in comparative politics. In S. Steinmo, K. Thelen & F. Longstreth (Eds.), Structuring Politics – Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis (pp. 1–32). Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511528125.002 Vanhercke, B., Ghailani, D., Spasova, S. & Pochet, P. (2020). Social policy in the European Union 1999–2019: the long and winding road. Brussels, European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) and European Social Observatory (OSE). Verdun, A. (2015). A historical institutionalist explanation of the EU’s responses to the euro area financial crisis. Journal of European Public Policy, 22(2), 219–237. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2014.994023 Verdun, A. & Zeitlin, J. (2018). Introduction: the European Semester as a new architecture of EU socioeconomic governance in theory and practice. Journal of European Public Policy, 25(2), 137–148. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2017.1363807 Zambeta, E. (2014). Education in times of crisis. Education Inquiry, 5(1), 1–6. Online: https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v5.24042 Zeitlin, J. & Vanhercke, B. (2018). Socializing the European Semester: EU social and economic policy coordination in crisis and beyond, Journal of European Public Policy, 25(2), 149–174. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2017.1363269" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "83-100" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.7" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1324) "

This paper focuses on the complexity of socio-economic governance in the European Union. We define socio-economic governance as the process of governing societies in a situation where no single actor can claim absolute dominance thus socio-economic governance is the outcome of the interaction between European Union institutions (European Union decision-makers) and member states (national policy-makers). Since the onset of the global financial crisis and the euro crisis a decade ago, social issues have become substantially prominent in EU governance and policy debate. Furthermore, the Covid-19 crisis brought again social issues to the fore. There is no dedicated social governance framework in the European Union but there are several mechanisms (strategies, initiatives and regulations) through which social governance is practiced. At the same time, the framework for European economic governance has substantially been strengthened as a consequence of the global financial crisis and the euro crisis and can be characterised by a matured but incomplete framework. On the one hand, this paper aims to collect and investigate all governance tools related to economic and social issues in the European Union, and on the other hand, this research examines the impacts of those governance tools on member states.

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The Collingridge dilemma or ‘dilemma of control’ presents a problem at the intersection of law, society and technology. New technologies can still be influenced, whether by regulation or policy, in their early stage of development, but their impact on society remains unpredictable. In contrast, once new technologies have become embedded in society, their implications and consequences are clear, but their development can no longer be affected. Resulting in the great challenge of the pacing problem – how technological development increasingly outpaces the creation of appropriate laws and regulations. My paper examines the problematic entanglement and relationship of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and a key aspect of the rule of law, legal certainty. AI is our modern age’s fastest developing and most important technological advancement, a key driver for global socio-economic development, encompassing a broad spectrum of technologies between simple automation and autonomous decision-making. It has the potential to improve healthcare, transportation, communication and to contribute to climate change mitigation. However, its development carries an equal amount of risk, including opaque decision-making, gender-based or other kinds of discrimination, intrusion into private lives and misuse for criminal purposes. The transformative nature of AI technology impacts and challenges law and policymaking. The paper considers the impact of AI through legal certainty on the rule of law, how it may undermine its various elements, among others foreseeability, comprehensibility and clarity of norms. It does so by elaborating on AI’s potential threat brought on by its opacity (‘black box effect’), complexity, unpredictability and partially autonomous behaviour, which all can impede the effective verification of compliance with and the enforcement of new as well as already existing legal rules in international, European and national systems. My paper offers insight into a human-centric and risk-based approach towards AI, based on consideration of legal and ethical questions surrounding the topic, to help ensure transparency and legal certainty in regulatory interventions for the benefit of optimising efficiency of new technologies as well as protecting the existing safeguards of legal certainty.

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Grenzen der kommunalen Selbstverwaltung in Preussen. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-47664-8 Sári, J. (2007). A hatalommegosztás és a társadalmi-többségi elv. In I. Kukorelli (Ed.), Alkotmánytan I. Alapfogalmak, alkotmányos intézmények. Osiris. Soós, E. (2010). A szubszidiaritás mint a többszintű kormányzás működését meghatározó alapelv. In P. Á. Ferwagner & Z. Kalmár (Eds.), Távolabbra tekintve: tanulmányok J. Nagy László 65. születésnapjára. Universitas Szeged. Sólyom, L. (2001). Az alkotmánybíráskodás kezdetei Magyarországon. Osiris. Stern, K. (1981). Die Verfassungsgarantie der kommunalen Selbstverwaltung. In G. Püttner (Ed.), Handbuch der kommunalen Wissenschaft und Praxis. Band 1 Grundlagen. Zweite, völlig neu bearbeitete Auflage. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-11967-9_14 Szegvári, P. (2017). A helyi önkormányzatok szerepváltozása a rendszerváltozás utáni alkotmányos rendszerben. In N. Chronowski, P. Smuk, Zs. Szabó & Z. Szentmiklósy (Eds.), A szabadságszerető embernek. Liber Amicorum István Kukorelli. Gondolat. Szoboszlai, Gy. (2011). Búcsú a jogállamtól. A hatalommegosztás modellje a 2011. évi alaptörvényben. Eszmélet, (2), 5–31. Varga, Zs. A. (2019). From Ideal to Idol? The Concept of the Rule of Law. Dialóg Campus. Veress, E. (2005). A hatalommegosztás aktualitása. Magyar Kisebbség, (3–4), 236–297. Waschkuhn, A. (1995). Was ist Subsidiarität? Ein sozialphilosophisches Ordnungsprinzip: Von Thomas von Aquin bis zur “Civil Society”. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-663-12443-6" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "121-132" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.9" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1358) "

Local self-governments cannot be defined as entities against the state, nor do they merely assist in executing the central will. The significance of local self-governments lies in their role in the division and balancing of powers. In light of the principle of subsidiarity, the need for autonomy through decentralisation necessarily leads to the central bodies of the state being marginalised in these matters, in a sense, the latter lose their ability to solve the issues raised within their own sphere of competence.
From a certain point of view, this can even be considered a vertical division of power. The division of executive power between the public administration subordinated to the Government and independent local self-governments, does not call into question the local self-government’s affiliation with the executive power. As such, it is practically an internal division of powers. In essence, it manifests itself as a kind of limited autonomy, which – due to the unity of the state – subsists only within the confines of the relevant laws.
In light of the foregoing, jointly applied principles lead to a vertical division of power. Power is divided, which, nonetheless, does not mean that one sovereign body limits another; it is rather the case of the state restraining itself by virtue of the principle of democracy.

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Book Reviews

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