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object(Publication)#697 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5527) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-01-25" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-01-25 12:41:41" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(6696) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["submissionId"]=> int(5403) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2580) "Boyd, Robert and Peter J Richerson, Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Cohen, Mathilde, ‘Judges or Hostages? Sitting at the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights’, in EU Law Stories. Contextual and Critical Histories of European Jurisprudence, ed. by Fernanda Nicola and Bill Davies. Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2017, 58‒80. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316340479.004 Csányi, Vilmos, Az evolúció általános elmélete [The General Theory of Evolution]. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1979. Gyurgyák, János, Európa alkonya [The Twilight of Europe]. Budapest: Osiris, 2018. Harari, Yuval N, Homo Deus. Harper Collins, 2018. Online: https://doi.org/10.17104/9783406704024 Hirschl, Ran, Towards Juristocracy. The Origins and Consequences of the New Constitutionalism. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2004. Jakab, András, Az európai alkotmányjog nyelve [The Language of the European Constitutional Law]. Budapest: NKE Szolgáltató Kft., 2016. Kingsbury, Benedict, ‘Foreword: Is the Proliferation of International Courts and Tribunals a Systemic Problem?’ N. Y. U. Journal of International Law and Politics 31 (1999). Kis, Norbert, ‘Anti-Politics, Populism and Political Psychology’. Comparative Politics 9, no 2 (2018), 83–93. Kis, Norbert, ‘The power of virtuality as a challenge for governments: A post-state dystopia’, in Central and Eastern European eDem and eGov, ed. by András Nemeslaki, Alexander Prosser, Dona Scola and Tamás Szádeczky. Wien: Austrian Computer Society, 2019, 107–114. Pokol, Béla, Európai jurisztokrácia [European Juristocracy]. Budapest: Dialóg Campus Kiadó, 2019. Somek, Alexander, ‘Administration without Sovereignty’, in The Twilight of Constitutionalism?, ed. by Petra Dobner and Martin Loughlin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585007.001.0001 Spengler, Osvald, The Decline of the West. Alfred A Knopf, 2nd ptg edition, 1926. Stumpf, István, Erős állam, alkotmányos korlátok [Strong State, Constitutional Constraints]. Budapest: Századvég, 2014. Teitel, Ruti and Robert Howse, ‘Cross-Judging: Tribunalization in a Fragmented but Interconnected Global Order’. N. Y. U. Journal of International Law and Politics 41 (2009), 292‒294. Zito, Anthony Z, ‘Epistemic Communities, European Union Governance and the Public Voice’. Science and Public Policy 28, no 6 (2001), 465–476. Online: https://doi.org/10.3152/147154301781781183" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(453) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "5-14" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.1" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1565) "

This article aims to investigate the controversial concept of Juristocracy that has been widely analysed recently. This theory claims that lobbyists representing a liberal ideology have formed an oligarchy of lawyers in EU institutions. These juristocratic networks seek to limit the sovereignty of post-liberal, legitimate national governments. The concept extends to other supranational institutions as well as NGOs and academic networks. This study discusses the political ambition of lawyers of EU institutions and their existence as political protagonists i.e. Juristocracy. However, the theory of Juristocracy addresses some historical phenomena. The EU’s bureaucracy has become a “power institution” and tends to compete with national governments. In this socio-evolutionary struggle, both legal and political theories can easily become “power theories”. The concept of Juristocracy reflects the weakening global influence of neoliberal values as well as the changing role of post-WWII supranational institutions. In this respect, juristocratic networking can be seen as a historical necessity as much as it has to do with the conflict of supranational and national governance, in particular within the EU. The legitimacy and public trust of supranational institutions is more and more challenged, thus the study concludes the need for a new, win–win deal between national governments and supranational institutions. Otherwise, in the long-term, nation states will only survive if relying on historical and socio-psychological foundations.

