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Introduction to the Special Issue

Szente-Varga Mónika
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Introduction to the Special Issue

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Terrorism is changing its paradigm. The superb adaptive capability and the diversification of the methods of financing terrorism give the chance to infiltrate into the political establishment of the most vulnerable countries. The terrorist and the criminal syndicates as allies have common methods, common structures but never merge their organisations. Their strategic goals remain different.

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Araújo, Thiago, ‘Bolsonaro defende que a PM mate mais no Brasil’. Exame Brazil, 05 October 2015. Online: https://exame.abril.com.br/brasil/bolsonaro-defende-que-a-pm-mate-mais-no-brasil/ Carvalho, Laura, Valsa brasileira: Do boom ao caos econômico. São Paulo: Todavia SA, 2018. De la Torre, Carlos, Populist Seduction in Latin America: The Ecuadorian Experience. Ohio University Press, 2000. Dolzan, Marcio, ‘Facada mudou rumos da campanha de Jair Bolsonaro’. Estadão, 28 October 2018. Online: https://politica.estadao.com.br/noticias/eleicoes,facada-impulsionou-candidatura-de-bolsonaro,70002570437 Ferreira, Ricardo Ribeiro, ‘Desinformação em Processos Eleitorais: Um Estudo de Caso da Eleição Brasileira de 2018’. Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, 22 October 2019. Online: https://estudogeral.sib.uc.pt/bitstream/10316/93397/1/RicardoFerreira_versaofinal.pdf Fhoutine, Marie, ‘13 de junho, o dia que não terminou’. Carta Capital, 16 September 2013. Online: www.cartacapital.com.br/politica/13-de-junho-o-dia-que-nao-terminou-6634/ Folha de São Paulo, ‘Maioria da população é a favor dos protestos, mostra Datafolha’. Folha.Uol, 14 June 2013. Online: www.folha.uol.com.br/cotidiano/2013/06/1294919-maioria-da-populacao-e-a-favor-dos-protestos-mostra-datafolha.shtml Garcez, Francisco Thiago Cavalcante, Laura Hêmilly Campos Martins, Ítalo Moura Guilherme and Kevin Samuel Alves Batista, ‘O Avançar da Agenda Conservadora e o Fascismo Latente no Brasil’. Revista UNIABEU 12, no 30 (2019), 161–174. Gidron, Noam and Bart Bonikowski, ‘Varieties of Populism: Literature Review and Research Agenda’. Weatherhead Working Paper Series, no 13-0004 (2013), 38. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2459387 Hawkins, Kirk A, Venezuela’s Chavismo and Populism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. 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Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.12032 Maghin, Hélène and Eva Renon, ‘Latin America’s Golden Era’, in The Political Economy of Latin America: Reflections on Neoliberalism and Development after the Commodity Boom, ed. by Peter Kingstone. New York: Routledge, 2018. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315682877-5 Marques, Luciana, ‘Michel Temer fica, mas sem apoio político nem popular’. Radio France Internationale, 18 May 2017. Online: www.rfi.fr/br/brasil/20170518-temer-fica-mas-sem-apoio-politico-nem-popular Mont’Alverne, Camila, Isabele Mitozo and Henrique Barbosa, ‘WhatsApp e eleições: quais as características das informações disseminadas’. Le Monde Diplomatique Brasil, 07 May 2019. Online: https://diplomatique.org.br/whatsapp-e-eleicoes-informacoes-disseminadas/ Mudde, Cas, ‘The Populist Zeitgeist’. Government and Opposition 39, no 4 (2004), 541–562. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.2004.00135.x Panizza, Francisco (ed.), Populism and the Mirror of Democracy. London: Verso, 2005. Passari, Evgenia, ‘The Great Recession and the Rise of Populism’. Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy 55, no 1 (2020), 17–21. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10272-020-0863-7 Tamaki, Eduardo Ryo and Mario Fuks, ‘Populism in Brazil’s 2018 General Elections: An Analysis of Bolsonaro’s Campaign Speeches’. Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política, no 109 (2020), 103–127. Online: https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-103127/109 The World Bank, World Development Indicators, ‘GDP growth (annual %) – Brazil’ [Data file]. September, 2020. Online: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?locations=BR Weyland, Kurt, ‘Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics’. Comparative Politics 34, no 1 (2001), 1–22. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/422412 Young, Angelo, ‘Most Dangerous Cities in the World’. 24/7 Wall St., 23 July 2019. 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A new wave of Populism has been on the ascent around the world. In Brazil, the situation is not different, and the populist rhetoric strongly seized the most recent presidential election in 2018. The aim of this paper is to explore the reasons for President Jair Bolsonaro’s (considered a populist politician) victory. The potential motivations for this triumph are discussed in this paper, with the finding that a multidimensional crisis gripped the country in the years prior to the election, leading people to sympathise with those who were in opposition to the dominant party, which culminated in a heavily divisive presidential campaign. The nation was engulfed by an economic depression that coincided with a political crisis, which had legal, social, and even cultural repercussions, with polarisation and corruption playing key roles. The paper also explores the multifaceted phenomenon of populism, and why Bolsonaro is considered to be a populist; the latter mainly related to his appealing speeches, in which he tried to show himself as a politician of the people who governs for them, in opposition to the villainous establishment.

