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Blum, William (2003): Killing Hope. US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II. London: Zed Books. Boda, Mihály (2020): Peacekeepers’ Autonomy and Military Authority. AARMS, 19(2), 65–78. Online: https://doi.org/10.32565/aarms.2020.2.5 Boda, Mihály (2022): A hibrid háború etikája: az igazságos hibrid háború elmélete. In M. Szabó , Miklós (ed.): A hadtudomány aktuális kérdései I. Budapest: Ludovika Egyetemi Kiadó. 95–109. Callanan, James (2010): Covert Action in the Cold War. London: I. B. Tauris. Online: https://doi.org/10.5040/9780755625208 Clausewitz, Carl von (2007): On War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Finlay, Christopher J. (2018): Just War, Cyber War, and the Concept of Violence. Philosophy and Technology, 31(3), 357–377. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13347-017-0299-6 Frowe, Helen (2011): The Ethics of War and Peace. An Introduction. London – New York: Routledge. Gewirth, Alan (1996): The Community of Rights. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Hoffman, Frank C. (2007): Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars. Arlington: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Johnson, James Turner (1995): Just War Tradition and Low-Intensity Conflict. In Coll , Alberto R. – Ord, James C. – Rose, Stephen A. (eds.): Legal and Moral Constraints on Low-Intensity Conflict. Newport, Rhode Island: Naval War College. 147–170. Lee, Steven P. (2014): The Ethics of Cyber Warfare. In Floridi, Luciano – Taddeo, Mariarosaria (eds.): The Ethics of Information Warfare. Cham: Springer. 105–122. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04135-3_7 Lucas, George R. Jr. (2015): Cyber Warfare. In Johnson, James Turner – Patterson, Eric D. (eds.): The Ashgate Research Companion to Military Ethics. Farnham: Ashgate. 245–258. Miller, Seumas (2016): Cyberattacks and “Dirty Hands”. Cyberwar, Cybercrime, or Covert Political Action? In Allhoff, Fritz – Henschke, Adam – Strawser, Bradley Jay (eds.): Binary Bullets. The Ethics of Cyberwarfare. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 228–250. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190221072.003.0012 Molloy, Ivan (2001): Rolling Back Revolutions. The Emergence of Low Intensity Conflict. London: Pluto Press. Murray, Williamson – Mansoor, Peter R. eds. (2012): Hybrid Warfare. Fighting Complex Opponents from the Ancient World to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139199254 Pfaff, Tony (2000): Peacekeeping and the Just War Tradition. Carlisle: U.S. Army War College. Online: https://doi.org/10.21236/ADA391358 Pfaff, C. Anthony (2017): Proxy War Ethics. Journal of National Security Law and Policy, 9(2), 305–353. Rid, Thomas (2013): Cyber War Will not Take Place. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Steele , Brent J. – Heinze , Eric A. (2014): From Smart to Autonomous Weapons. In Gentry, Caron E. – Eckert, Amy E. (eds.): The Future of Just War. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 98–114. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt46nbn3.9 Sterba, James P. (1987): Just War Theory and Nuclear Strategy. Analyse und Kritik, 9(1–2), 155–174. Online: https://doi.org/10.1515/auk-1987-1-209 Walzer, Michael (1992): Just and Unjust Wars. New York: Basic Books. Whetham, David (2016a): Cyber Chevauchées: Cyberwar Can Happen. In Allhoff, Fritz – Henschke, Adam – Strawser, Bradley Jay (eds.): Binary Bullets. The Ethics of Cyberwarfare. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 75–88. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190221072.003.0005 Whetham, David (2016b): “Are We Fighting Yet?” Can Traditional Just War Concepts Cope with Contemporary Conflict and the Changing Character of War? The Monist, 99(1), 55–69. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/monist/onv029 Wither, James K. (2016): Making Sense of Hybrid Warfare. Connections, 15(2), 73–87. 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Terrorist attacks against the United States and some European states, and the war against terrorism characterised the end of the 20th century from the perspective of international relations. In harmony with this, military theoretical and ethical research aimed at terrorism, insurgency war in general and counterterrorism in this period. Some years later, however, at the beginning of the 21st century, some further questions joined these problems, like the theoretical and ethical issues of hybrid war. This essay deals with the theoretical and philosophical features of hybrid war in order to develop an ethical theory for it.