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object(Publication)#121 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(5813) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-01-25" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-01-25 12:41:40" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7113) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(5689) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2193) "Bazin, Marcel and Stéphane de Tapia, Türkiye coğrafyası: la Turquie : géographie d’une puissance émergente. İstanbul: Iletisim, 2015. Düvell, Franck, ‘Clandestine Migration in Europe’. Social Science Information 47, no 4 (2008), 479–497. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018408096442 Frontex, Western Balkan Route, 2019. Online: https://frontex.europa.eu/we-know/migratory-routes/western-balkan-route/ Frontex, Eastern Mediterranean Route, 2019. Online: https://frontex.europa.eu/we-know/migratory-routes/eastern-mediterranean-route/ Frontex Annual Risk Analysis 2020. Online: https://frontex.europa.eu/publications/frontex-releases-risk-analysis-for-2020-vp0TZ7 Frontex Annual Risk Analysis 2021. Online: https://frontex.europa.eu/publications/frontex-releases-risk-analysis-for-2021-MmzGl0 Giuliani, Jean-Dominique, ‘The Challenge of Illegal Immigration in the Mediterranean’. European Issues no 352 (2015). Online: www.robert-schuman.eu/en/european-issues/0352-the-challenge-of-illegal-immigration-in-the-mediterranean IOM, New UN Migration Report Shows Complex Evolution of Pathways, Cost of Eastern Mediterranean Route, 2017. Online: www.iom.int/news/new-un-migration-report-shows-complex-evolution-pathways-cost-eastern-mediterranean-route IOM, Glossary on Migration, 2019. Online: www.iom.int/glossary-migration-2019 IOM, Flow monitoring, Europe, 2020. Online: https://migration.iom.int/europe?type=arrivals Kuschminder, Katie, Talitha Dubow, Ahmet İçduygu, Aysen Üstübici, Eda Kirişçioğlu, Godfried Engbersen and Olga Mitrovic, Decision Making on the Balkan Route and the EU–Turkey Statement. UNU-MERIT, 2019. UNECE, Defining and Measuring Circular Migration. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 2016. UNHCR, Global Trends. Forced Displacement in 2018. Online: www.unhcr.org/statistics/unhcrstats/5d08d7ee7/unhcr-global-trends-2018.html UNHCR, Refugee Statistics, 2021. UNHCR’s Refugee Population Statistics Database. Online: www.unhcr.org/refugee-statistics/ Weiner, Myron, ‘Ethics, National Sovereignty and the Control of Immigration’. International Migration Review 30, no 1 (1996), 171–197. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/2547466" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(453) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "15-25" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.2" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(823) "

Due to its geographical proximity to Western countries, Turkey is becoming one of the critical points of a complex migration system that includes asylum seekers, refugees, regular, irregular and transit migrants. For this reason, Turkey, regarded as a “transition country”, is a very important station on the way to European destinations. With this aspect, Turkey has become a key country in terms of the EU’s border security, and this feature has become the focal point of EU–Turkey relations.
Despite the importance and insufficient opportunities for irregular migration to the EU, Turkey’s struggle with transit migration will be discussed in this study. Furthermore, the routes used by refugees to reach Europe through Turkey, as well as the statistics related with these routes, will be examined.

