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object(Publication)#795 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(6951) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-12-14" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-12-14 12:04:24" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8598) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(6827) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2895) "Alexander, L. & Sherwin, E. (1994). The Deceptive Nature of Rules. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 142(4), 1191–1225. Alexander, L. & Sherwin, E. (2001). The Rule of Rules. Morality, Rules, and the Dilemmas of Law. Duke University Press. Broome, J. (2000). Normative requirements. In J. Dancy (Ed.), Normativity. Oxford University Press. Broome, J. (2004). Reasons. In J. Wallace, M. Smith, S. Scheffler & P. Pettit (Eds.), Reason and Value: Themes from the Moral Philosophy of Joseph Raz. Oxford University Press. Dancy, J. (2000). Practical Reality. Oxford University Press. Edmundson, W. (1993). Rethinking Exclusionary Reasons: A Second Edition of Joseph Raz’s Practical Reason and Norms. Law and Philosophy, 12(3), 329–343. Online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3504852 Flathman, R. (1980). The Practice of Political Authority: Authority and the Authoritative. University of Chicago Press. Green, L. (1988). The Authority of the State. Clarendon Press. Hart, H. L. A. (1982). Essays on Bentham. Oxford University Press. Hurd, H. (1991). Challenging Authority. Yale Law Journal, 100(6), 1611–1677. Kramer, M. (1999). Requirements, Reasons, and Raz: Legal Positivism and Legal Duties. Ethics, 109(2), 375–407. Online: https://doi.org/10.1086/233899 Moore, G. E. (2004). Some Main Problems of Philosophy. Blackfriars Press. Moore, M. S. (1989). Authority, Law, and Razian Reasons. Southern California Law Review, 62, 827–896. Parfit, D. (1984). Reasons and Persons. Oxford University Press. Perry, S. (1989). Second-Order Reasons, Uncertainty and Legal Theory. Southern California Law Review, 62, 913–994. Raz, J. (1975). Practical Reason and Norms. Hutchinson & Co. Raz, J. (1985). Authority and Justification. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 14(1), 3–29. Online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2265235 Raz, J. (1986). The Morality of Freedom. Clarendon Press. Raz, J. (2007). Reasons: Explanatory and Normative. Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13/2007. Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.999869 Raz, J. (2009). Reasons: Practical and Adaptive. In D. Sobel & S. Wall (Eds.), Reasons for Action (pp. 37–57). Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511720185.003 Regan, D. (1989). Authority and Value: Reflections on Raz’s Morality of Freedom. Southern California Law Review, 62, 995–1095. Schauer, F. (1991). Playing by the Rules: A Philosophical Examination of Rule-Based Decision-Making in Law and in Life. Clarendon Press. Sciaraffa, S. (2009). On Content-Independent Reasons: It’s Not in the Name. Law and Philosophy, 28(3), 233–260. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10982-008-9037-7 Shapiro, S. (2002). Authority. In J. Coleman & S. Shapiro (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. Oxford University Press. Velleman, D. (2000). The Possibility of Practical Reason. Oxford University Press." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(522) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "5-16" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6827" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(607) "

Understanding prescriptive rules is important for understanding the law given that much of law is prescriptive. This work in legal philosophy aims to promote such understanding by offering an analysis of prescriptive rules. It does so by showing what these rules are and how they operate, distinguishing them from other rule types, and advancing a critical analysis of Joseph Raz’s conception of prescriptive rules. The analysis offered helps to clarify not only the nature of prescriptive rules and their treatment within legal philosophy, but also legal norms that operate by prescribing conduct.

