Európai Tükör <p>Az <strong>Európai Tükör</strong> a Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem tudományos online folyóirata, melynek elsődleges célja, hogy valós képet adjon az európai integrációs folyamatokról és azok kihívásairól a harmadik évezred elején. A lap földrajzi fókusza az Európai Unió és ezen belül Kelet- Közép Európa, illetve Magyarország. A tárgyalt tudományterületek között kiemelt szerepet kapnak a közgazdaság-tudomány, a jogtudomány, a politikatudomány és ezek határterületeinek legfontosabb kérdései és aktualitásai.</p> hu-HU (Pásztor Szabolcs) (Szilágyi Hajnalka (Ludovika Egyetemi Kiadó Iroda)) Mon, 18 Mar 2024 16:01:28 +0100 OJS 60 Rule of Law as the Hard Condition for Accession <p>The enlargement policy stands as one of the EU’s most significant policies. In a changing world order and amid shifting geopolitical circumstances, it is in the vital interest of the European Union and its Member States to demonstrate progress in this policy area and to expand the Union with new members. Despite not expanding in the last ten years, the European Union’s enlargement policy has undergone significant changes, resulting in increasingly stringent and evolving requirements for candidate countries. This article utilises the conceptual framework of Europeanisation to assess the current preparedness of candidate countries, with a specific focus on the ‘fundamentals’, including Chapters 23 and 24.</p> Koller Boglárka, Ördögh Tibor Copyright (c) 2024 Koller Boglárka, Ördögh Tibor Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Evaluation of Montenegro’s EU Maturity in the Light of Economic Indicators <p>Montenegro submitted its EU membership application to the Council in 2008. Accession negotiations started in 2012 with the Western Balkan country. In December 2023, out of the 33 chapters opened during the negotiations, only 3 chapters were temporarily closed. The aim of the study is to examine on the basis of the European Commission’s country report, the EBRD’s Transition Report, the OECD’s Competitiveness Report, as well as the evaluation of a wide range of macro indicators, to what extent Montenegro can be considered mature for joining the European Union based on its economic structure, performance and catch-up. In the last 15 years, the country has achieved a slow economic catch-up, but it is not yet considered mature for integration from an economic point of view. In order to meet the economic criteria for EU accession, the country still needs to implement reforms in many areas and strictly adhere to budgetary discipline.</p> Ferkelt Balázs Copyright (c) 2024 Ferkelt Balázs Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 How Decisive Are the Copenhagen Criteria for EU Enlargement? <p>The article analyses the significance of the accession criteria in the context of recent EU enlargement negotiations, particularly during heightened geopolitical circumstances triggered by Russia’s aggression against Ukraine. The accelerated EU enlargement process, evidenced by the swift membership applications from Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia, and the even quicker decision to open accession negotiations for two of them, inspires an exploration of the binding elements, specifically the Copenhagen criteria, integral to the accession negotiation process. The study aims to examine the numerical development and changes in the conditions and criteria necessary for EU membership in ten candidate and potential candidate countries. The analysis focuses on fulfilling essential conditions, with emphasis on convergence, assessed using GDP per capita and growth rates, as well as the rule of law and democracy criteria measured through the Worldwide Governance Indicators.</p> Nádasi Levente, Trón Zsuzsanna Copyright (c) 2024 Nádasi Levente, Trón Zsuzsanna Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Europe Whole and Free and the Global Zeitenwende <p>It is beyond doubt that the international world order as we have known it since the 1990s is changing. In Europe the clearest wakeup call of this new context – let alone the more frequent systemic challenges in the last decades – has been the Russian aggression against Ukraine. It needs the EU to adapt to the new realities which were labelled by Olaf Scholz “Zeitenwende” in his historic speech. The essay explores this historical context in the light of evolving dynamics of European integration, emphasising the concept of a “whole and free” Europe through continuous expansion of Euro-Atlantic institutions, which was envisaged in George H. W. Bush’s also historic speech on the eve of the end of the Cold War. The essay touches upon the enduring debate on the geographical limits and institutional capacities of the European Union (EU) in relation to its position in the world order. The subsequent theoretical assessment aims to understand the challenges the EU faces, particularly in the context of potential enlargement, acknowledging the need for internal and external strength to navigate a changing geopolitical and geoeconomic environment. The essay refrains from normative statements on enlargement but asserts that a “wholer and freer” Europe could elevate the EU’s global influence, positioning it to shape the agenda of the “Zeitenwende”, and the emerging, hopefully still rule-based world order.