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object(Publication)#187 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(5703) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-01-25" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-01-25 12:41:41" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(6936) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(5579) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(8195) "Alimov, Rashid, Шанхайская организация сотрудничества: становление, развитие, перспективы [Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Formation, Development, Prospects]. Весь Мир [The Whole World] Publishing, 2017. Online: https://www.vesmirbooks.ru/books/catalog/intrelations/3322/ Allison, Roy, ‘Protective Integration and Security Policy Coordination: Comparing the SCO and CSTO’. The Chinese Journal of International Politics 11, no 3 (2018), 297–338. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/cjip/poy008 Aris, Stephen, ‘Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: An Anti-western Alignment?’ CSS Analyses in Security Policy no 66 (2009). Online: https://css.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/gess/cis/center-for-securities-studies/pdfs/CSS-Analyses-66.pdf Aris, Stephen, ‘Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Mapping multilateralism in transition no. 2’. International Peace Institute, IPI, December 2013. Online: https://www.ipinst.org/wp-content/uploads/publications/ipi_e_pub_shanghai_cooperation.pdf Bailes, Alyson J K, Pál Dunay, Pan Guang and Mikhail Troitskiy, ‘The Shanghai Cooperation Organization’. SIPRI Policy Paper no 17 (2007). Online: https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/PP/SIPRIPP17.pdf Boland, Julie, ‘Ten Years of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: A Lost Decade? A Partner for the U.S.?’ The Brookings Institution, Federal Executive Fellows Policy Papers, 24 June 2011. Online: https://www.brookings.edu/research/ten-years-of-the-shanghai-cooperation-organization-a-lost-decade-a-partner-for-the-united-states/ Borisov, Denis Alekseevich, Эволюция политики безопасности Шанхайской организации сотрудничества: 1996–2010 гг [The evolution of the security policy of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: 1996–2010]. Candidate of Science (PhD) dissertation, Tomsk State University, Russia, 2011. Online: https://www.dissercat.com/content/evolyutsiya-politiki-bezopasnosti-shankhaiskoi-organizatsii-sotrudnichestva Chaotsin, Van, ‘Дееспособность при сотрудничестве в области безопасности в рамках шос’ [Capacity in security cooperation within the SCO]. Теория и Практика Общественного Развития [Theory and Practice of Social Development] 2 (2015), 54–59. Contessi, Nicola P, ‘China, Russia and the Leadership of the SCO. A Tacit Deal Scenario’. China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 8, no 4 (2010), 101–123. Dapen, Pan, ‘Роль ШОС во внешнеполитической стратегии Китая’ [The role of the SCO in China’s foreign policy strategy], 01 October 2020. Online: https://russiancouncil.ru/analytics-and-comments/analytics/rol-shos-vo-vneshnepoliticheskoy-strategii-kitaya/ Fawcett, Louise and Andrew Hurrell, Regionalism in World Politics: Regional Organization and International Order. Oxford University Press, 2015. Online: https://docenti.unimc.it/u1.chelatidirar/teaching/2015/14864/files/reading-materials-on-regionalism/historical-perspectives Gordiyenko, Dimitriy Vladimirovich, ‘Шанхайская Oрганизация сотрудничества как площадка для диалогапо вопросам региональной безопасности’ [Shanghai Cooperation Organization as a Platform for Dialogue on Regional Security Issues]. National Interests: Priorities and Security 37 (2015), 44–66. Online: Guang, Pan, ‘Что такое “шанхайский дух”’ [What is “Shanghai spirit”]. Central Internet portal of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Online: https://www.infoshos.ru/ru/?idn=3296 Huasheng, Zhao, ’China’s View of and Expectations from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization’, Asian Survey 53 no 3 (2013), 436-460. Online: https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2013.53.3.436 Kaczmarski, Marcin, ‘Non-western visions of regionalism: China’s New Silk Road and Russia’s Eurasian Economic Union’. International Affairs 93, no 6 (2017), 1357–1376. