Teljes szám

Tanulmány

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In our study, we analyse the economic homogeneity of the Central and Eastern European countries, especially the  Visegrád countries, in the EU28 economic space on the  basis of 6 economic variables, with the help of cluster  analysis. We examine how the stability of clusters in Central and Eastern European countries has changed since 2004. How the relative position of the countries in the region has  changed and whether joining the euro area may be a good  indicator of economic catch up. Based on our results, the Visegrád countries were not included in the same cluster at  any time, interestingly; in many respects the Czech Republic already has the economic characteristics of the core  countries. Accession to the euro area was not decisive either, the states joining the zone continued to be in a  cluster with the states of the region. 

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Tanulmányunkban a kelet-közép-európai országok – kiemelten a Visegrádi országok – gazdasági homogenitását elemezzük az európai uniós gazdasági térben hat  gazdasági változó alapján, klaszterelemzés segítségével.  Megvizsgáljuk, hogy 2004 óta miként változott a kelet- közép-európai országok gazdasági változók mellett képzett  klasztereinek stabilitása, a térség országainak egymáshoz  viszonyított helyzetében történt-e érdemi elmozdulás, az  eurózónához való csatlakozás esetlegesen jó indikátora-e a  felzárkózásnak. Eredményeink alapján a Visegrádi országok  nem kerültek egyik időpontban sem ugyanabba a  klaszterbe, Csehország pedig sok tekintetben inkább már  a magországokra jellemző gazdasági adatokkal  rendelkezik. Az eurózónához való csatlakozás sem volt  meghatározó, a zónához csatlakozó térségbeli államok  továbbra is a térség államaival kerültek egy klaszterbe.  

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PDF
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Globalization is perhaps the most frequently used yet least defined terms of our era. Theodore Levitt was the first to  scientifically analyse the phenomenon in his study  published in 1983; however, no one came up with a  definition accepted by everyone to date. In addition to the  introduction of scientific definitions, evolvement and the  main branches of globalization, in this paper I attempt to  present my own, scientific definition of the term that may  serve as a useful working definition in the analysis of  European integration. 

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nav őrnagy

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PDF (English)
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The paper attempts to contribute to the better understanding of how the centrifugal force towards  weakening European integration has developed by  identifying the EU-specific vectors of such gradient. We  argue that disorientegration is an echo effect of a complex  amalgam of mutually intertwined and interrelated mechanisms embedded secularly into our European integration process. The paper also addresses whether  secular stagnation adds to that centrifugal force. The paper finally outlines at least six potential principles of reversing  the European disorientegration by cultivating contingency governance.

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PDF (English)
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Increased government debt rates in recent years can be easily financed in the current global economic environment characterised by liquidity abundance. Nevertheless, the  debt ratios represent a potential threat under the surface,  which could lead to significant macroeconomic problems in  the future. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the  debate in the empirical studies between public debt and  economic growth, as well as external debt and economic  growth. During the analyses, the relationship between  variables was examined using the panel Granger causality  test with the Dumitrescu–Hurlin test in the Member States  of the European Union. The main findings of the study are  that there is a unidirectional causal effect between public  debt and economic growth, that is, only debt impacts on  the economic growth. In case of external debt and  economic growth there is also a unidirectional effect, but it  is in the reverse direction. In addition, the pre-crisis and  post-crisis period was also examined, on the basis of which  it can be concluded that before the crisis, the nature of the  relationship was bidirectional between public debt and  economic growth, whereas after the crisis the debt had an  impact on the economy growth, and the reverse effect does  not exist. 

