Full Issue

Editorial

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"https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4991-4343" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Koltay" } ["givenName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "András" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } [1]=> object(Author)#877 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7456) ["email"]=> string(20) "konczol.miklos@tk.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(6045) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8789-4291" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(1) { 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PDF

Conference Proceedings

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The “living together” concept poses a puzzle. Why did Europeans decide that life in a modern democracy requires showing one’s face? One explanation is opposition to Muslims and Islam. But the enforcement of face veil bans against non-religious mask wearing raises doubts. This essay poses an alternative explanation. What if the face veil bans persist because of European conceptions of privacy? Von Hannover v. Germany held that one be private in public. Given this, why wear a mask? What is there to hide? To explore this idea, the essay turns to the United States, where one cannot be “private in public” and mask wearing has been opposed on narrow grounds such as public security and the content of specific masks. At the same time, the United States respects the decisional privacy of someone to wear a mask even for “irrational” reasons, something the “living together” idea tends to ignore.

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Pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence offer tremendous opportunities for efficient operations, management and governance. They can optimise processes for object, text, graphics, speech and pattern recognition. In doing so the algorithmic processing may be subject to unknown biases that do harm rather than good. We examine how this may happen, what damage may occur and the resulting ethical/legal impact and newly manifest obligations to avoid harm to others from these systems. But what are the risks, given the Human Condition?