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Adriana Placani’s work is financed by national funds through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., under the Scientific Employment Stimulus - Individual Call - CEECIND/02135/2021

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Appointed Research Fellow, NOVA University Lisbon, Institute of Philosophy (IFILNOVA), Lisbon, Portugal

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Research and Advocacy Citations and Mentions. Online: https://www.aiaaic.org/about-aiaaic/research-citations-mentions AIAAIC (2023g, November 22). Team. Online: https://www.aiaaic.org/about-aiaaic/team AIID (2023). Editors Guide. Online: https://incidentdatabase.ai/editors-guide Ethical ML (2023). Awesome Artificial Intelligence Guidelines. Online: https://github.com/EthicalML/awesome-artificial-intelligence-guidelines European Commission (2020). White Paper on Artificial Intelligence – A European Approach to Excellence and Trust. Online: https://bit.ly/40V34BA European Commission (2021). Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Laying Down Harmonised Rules on Artificial Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence Act) and Amending Certain Union Legislative Acts. Online: https://bit.ly/47V0oX7 Google Cloud Tech (2019). Making Friends with Machine Learning: Regression. Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNvOtwP_yf4 Hofer, C. W. & Schendel, D. (1978). Strategy Formulation: Analytical Concepts. West Publishing Company. Jansen, P., Brey, P., Fox, A., Maas, J., Hillas, H., Wagner, N., Smith, P, Ouoch, I., Lamers, L., van Gein, H., Resseguier, A., Rodrigues, R., Wright, D. & Douglas, D. (2020). SIENNA D4.4: Ethical Analysis of AI and Robotics Technologies. Zenodo. Online: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4068082 Jobin, A., Ienca, M. & Vayena, E. (2019, September 1). The Global Landscape of AI Ethics Guidelines. Nature Machine Intelligence, 1(9), 389–399. Online: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42256-019-0088-2 McGregor, S. (2020). Preventing Repeated Real World AI Failures by Cataloging Incidents: The AI Incident Database. Online: https://bit.ly/47AWliL McGregor, S., Paeth, K. & Lam, K. (2022). Indexing AI Risks with Incidents, Issues, and Variants. Online: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2211.10384 Naurin, D. (2006). Transparency, Publicity, Accountability – The Missing Links. Swiss Political Science Review, 12(3), 90–98. Online: http://hdl.handle.net/1814/661 Partnership on AI (2023a). About. Online: https://partnershiponai.org/about/ Partnership on AI (2023b). AI Incident Database. Online: https://partnershiponai.org/aiincidentdatabase/ Pickton, D. W. & Wright, S. (1998). What’s SWOT in Strategic Analysis? Strategic Change, 7(2), 101–109. Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1697(199803/04)7:2%3C101::AID-JSC332%3E3.0.CO;2-6 Rességuier, A. & Rodrigues, R. (2020). AI Ethics Should Not Remain Toothless! A Call to Bring Back the Teeth of Ethics. Big Data & Society, 7(2). Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/2053951720942541 Rodrigues, R., Siemaszko, K. & Warso, Z. (2019). SIENNA D4.2: Analysis of the Legal and Human Rights Requirements for AI and Robotics In and Outside the EU (Version V2.0). Zenodo. Online: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4066812 Siemaszko, K. Rodrigues, R. & Slokenberga, S. (2020). SIENNA D5.6: Recommendations for the Enhancement of the Existing Legal Frameworks for Genomics, Human Enhancement, and AI and Robotics (V2.0). Zenodo. Online: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4121082 Taplin, J. (2017). Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Have Cornered Culture and What It Means for All of Us. Pan Macmillan. Taneja, H. (2019). The Era of “Move Fast and Break Things” Is Over. Harvard Business Review. Online: https://bit.ly/47NUqag The AI Incident Tracker (2023). Awesome Machine Learning Interpretability. Online: https://bit.ly/40ZnVUA Ullah, M. H., Hazelton, J. & Nelson, P. F. (2021). Can Databases Facilitate Accountability? The Case of Australian Mercury Accounting Via the National Pollutant Inventory. Accounting. Auditing & Accountability Journal, 34(1), 164–193. Online: https://doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-11-2017-3232 UNESCO (2021). Recommendation on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. Paris. Online: https://bit.ly/3sIvGS9 Wagner, B. (2018). Ethics as an Escape from Regulation: From Ethics-Washing to Ethics-Shopping. In E. Bayamlioğlu, I. Baraliuc, L. Janssens & M. Hildebrandt (Eds.), Being Profiled: Cogitas Ergo Sum: 10 Years of ‘Profiling the European Citizen’ (pp. 84–89). Amsterdam University Press. Where in the World Is AI (2021). Global Map. Online: https://map.ai-global.org" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(522) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "17-28" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7030" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(986) "