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New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Commission on Human Security, Human Security Now: Protecting Empowering People. UN, 2003. DANE. Online: https://dane.gov.co/index.php/estadisticas-por-tema/pobreza-y-condiciones-de-vida/pobreza-y-desigualdad/pobreza-monetaria-y-multidimensional-en-colombia-2019 Galtung, Johan, Theories of Peace. A Synthetic Approach to Peace Thinking. Oslo, International Peace Research Institute, 1967. Galtung, Johan, ‘Violence, Peace, and Peace Research’. Journal of Peace Research 6, no 3 (1969), 167–191. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/002234336900600301 Gasper, Des and Oscar A Gómez, ‘Human Security Thinking in Practice: “Personal Security”, “Citizen Security” and Comprehensive Mappings’. Contemporary Politics 21, no 1 (2015). Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13569775.2014.993906 Global Witness, ‘Defending Tomorrow’, July 2020. Goldhub. 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Online: https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.2861 Knoema, ‘Colombia – Total Primary Coal Production’, 2020. Online: https://knoema.com//atlas/Colombia/topics/Energy/Coal/Primary-coal-production Narayan, Deepa, Raj Patel, Kai Schafft, Anne Rademacher and Sarah Koch-Schulte, Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? World Bank, 2000. Online: https://doi.org/10.1596/0-1952-1601-6 Policía Nacional de Colombia, ‘Policía Nacional de Colombia’. Online: www.policia.gov.co/ OECD, ‘Portraits of Informality’. Online: https://doi.org/10.1787/ee0642f5-en Rothschild, Emma, ‘What Is Security?’ Daedalus 124, no 3 (1995), 53–98. Sen, Amartya, Development as Freedom. Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. SIADDHH, ‘La Mala Hora Informe Anual 2020’. Online: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Ze-GofhR6k0c23oUCVN-ZlWrEMPH03JV/view Stiglitz, Joseph E, Amartya Sen and Jean Fitoussi, The Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress Revisited. Paris: Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress, 2009. The Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime, ‘El Crimen Organizado y la Minería Ilegal de Oro en América Latina’, April 2016. UN, ‘Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform’, 2015. Online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2020: International Production beyond the Pandemic. Geneva – New York: United Nations, 2020. UNDP, Human Development Report 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. UNDP, Mainstreaming Climate Change in Colombia. New York: UNDP Project Team, 2010. UN HRC, Situation of Human Rights in Colombia – Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (A/HRC/46/76). UN, February 2021. United Nations, Human Development Report 1990. Published for the United Nations (New York) Development Programme. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. UNODC, Global Study on Homicide 2019: Executive Summary. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2019. UNODC and Government of Colombia, ‘Alluvial Gold Exploitation Evidences from Remote Sensing 2016’, May 2018. UNODC and Government of Colombia, ‘Colombia: Monitoreo de Territorios Afectados Por Cultivos Ilícitos 2020’, July 2021. UNODC and Government of Colombia, ‘Colombia Explotación de Oro de Aluvión Evidencias a Partir de Percepción Remota 2020’, July 2021. WMR, World Migration Report 2020. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2020. Online: https://publications.iom.int/books/world-migration-report-2020" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(452) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "33-51" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(27) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.ksz.3" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1671) "

Latin America continues to face a number of socio-economic challenges, despite being a middle-income region and the fact that it experienced alternative forms of development during the pink-tide era. The current increasing levels of poverty, inequality, violence and the harmful effects of extractive production on the environment and traditional rural communities represent a new situation at both regional and national levels. The concept of multidimensional poverty is an increasingly accepted approach to a better understanding of the characteristics and living conditions of vulnerable social groups: In these groups, violence is one of the dimensions that has received little attention so far. The paper focuses on the following questions: What is the relation between human security and human development concepts? How are violence and multidimensional poverty interconnected? What kinds of institutional and economic mechanisms sustain their complex relation? The article explores the origins of the human security and human development approaches and their relation to multidimensional poverty. The study relies on analysing academic and official government documents and papers by international organisations synthesising the evolution of the two branches. The case study of Colombia based on statistical data offers evidence about the complexity of the interconnectedness of security, human rights and development processes in different territorial, ethnic and social contexts. The analysis also reveals links between shortcomings in the institutional system and deficiencies in measuring poverty in persistent deprivation of marginalised social groups.