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix182 Lanteigne, Marc, ‘Russia, China and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Diverging Security Interests and the Crimea Effect’, in Russia’s Turn to the East. Global Reordering, ed. by Helge Blakkisrud and Elana Wilson-Rowe. Palgrave MacMillan, 2018. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69790-1_7 Laruel, Marlen and Sebastian Peyruz, ‘Региональные организации в Центральном союзе: характеристики взаимодействий, дилеммы эффективности’ [Regional organisations in the Central Union: Characteristics of interactions, efficiency dilemmas]. University of Central Asia Report Series 10 (2013). Online: https://www.ucentralasia.org/Content/downloads/UCA-IPPA-WP-10-RegionalOrganizations-Rus.pdf Lubina, Michał, Russia and China: A Political Marriage of Convenience – Stable and Successful. Opladen–Berlin–Toronto: Barbara Budrich Publishers, 2017. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvdf0314 Меморандум о взаимопонимании по вопросам сотрудничества и взаимодействия между РАТС ШОС, АТЦ СНГ и Секретариатом ОДКБ [Memorandum on mutual understanding on cooperation and interaction between the SCO RATS, the CIS ATC and the CSTO Secretariat], 28 May 2018. Online: https://antiterror.odkb-csto.org/int_organizations/RATS%20SHOS-ATC%20SNG-CSTO/memorandum/ Mittelman, James H and Richard Falk, ‘Global Hegemony and Regionalism’, in The Globalization Syndrome – Transformation and Resistance, ed. by James H Mittelman. Princeton University Press, 2000. Online: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400823697 Nikitina, Yulia, ‘ОДКБ и ШОС как модели взаимодействия в сфере региональной безопасности’ [CSTO and SCO as models of interaction in the field of regional security]. Индекс Безопасности 97, no 2 (2011), 45–53. Online: www.pircenter.org/media/content/files/0/13406397580.pdf Obydenkova, Anastassia and Alexander Libman, Autocratic and Democratic External Influences in Post-Soviet Eurasia. Routledge, 2015. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315568492 Roberts, Sean, The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Is It Undermining U.S. Interests in Central Asia? Hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Ninth Congress, second session, 26 September 2006. Online: www.csce.gov/sites/helsinkicommission.house.gov/files/The%20Shanghai%20Cooperation%20Organization%20Is%20it%20Undermining%20U.S.%20Interests%20in%20Central%20Asia.pdf Saksena, Amit R, ‘Structural and policy problems prevent the SCO from being an effective Central Asian security organization’. The Diplomat, 25 July 2014. Online: https://thediplomat.com/2014/07/the-shanghai-cooperation-organization-and-central-asian-security/ Weitz, Richard, ‘Afghanistan, not new members, will determine SCO’s relevance’, World Politics Review, 14 July 2015. Online: www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/16223/afghanistan-not-new-members-will-determine-sco-s-relevance Xuashen, Chao, ‘Китай, Центральная Азия и Шанхайская организация сотрудничества [China, Central Asia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization]. Carnegie Moscow Center Working Papers 5 (2005). Online: www.studmed.ru/view/huashen-ch-kitay-centralnaya-aziya-i-shanhayskaya-organizaciya-sotrudnichestva_258ae3b8b8a.html Xin, Zhang, ‘Opinion: The undying importance of the ‘Shanghai Spirit’.’ China Global Television Network, CGTN, 03 June 2018. Online: https://news.cgtn.com/news/3d3d774d3263444f77457a6333566d54/share_p.html Xiaoquan, Wang, ‘SCO: A new model for close, inclusive international relations’. China Today Commentaries, 11 June 2018. Online: www.chinatoday.com.cn/ctenglish/2018/hotspots/2018sh/2/201806/t20180611_800132521.html" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(453) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "27-38" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.3" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(492) "