</p> Rada Péter, Nyilas Laura Copyright (c) 2024 Rada Péter, Nyilas Laura Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Potential Sticking Points between EU Accession Requirements and National Interests in Serbia, with Special Reference to Geopolitical and Minority Issues <p>It is worth examining the current state of Serbia’s accession to the European Union in a wider socio-historical and economic-political context. The country contacted the EU on 24 November 2000, when it joined the Stabilisation and Association Process as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to present the impact of the EU’s priorities on Serbia’s domestic policy that have a major impact on cooperation between the two sides: the rule of law, fundamental rights, strengthening democratic institutions, the fight against organised crime, economic development and increased competitiveness, and the recognition of Kosovo’s independence. On the other hand, this paper aims to outline the difficulties caused by geopolitical events and the obstacles to accession. While Serbia has primarily an economic interest in accession, the EU needs to take into account geo- and security policy aspects in order to maintain the stability of its own borders and those of the continent, and to preserve its position in global politics. As President-in-Office of the EU Council, Hungary will not only have the opportunity to boost the accession process of the Western Balkans, but also to put the region’s concerns at the top of the EU’s political agenda, in line with the criteria for accession to the EU. Geographically, Serbia is situated at the intersection of three civilisations – Western Christianity, Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam. On the one hand, as a consequence of the Austro–Hungarian Empire’s influence, the presence of “Western” values is already perceptible, and on the other hand, due to the country’s history, the Orthodox Christianity and Islam also strongly influence its attitude to certain socio-political issues. This dichotomy, among others, has left its mark on the country’s relations with minorities, its relationship with Kosovo, and its attitude to the Russian–Ukrainian war. Successful EU accession is not just about complying with the technical rules of integration, but about commitment to and compliance with the principles of EU law.</p> Zsivity Tímea Copyright (c) 2024 Zsivity Tímea Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Common Security Policy vs. Sovereignty <p>In light of the recent war that thrust Europe into upheaval, taking a look at the European Union’s common security policy is of paramount importance. In my paper, I shall examine how essential state functions play a role in ensuring national security and sovereignty, while also taking part in the EU’s policies regarding this vital area of cooperation. My research focuses on what security entails on the level of the EU. In addition, I would like to explore what the boundaries of cooperation are, and how this policy was created. Of course, nations need each other in trying times, but does that leave no room for autonomous decisions? What are the limits, which allow no more freedom for state functions to take effect?</p> Mercz Mónika Copyright (c) 2023 Mercz Mónika Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Hopes of European Union Accession: A Safeguard against the Country’s Implosion? <p>The prospect of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s accession to the European Union encapsulates a pivotal chapter in the nation’s trajectory. As the country navigates the intricate path toward EU membership, it faces a myriad of challenges and opportunities that extend beyond mere geopolitical realignment. This journey involves addressing complex issues such as political stability, governance reforms, rule of law and economic development. The significance of this process lies not only in its potential to reshape Bosnia and Herzegovina’s political and economic landscape but also in the broader implications for regional stability and the consolidation of European values in the Western Balkans. In this context, the journey towards EU accession for Bosnia and Herzegovina is a multifaceted endeavour, reflecting both the aspirations and complexities inherent in the pursuit of a European future.</p> Maxime Kundid Copyright (c) 2024 Maxime Kundid Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Enlargement Lesson from the Schengen Zone <p>In this opinion article, we aim to draw a parallel between the enlargement of the Schengen area and of the European Union itself. We will argue that both processes suffer from enlargement fatigue, and some of the impeding factors are identical.</p> Sigér Fruzsina Copyright (c) 2024 Sigér Fruzsina Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 More Secretary than General? Kecsmár Krisztián Copyright (c) 2024 Kecsmár Krisztián Mon, 18 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100