Diverse initiatives promote the responsible development, deployment and use of Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI incident databases have emerged as a valuable and timely learning resource and tool in AI governance. This article assesses the value of such databases and outlines how this value can be enhanced. It reviews four databases: the AI Incident Database, the AI, Algorithmic, and Automation Incidents and Controversies Repository, the AI Incident Tracker and Where in the World Is AI. The article provides a descriptive analysis of these databases, examines their objectives, and locates them within the landscape of initiatives that advance responsible AI. It reflects on their primary objective, i.e. learning from mistakes to avoid them in the future, and explores how they might benefit diverse stakeholders. The article supports the broader uptake of these databases and recommends four key actions to enhance their value.

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This article draws from work conducted on the ethics and regulation of AI and new technologies in the EU-funded Horizon projects SIENNA (Grant Agreement Number: 741716) (https://www.sienna-project.eu), SHERPA (Grant Agreement Number: 786641) (https://www.project-sherpa.eu) and TechEthos (Grant Agreement Number: 101006249) (https://www.techethos.eu). This article reflects only the views and opinions of the authors and does not intend to reflect those of the database creator/managers/representatives or the European Commission. Neither they, nor the European Commission, are responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

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Head of Innovation and Research Services, Trilateral Research, London, United Kingdom

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Research Manager, Trilateral Research, Waterford, Ireland

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Research Manager, Trilateral Research, Waterford, Ireland

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object(Publication)#149 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(30) { ["id"]=> int(7180) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2023-12-14" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2023-12-14 12:04:23" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(8953) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(7056) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2347) "Beyleveld, D., Düwell, M. & Spahn, A. (2015). Why and How Should We Represent Future Generations in Policymaking? Jurisprudence, 6(3), 549–566. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/20403313.2015.1065642 Burke, E. (1790). Reflections on the Revolution in France and on the Proceedings in Certain Societies in London Relative to That Event. 2nd ed. Dodsley. Caney, S. (2018). Justice and Future Generations. Annual Review of Political Science, 21, 475–493. Online: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-052715-111749 De-Shalit, Avner (1995). Why Posterity Matters. Environmental Policies and Future Generations. Routledge. Feinberg, J. (1974). The Rights of Animals and Unborn Generations. In W. Blackstone (Ed.), Philosophy and Environmental Crisis (pp. 43–68). The University of Georgia Press. Golding, M. P. (1972). Obligations to Future Generations. The Monist, 56(1), 85–99. Online: https://doi.org/10.5840/monist197256118 Gosseries, A. (2004). Penser la justice entre générations: De l’affaire Perruche à la réforme des retraites. Aubier. Herstein, O. J. (2009). The Identity and (Legal) Rights of Future Generations. The George Washington Law Review, 77(5–6), 1173–1215. Online: https://www.gwlr.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/77-5-6-Herstein.pdf Kavka, G. (1978). The Futurity Problem. In R. I. Sikora & B. Barry (Eds.), Obligations to Future Generations (pp. 186–203). Temple University Press. Light, A. & de-Shalit, A. (Eds.) (2003). Moral and Political Reasoning in Environmental Practice. MIT Press. O’Neill, J. (1993). Ecology, Policy and Politics. Human Well-Being and the Natural World. Routledge. Parfit, D. (1984). Reasons and Persons. Repr. with corr. 1987. Oxford University Press. Rainbolt, G. W. (2006). The Concept of Rights. Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3977-8 Rawls, J. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press. Tattay, Sz. (2016). Making Sense of a Nonsense: Representation of the ‘Rights’ of Future Generations. In M. Belov (Ed.), Global Governance and Its Effects on State and Law (pp. 195–210). Peter Lang. Thompson, J. (2009). Identity and Obligation in a Transgenerational Polity. In A. Gosseries & L. H. Meyer (Eds.), Intergenerational Justice (pp. 25–49). Oxford University Press. Tremmel, J. C. (2009). A Theory of Intergenerational Justice. Earthscan." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(522) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "29-40" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7056" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(381) "

This paper examines the ways the two fundamental problems regarding the rights of future persons/generations (the non-existence problem and the non-identity problem) are usually tackled in scholarship. It is argued that while rights cannot be properly attributed to future people, rights in respect to future generations can be based on present persons’ identity.