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PDF (English)
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The issue of inequalities has become increasingly important in recent decades. Although distributional effects, such as  inequalities, are commonly associated with globalisation  and fiscal policy processes, many of the side effects of the  exceptionally loose monetary policy of the last decade also  affect the issue. After identifying the mechanisms and  channels linking the field of monetary policy and inequality,  the research focuses on empirical analyses. The  research is based on a panel ARDL test focusing on the 19  Euro area countries and Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland,  where negative nominal interest rates have  been applied. The research includes the period of 2008–2018. The aim of the paper is to assess how certain  monetary policy indicators affect inequality. The main  conclusion is consistent with the existing literature: the  effect of monetary policy to inequalities is modest, however  not negligible. The effect of inflation seems to be  weak; however, the rise in unemployment rate and long  term interest rates negatively affect inequalities. The  positive effects of the rising GDP per capita are also proven  by the analysis. 

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PDF (English)
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New members joined the European Union in 2004 in the  hope of catching up. One of the fields where new members  are lagging is transport. After joining the EU, investments in transport infrastructure and transport equipment have  risen remarkably, mainly due to EU funding. At the same  time, GDP growth of new members has exceeded the EU  average. This paper examines the connection between  investment in transport and economic growth in the  European Union focusing on the group of its Central and  Eastern European new members. Direct effects of  investments, indirect effects on productivity and welfare, as  well as crowding in effects on further investments are  considered. This paper aims to identify issues for further  research and to give an outlook for the decade of the  2020s. 

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PDF (English)
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In the European Union as a whole, we have seen a significant decrease in the number of bank branches in  recent years, in connection with which the issue of spatial availability of bank branches in Hungary arises. The study  examines the spatial autocorrelation and clustering of the  location of Hungarian bank branches with global and local  Moran’s I statistics and Getis-Ord’s Gi * hotspot analysis.  Based on the results, the number of bank branches in  Hungary is autocorrelated positively at the settlement level  according to the situation in January 2020. In terms of the  number of bank branches, the settlements are organized  into clusters, where Budapest and its catchment area are a  major junction, similar to which is not found elsewhere in  the country. Extensive cold spots were primarily identified  in the Western and Southern Transdanubia regions, as well  as in the border areas of Northern Hungary and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. 

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Az Európai Unió egészében a bankfiókok számának jelentős csökkenését tapasztaltuk az elmúlt években, amellyel  összefüggésben felmerül a bankfiókok magyarországi területi rendelkezésre állásának kérdésköre. A tanulmány globális és lokális Moran’s I statisztikákkal, valamint Getis–Ord féle G* hotspot elemzéssel a magyar bankfiókok elhelyezkedésének területi autokorrelációját és klasztereződését vizsgálja. Az eredmények alapján a bankfiókok száma Magyarországon települési szinten területileg pozitívan autokorrelált a 2020. januári állapot szerint. A települések bankfiókszámot tekintve klaszterekbe rendeződnek, ahol Budapest és vonzáskörzete egy  jelentősebb csomópontnak számít, amelyhez hasonló az  országban máshol nem található. Kiterjedtebb cold  spotokat a Nyugat- és Dél-Dunántúl régió, valamint Észak- Magyarország és Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye országhatár menti térségeiben azonosítottunk elsősorban. 

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PDF

Könyvismertetés

object(Publication)#128 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(27) { ["id"]=> int(5441) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-07-15" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-07-15 16:40:58" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(6566) ["sectionId"]=> int(27) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(5318) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(425) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "149-162" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(20) "10.32559/et.2021.1.8" ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(16) "Kondor Zsuzsanna" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(109) "Könyvismertetés Halmai Péter (szerk.) A brexit forgatókönyvei és hatásai című tanulmánykötetéről" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(29) "Járt utat a járatlanért..." } ["locale"]=> string(5) "hu_HU" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#698 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(6566) ["email"]=> string(27) "Kondor.Zsuzsanna@uni-nke.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5441) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(201) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Kondor" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Kondor" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(9) "Zsuzsanna" ["hu_HU"]=> string(9) "Zsuzsanna" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "hu_HU" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> array(4) { [0]=> string(9) "kilépés" [1]=> string(20) "politikai folyamatok" [2]=> string(22) "gazdasági kockázatok" [3]=> string(14) "Európai Unió" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#743 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(18379) ["id"]=> int(4479) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "hu_HU" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5441) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
PDF
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PDF (English)