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Domestic lawfare, using legal measures or their potential utilisation as strategic tools in political or ideological disputes within a nation, is a prevalent phenomenon in South America. Such measures may include lawsuits, investigations, and other legal mechanisms aimed at eradicating, intimidating, penalising, or undermining rivals to achieve specific political or policy objectives. This practice can be identified as domestic lawfare by prioritising legal technicalities over substantive matters. Its impact is of particular concern, as it is employed to suppress dissenting voices and curtail essential liberties, such as freedom of speech. This article sheds light on the significant challenge that constitutional democracies in South America currently face due to the rise of lawfare. This does not mean that it is an exclusively South American phenomenon. Influential individuals or entities around the world equipped with ample resources, financial means, influence, or political clout could deploy these assets to target individuals or organisations they perceive as threats to their interests. By examining the potential legal ramifications that may arise from rigid adherence to legal requirements, this study aims to underscore the crucial importance of legal protection as a topic requiring meticulous deliberation. Lawfare presents formidable challenges in theory and practice, making it essential to comprehend its implications fully. Understanding and addressing this issue can safeguard democratic values and protect fundamental rights.

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The study demonstrates the difference between contemporary Israeli military and national security operations under the ‘Campaign between Wars’ framework and the way Israel would wage a ‘war for existence’. The paper first outlines Israeli military strategy and theory regarding an existential war, while aiming to show how Israel would use its military capabilities. The paper explains the most plausible scenario of a war between Israel and a peer competitor, namely Iran and its proxy network, and the question of using nuclear weapons. Finally, the study presents the potential effects of such war on Israel, its enemies and the region. The paper argues that the most important aspect of Israeli conventional and nuclear warfighting capabilities is that they provide such a robust deterrent that they make war extremely unlikely. However, Israeli deterrence is based on the firm belief that the preparation for the war for existence is the most significant national goal, thereby establishing Israel as a linchpin to the regional balance of power, as a regional great military power itself is incapable of becoming a regional hegemon while assertively balancing against any such contender.

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Successes and Shortcomings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1–27. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511778742.001 WITS (s. a.): Bolivia Trade Balance, Exports and Imports. World Integrated Trade Solution. Online: https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/es/Country/BOL/Year/2006/TradeFlow/EXPIMP/Partner/by-country ZAKARIA, Fareed (2016): Populism on the March: Why the West Is in Trouble. Foreign Affairs, 95(6), 9–15." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(581) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "57-80" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2024.1.4" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1442) "

Historically, Latin America has been a fertile ground for the emergence of populism. Scholars have identified several waves of populist governments flourishing in the region during the last century. The third wave began in the 2000s when leftist leaders came to power in some Latin American countries, a phenomenon called “the Pink Tide”. Two of the most notable examples of populist governments in this wave were Evo Morales in Bolivia (2006–2019) and Rafael Correa in Ecuador (2007–2017). Both leaders promoted an anti-elitist rhetoric highlighting a confrontational divide between domestic elites (as perpetrators of injustices) and the people (as victims). This rhetoric also involved external actors. The relationship with the great powers was permeated by the populist discourse based on the logic of “them vs. us”. In this context, the paper analyses the rhetoric of Evo Morales and Rafael Correa concerning the role of the European Union in their countries. Primary sources (speeches, press releases and official documents) are examined to understand the image built around the EU and to grasp how populist rhetoric portrayed the EU’s role in areas such as trade and migration. The result is a complex assessment of the ideas about the EU disseminated by these leaders, examining how Morales’s and Correa’s rhetoric evolved over the years and identifying similarities and differences between their approaches.