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Research for this paper was supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (grant ID: NKFIH FK 138346, ‘Legal Argumentation in the 21st Century’).

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Research Fellow, HUN-REN Centre for Social Sciences, Institute for Legal Studies, Budapest, Hungary; Associate Professor, Department of Legal Philosophy, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest, Hungary

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Setting out to determine what ‘local government’ is and how it can be understood, I conducted an analysis of the concept ‘local government’ by identifying its institutional, behavioural and territorial attributes. This analysis informed an ontological description of the nature of local government and the underlying assumptions about this reality. Ontological, local government, as a collection of ‘Dasein’ with an immanent tension between anxiety and care, may simultaneously be viewed as being a social collective of individuals, an institution consisting of individuals, and a social action or intervention performed by caring individuals. The description of the nature of local government provides a point of departure for describing and comparing this reality as situated in different contexts. It also serves as a proposed menu for the questioning and challenging of underlying assumptions about local government. The value of this social ontology of care lies in the description of the nature of the reality of local government situated in different contexts. Furthermore, it serves as an agenda for questioning and challenging the underlying assumptions about local government within different contexts.

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College of Economic and Management Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa

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Lithuania, Country-specific Monitoring of the Implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Online: https://www.coe.int/en/web/minorities/lithuania Danėlienė, I. (2022, January 24). Lietuviškoji nelietuviškų raidžių drama ir Konstitucija [The Lithuanian Drama of Non-Lithuanian Letters and the Constitution]. LRT.lt. Online: https://bit.ly/43qz8xS Dimitrovs, A. (2012). Equality Law in Latvia: Current Trends and Challenges. The Equal Rights Review, 9, 11–23. EFHR (2021a, September 15). EFHR invites you to have a look at the statistical information for 2013–2021 concerning the cases in which the first and last name in the Population Register of the Republic of Lithuania were written using “w”, “q”, “x” and other non-Lithuanian characters. European Foundation of Human Rights. Online: https://en.efhr.eu/2021/09/15/efhr-invites-you-to-have-a-look-at-the-statistical-information/ EFHR (2021b, September 8). Teisingumo ministerija teikia rekomendacijas pavardžių rašymui nelietuviškais rašmenimis [The Ministry of Justice Provides Recommendations for Writing Surnames in Non-Lithuanian Characters]. European Foundation of Human Rights. Online: https://bit.ly/3N9r0vG EFHR (2022a, January 25). The President of Lithuania Signed a Bill Concerning the Writing of Names and Surnames in the Latin Alphabet in Lithuanian Documents. European Foundation of Human Rights. Online: https://en.efhr.eu/2022/01/25/the-president-of-lithuania-signed-a-bill/ EFHR (2022b, February 4). A Victory Secured by the EFHR – The Court Ruled that Surnames Could Be Registered in their Original Form Using a Character with the Diacritical Mark “ń”. European Foundation of Human Rights. Online: https://bit.ly/45MFSaD EFHR (2022c, June 9). Konferencja prasowa dotycząca zmiany pisowni imion i nazwisk w kontekście polskiej społeczności na Litwie – krok naprzód czy nierealistyczne oczekiwania? [Press Conference on Changing the Writing of Names and Surnames in the Context of the Polish Community in Lithuania – A Step Forward or Unrealistic Expectations?]