The article discusses the initial role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in Central Asia and the latest development trends, as well as possible scenarios for its transformation in the future, with a special focus on Central Asia. The enlargement of the SCO in 2017 enhanced its geopolitical weight and expanded opportunities for further multilateral cooperation. It has a chance to transform into the Eurasian organisation. Nevertheless, these perspectives remain unclear.

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object(Publication)#189 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5623) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-01-25" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-01-25 12:41:41" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(6828) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["submissionId"]=> int(5499) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3441) "Boulding, Kenneth E, The Meaning of the Twentieth Century: The Great Transition. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1964. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003256960 Boulding, Kenneth E, Conflict and Defense: A General Theory. Auckland: Valmy Publishing, 2018. Braw, Elisabeth, ‘NATO’s New Frontlines: Security and Deterrence in the Baltic Sea Region’. Atlantic Council, November 2016. Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep03480 Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre, ‘Air Power Doctrine’, in Royal Canadian Air Force Doctrine, 2015. Curtis E LeMay Center, ‘Basic Doctrine’, in United States Air Force Doctrine. Maxwell, 2015. Frear, Thomas, ‘Lessons Learned?: Success and Failure in Managing Russia–West Incidents 2014–2018’. European Leadership Network, April 2018. Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep17423?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents Fryc, Mariusz, ‘From Wales to Warsaw and Beyond: NATO’s Strategic Adaptation to the Russian Resurgence on Europe’s Eastern Flank’. Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes Connections Quarterly Journal 15, no 4 (2016), 45–65. Online: https://doi.org/10.11610/Connections.15.4.03 Hähnlein, Rayk, ‘Air Power: Credible deterrence and defence call for superior air forces. NATO has realised that’. German Federal Academy for Security Policy, Security Policy Working Paper no 6 (2018). Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/resrep22201.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A81c607511bf4e3276a2bad37984ff7a4 Jones, Johnny R, Lieutenant Colonel, ‘Air Power’. United States Air University Journal. Online: https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/Portals/10/ASPJ/journals/Chronicles/jjones.pdf Kainikara, Sanu, ‘What Constitutes Air Power?’, in Pathfinder Collection Volume 9, ed. by Sanu Kainikara. Canberra: Australian Air Power Development Centre, 2019, 23–26. Online: https://airpower.airforce.gov.au/publications/pathfinder-collection-volume-9 Liddell-Hart, Basil H, The Rommel Papers. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1953. Lithuanian Armed Forces, ‘NATO Air Policing Mission – Baltic Air Policing’, s. a. Online: https://kariuomene.kam.lt/en/structure_1469/air_force/nato_air_-_policing_mission.html Mueller, Karl P, ‘Air Power’, in RAND Project Air Force. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 2010. Online: https://www.rand.org/pubs/reprints/RP1412.html NATO Allied Joint Publication, ‘Fundamentals of Joint Air Power’, in NATO Standard AJP-3.3. Allied Joint Doctrine for Air and Space Operations, Edition B Version 1. NATO Standardization Office, 2016, 1-2, 1-1–1-18. NATO, ‘Baltic Air Policing’, s. a. Online: https://ac.nato.int/missions/air-policing/baltics NATO, ‘Deterrence and defence’, s. a. Online: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_133127.htm Raynova, Denitsa and Lukasz Kulesa, ‘Russia–West Incidents in the Air and at Sea 2016–2017: Out of the Danger Zone?’. European Leadership Network, October 2018. Online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/resrep22133.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A478e308f1a3de47bb6054f6a3bd1471c Royal Australian Air Force Air Power Development Centre, ‘Fundamentals of Air and Space Power’, in The Air Power Manual. Australian Air Publication, 2013, 121. UK Ministry of Defence’s Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre, ‘An introduction to UK air power’, in Joint Doctrine Publication 0-30 UK Air and Space Power, 2nd Edition, 2017." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(453) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "39-47" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.4" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1462) "

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the role, place and importance of air power for the success of joint military operations in conduct of NATO deterrence activities and operations. Air power has been highly valued in defence, security and in warfare from its very beginning, since the establishment of the first Air Forces. With its modern development it has become crucial for achieving military goals, as well as national ones. The importance of air power is shown through its definition and comparison in the military doctrines of the air forces of certain countries and NATO, where it is obvious how important it is in the structure of national power, security and defence, as well as in collective security and defence of NATO. The emphasis is on the ongoing implementation of NATO military activities and operations and the projection of the Alliance’s air power in deterring Russia’s potential threats to its members in Northeast Europe, in the Baltic region. The current method of projection of air power and the use of its elements in these NATO military activities are discussed and presented. The special features and capabilities provided by the air power, which do not possess other military components and cannot compensate for these effects, give it a key role in supporting and conducting joint military operations, and in enabling the success of their implementation.