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Online: https://www.timesofisrael.com/surveillance-soldiers-warned-of-hamas-activity-on-gaza-border-for-months-before-oct-7/ SWAINE, Jon – LEE, Joyce Sohyun – CAHLAN, Sarah – PIPER, Imogen – MONROTE, Brian – HILL, Evan – KELLY, Meg (2023): How Hamas Exploited Israel’s Reliance on Tech to Breach Barrier on Oct. 7. The Washington Post, 17 November 2023. Online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/2023/11/17/how-hamas-breached-israel-iron-wall The Times of Israel (2023a): Footage Shows Bulldozer Breaking Through Border Fence from Gaza into Israel. The Times of Israel, 07 October 2023. Online: https://www.timesofisrael.com/liveblog_entry/footage-shows-bulldozer-breaking-through-border-fence-from-gaza-into-israel/ The Times of Israel (2023b): Erdogan: Israel Is a ‘Terrorist State,’ Hamas Are ‘Resistance Fighters’. The Times of Israel, 15 November 2023. Online: https://www.timesofisrael.com/liveblog_entry/erdogan-israel-is-a-terrorist-state-hamas-are-resistance-fighters/ The Times of Israel (2023c): Top Israeli Intel Unit Wasn’t Operational on October 7 Due to Personnel Decision. The Times of Israel, 28 November 2023. Online: https://www.timesofisrael.com/top-israeli-intel-unit-wasnt-operational-on-october-7-due-to-personnel-decision/ The Times of Israel (2023d): More Details Unveiled of IDF Intel on Oct. 7 Plans, Consults Hours before Hamas Attack. The Times of Israel, 05 December 2023. Online: https://www.timesofisrael.com/more-details-unveiled-of-idf-intel-on-oct-7-plans-consults-hours-before-hamas-attack/ The Washington Post (2023): Maps and Videos Show How the Deadly Surprise Attack on Israel Unfolded. The Washington Post, 08 October 2023. Online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/10/07/israel-gaza-timeline-videos-maps/ TOLAN, Casey – CHANCE, Matthew – DAVEY-ATTLEE, Florence – GLOVER, Scott – DEVINE, Curt (2023): How Volunteer Guards Foiled a Carefully Planned Hamas Attack on One Kibbutz. CNN, 18 October 2023. Online: https://edition.cnn.com/2023/10/18/middleeast/hamas-documents-invs/index.html WILLIAMS, Dan (2023): How the Hamas Attack on Israel Unfolded. Reuters, 07 October 2023. Online: https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/how-hamas-attack-israel-unfolded-2023-10-07/" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2024) ["issueId"]=> int(581) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "81-98" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2024.1.5" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1550) "

On 7 October 2023, Palestinian militants led by Hamas launched a complex coordinated attack on Israel from the Gaza Strip, triggering an Israeli ground invasion combined with an aerial bombing campaign. The Hamas fighters killed around 1,200 people and took more than 250 hostages, while the death toll from Israeli military operations in the Gaza Strip exceeded 31,600 in mid-March 2024. The Hamas attack not only shocked the whole world but also caught most people by surprise. Probably only a few could have imagined that the Palestinian organisation that controls the Gaza Strip could carry out such an attack on Israel. Following 7 October, several questions arose. Why Israeli intelligence could not predict the attack, and why did security and defence forces not react in time? The Israeli Government promised a full investigation once the Gaza ground offensive launched in response to the attack was over. But even without knowing more details of the events, we might still be able to provide a preliminary assessment of the surrounding Israeli intelligence failures based on the reports and accounts made public in the international media. Three months after the attack, the publicly available information showed that the Israel Defense Forces were unprepared and there was no battle plan in place in case Hamas militants broke out of the Gaza Strip with large forces. Clarifying what happened will be crucial not only to learn from the mistakes, but also because other actors or adversaries can learn from Hamas and copy its tactics.

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International Relations PhD Candidate, Corvinus University of Budapest

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