. European Foundation of Human Rights. Online: https://bit.ly/45DnRM9 Kascian, K. (2021). Lithuania’s Minority Representation in the European Parliament: Just Poles? Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics, 7(1), 116–135. Online: http://doi.org/10.17356/ieejsp.v7i1.579 Keturakienė, A., Lubauskas, V., Sinkevičius, V. & Žalimas, D. (Eds.) (2021). Selected Official Constitutional Doctrine 1993–2020. Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania. Knutovič, E. (2022, July 14). Prokuratura Generalna nie chce znaków diakrytycznych. Wołkonowski: to absurd [The General Prosecutor’s Office Does Not Want Diacritical Characters. Wołkonowski: It’s Absurd]. LRT.lt. Online: https://bit.ly/3MNmxgT Kūris, E. (2022). Konstitucijos nereikia, įstatymo nereikia: apie vieną Vyriausybės poįstatyminį teisės aktą ir vieną pirmosios instancijos teismo sprendimą [No Constitution Is Necessary, No Law Is Necessary: On One Secondary Legal Act of the Government and One Decision of the First Instance Court]. Vilnius University Open Series, 118–166. Online: http://doi.org/10.15388/KSK.2022.7 Maksimaitis, M. (s. a.). Mykolas Romeris. Mykolas Romeris University. Online: https://www.mruni.eu/en/mykolas-romeris-2/ Official Website of the President of the Republic of Poland (2003, January 3). Wizyta robocza Prezydenta Republiki Litewskiej [Working Visit of the President of the Republic of Lituania]. Online: https://bit.ly/3Cb2zrq Official Website of the President of the Republic of Poland (2018, February 17). Spotkanie Prezydentów Polski i Litwy z mediami. Wypowiedź Prezydenta RP [Meeting of the Presidents of Poland and Lithuania with the Media. Statement of the President of the Republic of Poland]. Online: https://bit.ly/3WIC0nb Prosecutor General’s Office (2022, June 13): Prašoma atnaujinti procesą civilinėje byloje dėl lotyniško rašmens su diakritiniu ženklu „ł“ rašymo asmenvardžiuose [Request to Reopen the Proceedings in a Civil Case on the Writing of the Latin Letter with the Diacritical Character “ł” in Personal Names]. Prosecutor General’s Office of Lithuania. Online: https://bit.ly/3WJtlRj Račkauskaitė, A. (2011). Tautinėms mažumoms priklausančių asmenų vardų ir pavardžių vartojimas: tarptautinė ir Lietuvos Respublikos praktika [The Right to Use First Names and Surnames in Minority Languages: International Practice and the Practice of the Republic of Lithuania]. Socialinių mokslų studijos, 3(1), 365–384. Schöpflin, G. (2000). Nations, Identity, Power. The New Politics of Europe. Hurst & Co. State Commission of the Lithuanian Language (1991, March 28). Lietuvos lenkų pavardžių ir vardų rašymo Lietuvos Respublikos piliečio pase taisyklės [Rules for Writing Surnames and Names of Lithuanian Poles in the Passport of a Citizen of the Republic of Lithuania], protocol No. 6. Online: https://vlkk.lt/aktualiausios-temos/svetimvardziai/perrasa-is-lenku-kalbos Statistics Lithuania (s. a.). Population and Housing Census: Census 2021. Online: https://osp.stat.gov.lt/en/gyventoju-ir-bustu-surasymai1 Supreme Court of Lithuania (2021, October 6). Teismas išnagrinėjo bylą, kurioje buvo sprendžiama dėl šalutinių (diakritinių) ženklų rašymo civilinės būklės aktų įrašuose [The Court Examined a Case in which a Decision Was Made on the Writing of Secondary (Diacritic) Characters in the Records of Civil Status Acts]. Online: https://bit.ly/42fbrXO TVP Wilno (2022, January 18). V. Čmilytė-Nielsen o oryginalnej pisowni nazwisk: jest to kwestia godności ludzkiej [V. Čmilytė-Nielsen on the Original Writing of Names: It Is a Question of Human Dignity]. Online: https://bit.ly/45GQzeV Vladarskienė, R. & Zemlevičiūtė, P. (2022). Lietuvių kalbos rašyba: taisyklės, komentarai, patarimai [Spelling of the Lithuanian Language: Rules, Comments, Advices]. Lietuvių kalbos institutas. " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(522) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "73-86" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6746" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1083) "