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(2020). Rättigheter I. Svensk Juristtidning, pp. 759–786. Bohlin, A. (2015). Offentlighetsprincipen (8th edition). Stockholm: Norstedts förlag. Bull, T. (1999). Självständighet och pluralism – om vertikal maktdelning i Sverige. In L. Marcusson (Ed.), Festskrift till Fredrik Sterzel (pp. 107–133). Iustus. Bull, T. (2013). Global governance; need for a new theory or the return of an old friend? In A.-S. Lind & J. Reichel (Eds.), Administrative law beyond the state: Nordic Perspectives (pp. 230–239). Nijhoff Publishers. Bull, T. & Sterzel, F. (2015). Regeringsformen: En kommentar (3rd edition). SNS förlag. Chamberlain, J. (2020). Integritet och skadestånd: Om skyddet för personuppgifter och privatliv i svensk rätt. Iustus. D’Arcy, M., Nistotskaya, M. & Elis, R. (2015). State-building, democracy and taxation: Why Ireland will never be Sweden. University of Tokyo Journal of Law and Politics, 12(Summer), 110–123. Edquist, S. (2017). Ethical Destruction? Privacy concerns regarding Swedish social services records. In P. Jonason & A. Rosengren (Eds.), The Right to access to information and the right to privacy. A democratic balancing act (pp. 11–39). Södertörns högskola. Edling, N. (2013). The Primacy of Welfare Politics. Notes on the language of the Swedish Social Democrats and their adversaries in the 1930s. In H. Haggrén, J. Rainio-Niemi & J. Vauhkonen (Eds.), Multi-layered Historicity of the Present: Approaches to Social Science History (pp. 125–150). University of Helsinki. Enzell, M. (2002). Requiem for a Constitution: Constitutionalism and Political Culture in Early 20th Century Sweden. Stockholm University. Friberg von Sydow, R. (2017). Medical Records – the different Data Carriers Used in Sweden from the End of the 19th Century Until Today and Their Impact on Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. In P. Jonason & A. Rosengren (Eds.), The Right to Access to Information and the Right to Privacy. A democratic balancing act (pp. 41– 60). Södertörns högskola. Gartner, D. (2013). Uncovering Bretton Woods: Conditional Transparency, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. George Washington International Law Review, 45, 121–148. Hall, P. (2016). The Swedish Administrative Model. In J. Pierre (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics (pp. 299–314). Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199665679.013.17 Hirschfeldt, J. (2017). Free Access to Public Documents – A Heritage From 1766. In A.-S. Lind, J. Reichel & I. Österdahl (Eds.), Transparency in the Future – Swedish Openness 250 Years (pp. 21–28). Ragulka. Jacobsson, B. & Sundström, G. (2016). Governing the State. In J. Pierre (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics (pp. 348–362). Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199665679.013.20 Kingsbury, B. (2009). The Concept of ‘Law’ in Global Administrative Law. The European Journal of International Law, 20(1), 23–57. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/chp005 Kumlien, M. (2019). Professorspolitik och samhällsförändring. En rättshistorisk undersökning av den svenska förvaltningsrättens uppkomst. Stockholm: Institutet för rättshistorisk forskning. Lind, A.-S. (2009). Sociala rättigheter i förändring: En konstitutionellrättslig studie. Iustus. Lind, A.-S. (2015). Sweden: Free Press as a First Fundamental Right. In M. Suksi, M. Nowak, K. Agapiou-Josephides & J.-P. Lehners (Eds.), First Fundamental Rights Documents in Europe. Commemorating 800 Years of Magna Carta (pp. 151–162). Intersentia. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781780685281.013 Lindvall, J. & Rothstein, B. (2006). Sweden: The Fall of the Strong State. Scandinavian Political Studies, 29(1), 47–63. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2006.00141.x Öman, S. (2006). Särskilda registerförfattningar. In C. Magnusson Sjöberg & P. Wahlgren (Eds.), Festskrift till Peter Seipel (pp. 685–705). Norstedts juridik. Österdahl, I. (1998). Openness v. Secrecy: Public Access to Documents in Sweden and the European Union. European Law Review, 23(4), 336–356. Österdahl, I. (2015). Transparency versus secrecy in an international context: a Swedish dilemma. In A.-S. Lind, J. Reichel & I. Österdahl (Eds.), Information and Law in Transition: Freedom of Speech, the Internet, Privacy and Democracy in the 21st Century (pp. 74–99). Liber. Reichel, J. (2018). Public Access or Data Protection as a Guiding Principle in the EU’s Composite Administration? An Analysis of the ReNEUAL Model Code in the Light of Swedish and European Case law. In P. Wahlgren (Ed.), 50 Years of Law and IT (pp. 285–308). Jure. Reichel, J. (2020a). Transparency and Openness. In P. Cane, H. C. H. Hofmann, E. C. Ip & P. L. Lindseth (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Administrative Law (pp. 935–956). Oxford University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198799986.013.52 Reichel, J. (2020b). What is it the public has a right to know? The right to privacy for public officials and the right of access to official documents – European and Swedish perspectives. In A. Koltay & P. Wragg (Eds.), Comparative Privacy and Defamation: Research Handbook in Comparative Law (pp. 112–129). Edward Elgar Publishing. Online: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788970594.00014 Rothstein, B. (2020). Myndigheter att lita på. Den svenska demokratins grundbult. In L. Sandström & C. Peterson (Eds.), Den svenska förvaltningsmodellen (pp. 44–77). Institutet för rättshistorisk forskning. Rynning, E. (2007). Public Trust and Privacy in Shared Electronic Health Records. European Journal of Health Law, 14(2), 105–112. Online: https://doi.org/10.1163/092902707X211668 Stenbeck, M., Eaker Fält, S. & Reichel, J. (2021): Swedish law on personal data in biobank research: permissible but complex. In S. Slokenberga, O. Tzortzatou & J. Reichel (Eds.), Individual Rights, the Public Interest and Biobank Research – Article 89 GDPR and European Legal Responses (pp. 379–394). Springer International. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-49388-2_21 Sterzel, F. (2009). Författning i utveckling: Tjugo studier kring Sveriges författning (2nd edition). Iustus. Taube, C. (2004). Regeringsformen: positiv rätt eller redskap för rättshaverister? In E. Smith & O. Petersson (Eds.), Konstitutionell demokrati (pp. 42–70). SNS förlag. Warnling-Nerep, W. (2008). Rätten till domstolsprövning och rättsprövning (3rd edition). Stockholm Jure. Zamboni, M. (2019). The Positioning of the Supreme Courts in Sweden – A Democratic Oddity? European Constitutional Law Review, 15(4), 668–690. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1574019619000361" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "35-52" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.4" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1161) "

Sweden has a long tradition of transparency and keeping public archives and registries for the benefit of the society at large. Access to comprehensive public information, including registries with containing individualised data, has been an integral part in the building of the Swedish welfare state. An important explanatory factor for the acceptance of is the high level of social trust in the Swedish society, in that citizens to a large extent trust each other, the government and the public authorities and other institutions in the society. Over the last few decades, changes have taken place connected to digitalisation of the society and an increased awareness of the possible privacy intrusion that may follow. A number of Swedish “register scandals” have been unearthed in media, involving both private and public entities. In order to protect the Swedish cultural heritage of accessible archives and public information and retain social trust, the Swedish legislator should carefully balance the interest in transparency against the right to privacy and data protection following case law of the European Court of Human Rights and EU law.