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Today we have clear evidence, that in Eastern Ukraine regular Russian forces have fought on the separatists’ side. Based on open sources, the main type of unit deployed by the Russian Armed Forces is the Battalion Tactical Group. These Battalion Tactical Groups were deployed in almost all battles of the Russo–Ukraine war. In these battles, the Battalion Tactical Groups used the latest available Russian military equipment and they used them by the latest Russian manuals. It is very important to get familiar with the battle performance, the equipment and the tactics used by the Russian Battalion Tactical Groups in order to have a clear picture of the main tactical formation implemented by the Russians in Eastern Ukraine.

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Online: https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/rohingya-crisis Al-Rousan, Tala, Zaker Schwabkey, Lara Jirmanus and Brett D Nelson, ‘Health needs and priorities of Syrian refugees in camps and urban settings in Jordan: perspectives of refugees and health care providers’. East Mediterranean Health Journal 24, no 3 (2018), 243–253. Online: https://doi.org/10.26719/2018.24.3.243 Appleby, J Kevin, ‘Implementation of the Global Compact on Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration: A Whole-of-Society Approach’. Journal on Migration and Human Security 8, no 2 (2020), 214–229. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/2331502420907377 Baranik, Lisa E, Carrie S Hurst and Lillian T Eby, ‘The stigma of being a refugee: A mixed-method study of refugees’ experiences of vocational stress’. Journal of Vocational Behavior 105 (2018), 116–130. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.09.006 BenEzer, Gadi and Roger Zetter, ‘Searching for Directions: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Researching Refugee Journeys’. Journal of Refugee Studies 28, no 3 (2015), 297–318. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/feu022 Berti, Benedetta, ‘The Syrian refugee crisis: Regional and human security implications’. Strategic Assessment 17, no 4 (2015), 41–53. Carter, Thomas S and John Osborne, ‘Housing and Neighbourhood Challenges of Refugee Resettlement in Declining Inner City Neighbourhoods: A Winnipeg Case Study’. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 7, no 3 (2009), 308–327. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/15562940903150097 Castles, Stephen, ‘Immigration and asylum: challenges to European identities and citizenship’, in The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History, ed. by Dan Stone. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 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New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/000271625429400176 Ziaian, Tahereh, Helena de Anstiss, Teresa Puvimanasinghe and Emily Miller, ‘Refugee students’ psychological wellbeing and experiences in the Australian education system: A mixed-methods investigation’. Australian Psychologist 53, no 4 (2018), 345–354. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12301" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(453) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "67-86" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.6" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(860) "

This study tries to integrate different methods for research on refugee resettlement, which denotes the scholarship that intends to compare specific issues in two or more contexts and societies under their diverse socio-cultural settings. The study aims to represent a holistic picture that allows a greater understanding of refugee resettlement and proposes developing a more appropriate and holistic research methodology for refugee studies to do research in state and public administration. Researching the refugee problem has various distinctive noticeable difficulties that scholars must deal with; it also provides a diverse alternative for each stage to pilot the research process. The paper discusses the correlations amid the methodological problems and clarifies the critical decisions that are considered when researching the refugee problem.