On 18 January 2022, the parliament of Lithuania adopted the law on writing personal names in the official documents. Having substantially liberalised the existing practice, the law, however, offered only a partial solution because it did not sanction the use of non-Lithuanian diacritical characters. Based on the relevant legal, linguistic and historical contexts, relevant Lithuanian legislation and case law, this study analyses the evolution of Lithuania’s approach towards the writing of its citizens’ personal names in official documents. The text shows that the significant changes that took place in Lithuanian society during the last 30 years have resulted in a partial liberalisation of these practices. The recent case law suggests that the state is on the verge of accepting full liberalisation, particularly if relevant interwar legislation and a broader understanding of historical traditions of the Lithuanian language will be taken into account. However, the Constitutional Court plays a key role in determining the contents and directions of this process.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(13) "Kascian Kiryl" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(128) "Evolution of Lithuania’s Approach towards Writing of Personal Names in the Official Documents: On the Verge of Liberalisation?" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#882 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8491) ["email"]=> string(23) "kiryl.kascian@gmail.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(6870) ["seq"]=> int(5) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "LT" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1777-5895" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(53) "General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Kascian" ["hu_HU"]=> string(8) "Kaścian" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(5) "Kiryl" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Kirył" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(9) "Lithuania" [1]=> string(19) "national minorities" [2]=> string(8) "equality" [3]=> string(15) "language rights" [4]=> string(12) "constitution" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#883 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(29049) ["id"]=> int(5445) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(6870) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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Journal of Development Economics, 84(1), 76–103. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2006.09.004 Zavattaro, S. (2021). Cultural Competency in Local Government Cemetery Management. Public Integrity, 23(1), 1–14. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2020.1777065 " ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(522) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "87-107" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.6890" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1053) "

Cemeteries in the Philippines are usually under the jurisdiction of local government units (LGUs). Among their jurisdiction is managing cemetery workers. The cemetery workers being part of the informal sector are a concern for LGUs since activities within the sector are
unknowledgeable to government policies and prone of noncompliance to it. Thus, the study is anchored on determining if cemetery workers of Baguio know the policies governing cemeteries. The study employed both a quantitative and qualitative design, particularly through surveyquestionnaires and interviews. The data shows that the respondents are moderately knowledgeable on the identified cemetery policies. This is because attached offices of Baguio LGU have a constant practice of communicating and orienting the workers on the cemetery policies. Although workers are moderately knowledgeable and the LGU exerts effort and initiatives in communicating with the cemetery workers, some problems still persist due to misinterpretation and stubbornness among the workers.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(18) "Dizon Kurt Zeus L." } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(105) "Knowledge and Implications of Cemetery Policies among Workers of Baguio City Public Cemetery, Philippines" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#876 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(8679) ["email"]=> string(23) "kurthammer111@gmail.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(7014) ["seq"]=> int(6) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "PH" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0009-0001-4688-9234" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(22) "Saint Louis University" ["hu_HU"]=> string(48) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:22:"Saint Louis University";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(116) "

Faculty Member, Department of Political and Social Sciences, Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines

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Collaborative Leadership in Waste Management: A Case Study of Watampone City, Indonesia

Gafur Abdul, Mappasere Fatmawati, Parawu Hafiz Elfiansya, Nasrulhaq, Fatmawati, Samad Muhammad Ahsan
doi: 10.53116/pgaflr.7016
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Collaborative Leadership Model in the Management of Health Care. Journal of Business Research, 65(4), 555–561. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.02.021 Wargadinata, E. (2016). Kepemimpinan Kolaboratif. Jurnal Ilmiah Administrasi Pemerintahan Daerah, 8(1), 1–12. Williamson, K., Archibald, A. & McGregor, J. (2010). Shared Vision : A Key to Successful Collaboration ? School Libraries Worldwide, 16(2), 16–30. Online: https://doi.org/10.29173/slw6805" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(522) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "109-124" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7016" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(2097) "