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Professor in Administrative Law

Faculty of Law

Stockholm University

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Post doc at the Department of Business Studies

Uppsala University

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Over the centuries, new forms of surveillance technology have emerged. At the founding of the U.S., the government did not have sophisticated spying and surveillance technologies at its disposal. In the eighteenth century, the police might have tried to eavesdrop on their fellow citizens in taverns or other public settings, or they might have listened outside a suspect’s window. However, without the advanced technologies that exist today, the opportunities for successful eavesdropping were very limited. Today, surveillance technologies have gone high tech, creating Orwellian possibilities for snooping. As one commentator observed as far back as 1974, “rapid technological advances and the consequent recognition of the ‘frightening paraphernalia which the vaunted marvels of an electronic age may visit upon human society’ have underlined the possibility of worse horrors yet to come”. This article examines how the U.S. courts are dealing with three different types of technology: CCTV, facial recognition and drones.

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Articles

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The most significant project of governmental HRM after 2010 has been the “Strategic Support for Succession Planning in a Competitive Civil Service”. The name of the project underlines the focus placed on enhancing competitiveness and ensuring a sustainable, continuous supply of the workforce. Neither can be pursued without data-driven HR planning, so having an HRM decision support system in place is a critical element of the improvement. This study aims to address the issue of optimal headcount with regard to both domestic and foreign context, emphasise the importance of strategic HR planning and explore its results abroad. It suggests that by establishing the new HRM system, Hungary may become a country at the forefront of public service HRM and digitalisation.

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Socio-economic Governance in the EU

Orosz Ágnes, Szijártó Norbert
doi: 10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.7
83-100.
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Online: https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v5.24042 Zeitlin, J. & Vanhercke, B. (2018). Socializing the European Semester: EU social and economic policy coordination in crisis and beyond, Journal of European Public Policy, 25(2), 149–174. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2017.1363269" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "83-100" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.7" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1324) "

This paper focuses on the complexity of socio-economic governance in the European Union. We define socio-economic governance as the process of governing societies in a situation where no single actor can claim absolute dominance thus socio-economic governance is the outcome of the interaction between European Union institutions (European Union decision-makers) and member states (national policy-makers). Since the onset of the global financial crisis and the euro crisis a decade ago, social issues have become substantially prominent in EU governance and policy debate. Furthermore, the Covid-19 crisis brought again social issues to the fore. There is no dedicated social governance framework in the European Union but there are several mechanisms (strategies, initiatives and regulations) through which social governance is practiced. At the same time, the framework for European economic governance has substantially been strengthened as a consequence of the global financial crisis and the euro crisis and can be characterised by a matured but incomplete framework. On the one hand, this paper aims to collect and investigate all governance tools related to economic and social issues in the European Union, and on the other hand, this research examines the impacts of those governance tools on member states.

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The Collingridge dilemma or ‘dilemma of control’ presents a problem at the intersection of law, society and technology. New technologies can still be influenced, whether by regulation or policy, in their early stage of development, but their impact on society remains unpredictable. In contrast, once new technologies have become embedded in society, their implications and consequences are clear, but their development can no longer be affected. Resulting in the great challenge of the pacing problem – how technological development increasingly outpaces the creation of appropriate laws and regulations. My paper examines the problematic entanglement and relationship of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and a key aspect of the rule of law, legal certainty. AI is our modern age’s fastest developing and most important technological advancement, a key driver for global socio-economic development, encompassing a broad spectrum of technologies between simple automation and autonomous decision-making. It has the potential to improve healthcare, transportation, communication and to contribute to climate change mitigation. However, its development carries an equal amount of risk, including opaque decision-making, gender-based or other kinds of discrimination, intrusion into private lives and misuse for criminal purposes. The transformative nature of AI technology impacts and challenges law and policymaking. The paper considers the impact of AI through legal certainty on the rule of law, how it may undermine its various elements, among others foreseeability, comprehensibility and clarity of norms. It does so by elaborating on AI’s potential threat brought on by its opacity (‘black box effect’), complexity, unpredictability and partially autonomous behaviour, which all can impede the effective verification of compliance with and the enforcement of new as well as already existing legal rules in international, European and national systems. My paper offers insight into a human-centric and risk-based approach towards AI, based on consideration of legal and ethical questions surrounding the topic, to help ensure transparency and legal certainty in regulatory interventions for the benefit of optimising efficiency of new technologies as well as protecting the existing safeguards of legal certainty.