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Ez a tanulmány a menekültek áttelepítésének különböző módszereit igyekszik integrálni, amely utal arra a tanulmányra, amelynek célja a jelenségek egyes kérdéseinek összehasonlítása két vagy több kontextusban és az országokban azok eltérő társadalmi-kulturális helyzetének megfelelően. A cél egy olyan teljes kép bemutatása, amely lehetővé tenné a menekültek áttelepítésének jobb megértését, és számos javaslatot terjeszt elő egy megfelelőbb és holisztikusabb kutatási módszertan kidolgozására a menekültügyi tanulmányok területén az állam és a közigazgatás számára végzett kutatás elvégzésére, mivel sok egyedülálló szembetűnő buktató, amelyekkel a kutatóknak meg kell küzdeniük. Ezenkívül számos alternatívát kínál a kutatási folyamat egyes szakaszainak lebonyolításához. A cikk megpróbálta megvitatni a módszertani kérdések összefüggéseit, és tisztázni azokat a főbb döntéseket, amelyeket a kutatóknak figyelembe kell venniük a menekültekkel kapcsolatos kutatások során.
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object(Publication)#769 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(30) { ["id"]=> int(4935) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-01-25" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-01-25 12:41:42" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(5967) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(7) ["submissionId"]=> int(4814) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(4422) "Andrási, Zsolt and Lajos Franczen, (eds.), A fenntartható fejlődés indikátorai Magyarországon, 2014 [Indicators of sustainable development in Hungary, 2014]. Central Statistical Office, 2015. Online: https://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/fenntartfejl/fenntartfejl14.pdf Berek, Tamás, ‘A vízbiztonsági tervezés szerepe a fenntartható vízgazdálkodásban’ [The role of water security planning in sustainable water management]. Műszaki Katonai Közlöny 26, no 2 (2016), 32–48. Online: https://doi.org/10.32562/mkk.2016.2.3 Berek, Tamás, ‘Adaptációs lehetőségek az éghajlatváltozás következményeihez a biztonságtechnikában a közszolgálat területén’ [Adaptation possibilities to the consequences of climate change in the field of security technology in public service], in Adaptációs lehetőségek az éghajlatváltozás következményeihez a közszolgálat területén [Adaptation possibilities to the effects of global climate change in the public service area], ed. by László Földi and Hajnalka Hegedűs. Budapest: National University of Public Service, 2019, 625–687. Dávidovits, Zsuzsanna, ‘Az ivóvízbiztonsági tervek készítésének nehézségei’ [Difficulties in creating drinking water security plans]. Fiatal Higiénikusok Fóruma VII [7th Conference of Young Sanitarians], 10–11 May 2011, Gödöllő, Hungary. Földi, László and László Halász, ‘Investigation of climate vulnerability of domestic natural and artificial ecosystems’. Hadmérnök 14, no 2 (2019), 167–178. Online: https://doi.org/10.32567/hm.2019.2.14 Government Resolution 1163/2020, ‘Hungary’s National Security Strategy’, Magyar Közlöny, 21 April 2020. Online: https://honvedelem.hu/hirek/government-resolution-1163-2020-21st-april.html Mika, János and Ádám Kertész, ‘A klímaváltozás és az energiaszektor kölcsönhatásai’ [Interactions of climate change and the energy sector], in Environmentally conscious energy production and use [Környezettudatos energiatermelés és -felhasználás], ed. by Valéria Szabó and István Fazekas. Debrecen: MTA DAB Megújuló Energetikai Munkabizottsága, 2011. Ministry of Innovation and Technology, Magyarország Nemzeti Energia- és Klímaterve (tervezet) [Hungary’s National Energy and Climate Plan (draft)], 2018. Online: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/hungary_draftnecp.pdf Ministry of Innovation and Technology, A 2020 végéig tartó Első Éghajlatváltozási Cselekvési Terv [The First Climate Change Action Plan until the end of 2020]. Online: https://hirlevel.egov.hu/2020/01/27/megjelent-az-elso-eghajlatvaltozasi-cselekvesi-terv-es-mellekletei/ Ministry of the Interior, General Water Directorate, A Vásárhelyi Terv Továbbfejlesztése [Improved Vásárhelyi Plan], 2020. Online: https://www.vizugy.hu/index.php?module=content&programelemid=68 Ministry of National Development, A 2017–2030 időszakra vonatkozó, 2050-igtartó időszakra is kitekintést nyújtó második Nemzeti Éghajlatváltozási Stratégia [Second National Climate Change Strategy 2017–2030, covering the period up to 2050, (NÉS-2)]. Online: https://www.kormany.hu/download/f/6a/f0000/N%C3%89S_2_strat%C3%A9gia_2017_02_27.pdf Office of the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Országos éves energiamérleg, 2020 [Annual national energy balance, 2020]. Online: https://www.mekh.hu/hivatalos-statisztika Ősz, János and Csilla Kaszás, ‘A megújuló energiaforrások hazai hasznosításának lehetőségei és korlátai’ [Possibilities and limitations of the utilisation of renewable energy sources in Hungary], in Környezettudatos energiatermelés és -felhasználás [Environmentally conscious energy production and use], ed. by Valéria Szabó and István Fazekas. Debrecen: MTA DAB Megújuló Energetikai Munkabizottsága, 2011. Papp, Mária, Matild Dávidné Deli, Gábor Bódi, Dezső Solti, Ernő Solymosi and András Havas, Távlati vízigények elemzése – Ivóvízfogyasztás/ivóvízigények megállapítása és előre becslésük Magyarországon [Analysis of perspective water demands – Determination of drinking water consumption and demand in Hungary]. Central Water and Environmental Directorate, 2007. Online: https://docplayer.hu/4919469-Tavlati-vizigenyek-elemzese-ivovizfogyasztas-ivovizigenyek-megallapitasa-es-elorebecslesuk-magyarorszagon.html" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(453) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "87-96" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.7" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(961) "