The concept and practice of leadership is continuously evolving. In public administration literature, collaborative leadership is a serious discussion and collaborative leadership is encouraged to be applied at all levels of leadership including the leadership of the Regional Head. Waste management as a very serious public problem is a challenge to modern civilisation and Indonesia is one of the countries with the largest populations in the world, producing more than 19 million tons of waste in 2022, while Watampone is one of the cities in Indonesia that certainly contributes to the waste pile. As a developing city, preventive measures must be taken before following in the footsteps of big cities that are dealing with waste problems because there is no inherent prevention. Therefore, its leadership model can be a key factor. In these terms, it is important to study waste management policy using a collaborative leadership approach. This study aims to look at the characteristics of collaborative leadership in waste management. This research uses descriptive qualitative methods and data collection techniques in interviews with relevant stakeholder leaders as informants combined with documentation studies. The results show that the collaborative leadership model in waste management has a positive impact; this is because the involvement of multiple parties helps manage waste problems and share roles. The characteristics of collaborative leadership expressed by Wilson as a reference in this study show that waste management must involve many parties with the characteristics of awareness of functions, division of authority, cooperation for a common vision, and mutual trust by all operators involved. As a suggestion, waste management using a collaborative leadership approach should be conducted by clearly mapping the roles of all stakeholders involved. Another aspect that supports and strengthens waste management collaboration in Watampone City is the culture of gotong royong (mutual aid) that has been rooted in the lives of the people of Watampone City.

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Postgraduate Student, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar, Makassar City, Indonesia

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Senior Lecturer, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar, Makassar City, Indonesia

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Senior Lecturer, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar, Makassar City, Indonesia

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PhD Student, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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Lecturer, Muhammadiyah University of Bandung, Bandung City, Indonesia

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PhD Student, National University of Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

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Mihály (Eds.), V spoločnej vlasti [In a Common Homeland] (pp. 253–318). Pravda. Morvay, K. (2004). Külföldi tőkebefektetések és az ipari parkok Dél-Szlovákiában [Foreign Capital Investments and Industrial Parks in Southern Slovakia]. In T. Réti (Ed.), Közeledő régió a Kárpát-medencében. Dél-Szlovákia, Erdély és a Vajdaság gazdasági átalakulása [Converging Regions in the Carpathian Basin. The Economic Conversion of Southern Slovakia, Transylvania and Vojvodina] (pp. 303–330). EÖKIK. Reiter, F., Semsey, I. & Tóth, A. (2004). Kelet-Szlovákia régió gazdasági átalakulása [The Economic Transformation of the Eastern Slovakia Region]. In T. Réti (Ed.), Közeledő régió a Kárpát-medencében. Dél-Szlovákia, Erdély és a Vajdaság gazdasági átalakulása [Converging Regions in the Carpathian Basin. The Economic Conversion of Southern Slovakia, Transylvania and Vojvodina] (pp. 331–362). EÖKIK. Tuba, L. (2004). A komáromi hajógyárról [The Shipyard at Komárno]. In T. Réti (Ed.), Közeledő régió a Kárpát-medencében. Dél-Szlovákia, Erdély és a Vajdaság gazdasági átalakulása [Converging Regions in the Carpathian Basin. The Economic Conversion of Southern Slovakia, Transylvania and Vojvodina] (pp. 363–372). EÖKIK." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2023) ["issueId"]=> int(522) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "125-144" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.53116/pgaflr.7092" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(872) "

The paper analyses the economic situation of the districts located along the Southern border of Slovakia, which have sizeable Hungarian-speaking populations. Unemployment ratios, industrial pay levels and corporate profitability figures make up the backbone of the analysis. Our research reveals that, as a whole, the Southern districts fall short of the national average in terms of all economic and demographic indicators. In our research focusing on Slovakia, we have demonstrated the disadvantaged economic situation of the Southern part of the country, where its Hungarian population is concentrated, noting that this may further weaken its ability to retain their population. We used the same methodology for our analysis of the Northern Hungarian counties bordering on Slovakia. In both countries, there are discrepancies between Western and Eastern regions.

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This research was prepared at the Széll Kálmán Public Finance Lab of the Ludovika University of Public Service.

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Associate professor, University of Economics Bratislava, Faculty of Economics and Finance, Department of Economics, Bratislava, Slovakia

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Associate professor, Budapest Business University, Faculty of Finance and Accountancy, Department of Finance, Budapest, Hungary

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Full professor, Ludovika University of Public Service, Faculty of Public Governance and International Studies, Department of Governance and Public Policy, Budapest, Hungary

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