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Gondolatok a 21. századi önkormányzati jog fontosabb intézményeiről és modelljeiről. A nyugati demokráciák és Magyarország szabályozásainak, valamint azok változásainak tükrében. ELTE Eötvös. Hoffmann-Axthelm, D. (2004). Lokale Selbstverwaltung – Möglichkeit und Grenzen direkter Demokratie. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-322-81024-3 Ivancsics, I. (1996). A helyi és területi közigazgatás alkotmányi szabályozásának néhány alapkérdése és alternatívája. In I. Verebélyi (Ed.), A helyi önkormányzatok alkotmányi szabályozása. KJK – MTA ÁJTI. Kaltenbach, J. (1991). Az önkormányzati felügyelet. Universum. Kelsen, H. (1927). Az államelmélet alapvonalai. Szeged Városi Nyomda és Könyvkiadó. Knemeyer, F.-L. (1990). Subsidiarität – Föderalismus, Dezentralisation: Initiativen zu einem „Europa der Regionen“. Zeitschrift für Rechtspolitik, (5), 176–186. Küpper, H. (2009). A helyi önkormányzás joga. In A. Jakab (Ed.), Az Alkotmány kommentárja II. Századvég. 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Grenzen der kommunalen Selbstverwaltung in Preussen. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-47664-8 Sári, J. (2007). A hatalommegosztás és a társadalmi-többségi elv. In I. Kukorelli (Ed.), Alkotmánytan I. Alapfogalmak, alkotmányos intézmények. Osiris. Soós, E. (2010). A szubszidiaritás mint a többszintű kormányzás működését meghatározó alapelv. In P. Á. Ferwagner & Z. Kalmár (Eds.), Távolabbra tekintve: tanulmányok J. Nagy László 65. születésnapjára. Universitas Szeged. Sólyom, L. (2001). Az alkotmánybíráskodás kezdetei Magyarországon. Osiris. Stern, K. (1981). Die Verfassungsgarantie der kommunalen Selbstverwaltung. In G. Püttner (Ed.), Handbuch der kommunalen Wissenschaft und Praxis. Band 1 Grundlagen. Zweite, völlig neu bearbeitete Auflage. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-11967-9_14 Szegvári, P. (2017). A helyi önkormányzatok szerepváltozása a rendszerváltozás utáni alkotmányos rendszerben. In N. Chronowski, P. Smuk, Zs. Szabó & Z. Szentmiklósy (Eds.), A szabadságszerető embernek. Liber Amicorum István Kukorelli. Gondolat. Szoboszlai, Gy. (2011). Búcsú a jogállamtól. A hatalommegosztás modellje a 2011. évi alaptörvényben. Eszmélet, (2), 5–31. Varga, Zs. A. (2019). From Ideal to Idol? The Concept of the Rule of Law. Dialóg Campus. Veress, E. (2005). A hatalommegosztás aktualitása. Magyar Kisebbség, (3–4), 236–297. Waschkuhn, A. (1995). Was ist Subsidiarität? Ein sozialphilosophisches Ordnungsprinzip: Von Thomas von Aquin bis zur “Civil Society”. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-663-12443-6" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(450) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "121-132" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.9" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1358) "

Local self-governments cannot be defined as entities against the state, nor do they merely assist in executing the central will. The significance of local self-governments lies in their role in the division and balancing of powers. In light of the principle of subsidiarity, the need for autonomy through decentralisation necessarily leads to the central bodies of the state being marginalised in these matters, in a sense, the latter lose their ability to solve the issues raised within their own sphere of competence.
From a certain point of view, this can even be considered a vertical division of power. The division of executive power between the public administration subordinated to the Government and independent local self-governments, does not call into question the local self-government’s affiliation with the executive power. As such, it is practically an internal division of powers. In essence, it manifests itself as a kind of limited autonomy, which – due to the unity of the state – subsists only within the confines of the relevant laws.
In light of the foregoing, jointly applied principles lead to a vertical division of power. Power is divided, which, nonetheless, does not mean that one sovereign body limits another; it is rather the case of the state restraining itself by virtue of the principle of democracy.

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Book Reviews

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