Weather extremities became more significant in Central Europe from the beginning of the 21st century. More frequent and severe droughts, floods, precipitations, storms, extreme high (or low) temperatures are occurring nowadays. It has become important also for Hungary to have proper legal and scientific background to fight against these phenomena. In recent years, several legal and technical regulations were born in Hungary as strategic answers for these challenges. The goal is to ease the consequences and adapt to the changes as much as possible. The authors selected some key areas and their interactions as the energy sector, water management and security issues. After describing Hungary’s situation, related environment and the history of recent years’ efforts in these areas, they summarise the responses and probable benefits of the Hungarian countermeasures as a possible positive example for answering the challenges of climate change.

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During my professional carrier, I participated in several digital content development projects, and in my doctoral dissertation I examined the ecosystem of e-learning development according to the Design Science (DS) methodology. Partly from the practical experience, partly from the comprehensive research, I perceived that few indicators – which can be applied in practice – were determined about the effectiveness and efficiency of a digital learning content development process.
Traditionally, projects can be evaluated by the ‘iron triangle’: the project is completed on time, within budget in right quality. This approach is not fundamentally wrong, but as several studies point out, it does not provide a complete picture, can even lead to false conclusions, and can determine wrong decisions.
The present work aims to focus specifically on the e-learning content created as a product of professional authoring tools (e.g. the end result is a SCORM standard package). This paper does not seek to take into account the whole development process. In addition to the focus on the content development, it is also important to underline that the background of these findings is in adult learning environments in large or multinational corporations.
In this article, I summarise the key technological, methodological and financial indicators (both key performance indicators and key result indicators) for the learner- and content-centred e-learning materials. Together, these indicators can form a system that gives the opportunity to evaluate and compare e-learning materials in its complexity.

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Kevés olyan – a gyakorlatban is alkalmazható – mutatószám került meghatározásra, amely alapján mérhető lenne egy digitális tananyagfejlesztés eredményessége, hatékonysága. Hagyományosan a projekteket a „vas háromszög” alapján értékelhetjük: időben befejeződtek, költségvetésen belül maradtak és megfelelő minőségben készült el a „sikeres” projekt. E szemlélet alapvetően nem helytelen, de ahogy több tanulmány is rámutat, nem ad teljes képet, és akár rossz döntések előkészítését is eredményezheti. Ez a cikk kifejezetten a digitális tananyagfejlesztés eredménytermékeként létrejött e-learning tananyagra (pl. SCORM csomag) kíván fókuszálni. A tananyagok természetesen egy komplex fejlesztési folyamat eredményeként jönnek létre, amely folyamat pedig összeségében egy tananyagfejlesztési ökoszisztémában értelmezhető, azonban jelen cikk kifejezetten a tananyagok és azok kifejlesztése irányából keresi a metrikákat, mérőszámokat.

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