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Guanajuato: A Struggle to Control Oil Theft

Gerardo Reyes Guzmán, Sánchez Ruíz Abraham , Rostro Hernández Perla Esperanza
doi: 10.32565/aarms.2021.2.ksz.4
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Online: https://aristeguinoticias.com/1712/mexico/este-2019-van-mas-de-30-mil-homicidios-guanajuato-es-primer-lugar-en-este-delito-durazo/ Auditoria Superior de la Federación, Evaluación No. 1207 “Política Pública de Seguridad Pública”. CDMX: Cámara de Diputados, 2013. BBC News Mundo, ‘El Marro: quién es José Antonio Yépez y por qué su captura puede suponer el fin del cartel de Santa Rosa de Lima en México’, 02 August 2020. Online: www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-53631953 Botello, Manuel A, ‘Comparación Del Precio De La Gasolina, Mexico–USA’. Mexico–Maxico, 31 December 2019. Online: www.mexicomaxico.org/Voto/GasolMexUSA.htm Buscalia Edgardo, Vacíos de poder en México. El camino de México hacia la Seguridad humana. Mexico: Debate, 2013. Castillo García, Gustavo, ‘Mexicanos, los asesinados en San Fernando Tamaulipas’. La Jornada, 13 October 2011. Online: www.jornada.com.mx/2011/10/13/politica/007n1pol Calderón Hinojosa, Felipe, Los retos que enfrentamos. CDMX: Debate, 2014. Congresional Research Service, Mexico, ‘Ogranized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations’. CRS Report, 20 December 2019. Online: https://crsreports.congress.gov/ Espino Bucio, Manuel, ‘¿Cuándo y cómo surgió el Cartel de Santa Rosa de Lima?’. El Universal, 05 March 2019. Online: www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/seguridad/cuando-y-como-surgio-el-cartel-de-santa-rosa-de-lima Espinosa, Verónica, ‘Huachicoleo en Guanajuato: roban 13.5 millones de litros de gasolina en tres años’. Proceso, 01 January 2019. Online: www.proceso.com.mx/reportajes/2019/1/1/huachicoleo-en-guanajuato-roban-135-millones-de-litros-de-gasolina-en-tres-anos-217903.html El Financiero, ‘Salamanca: Esto es lo que sabemos de la explosión que dejó dos muertos’, 20 September 2021. Online: www.elfinanciero.com.mx/estados/2021/09/20/salamanca-esto-es-lo-que-sabemos-sobre-la-explosion-que-dejo-2-muertos/ Garay, María E, Los Policías: una averiguación atropológica (Tlaquepaque, Jalisco: ITESO, 2016). Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvjk2wt8 Hernández, Anabel, Los señores del narco. Mexico: Grijalbo, 2010. Hernández, Anabel, El Traidor. El diario del hijo del Mayo. Barcelona: Grijalbo, 2020. Instituto Nacional de Geografía e Informática (INEGI), ‘Defunciones por homicidios’, s. a. Online: www.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/olap/proyectos/bd/continuas/mortalidad/defuncioneshom.asp?s=est La Jornada, ‘Controlan Caballeros templarios exportación de mineral de hierro’, 03 January 2014. Online: www.jornada.com.mx/2014/01/03/politica/005n1pol Menéndez, Jorge Fernández, La nueva guerra. Del Chapo al fentanilo. CDMX: Grijalbo, 2020. Menéndez, Jorge Fernández and Víctor Ronquillo, De los Maras a los Zetas. Mexico: Debolsillo, 2006. Moguel, Lorena, ‘Peña admite el fracaso de su gobierno en materia de seguridad’. Proceso, 14 November 2017. Online: www.noticiaspv.com.mx/pena-admite-el-fracaso-de-su-gobierno-en-materia-de-seguridad/ Montalvo, Tania L, ‘El Cártel Jalisco Nueva Generación creció con EPN hasta ser el más importante del país’. NarcoData, 30 August 2016. Online: https://narcodata.animalpolitico.com/jalisco-nueva-generacion-actualmente-el-cartel-mas-poderoso-en-mexico/ Ravelo, Ricardo, Osiel. Vida y Tragedia de un Capo. Mexico: Grijalbo, 2012. Saucedo, David, ‘Guanajuato bajo asedio criminal: radiografía de la guerra’. Periodismo y Opinión Pública, 16 October 2019. Online:https://poplab.mx/article/Guanajuatobajoasediocriminalradiografiadelaguerra Seguridad y Defensa, ‘Así operan los carteles por el control territorial en el país’. Agencia de Información en Seguridad y Defensa, 25 August 2020. Online: https://seguridadydefensa.mx/nacionales/asi-operan-los-carteles-por-el-control-territorial-en-el-pais/ Secretariado Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública (SESNSP), ‘Datos Abiertos de Incidencia Delictiva’, s. a. Online: www.gob.mx/sesnsp/acciones-y-programas/datos-abiertos-de-incidencia-delictiva The Economist, ‘How will Mexico’s president handle “El Mencho”, a kingpin on the rise?’, 15 August 2020. Online: www.economist.com/the-americas/2020/08/15/how-will-mexicos-president-handle-el-mencho-a-kingpin-on-the-rise Yañez, Brenda, ‘AMLO cerró su primer año con 34,579 homicidios dolosos (4 cada hora)’. Expansión Política, 20 December 2019. Online: https://politica.expansion.mx/mexico/2019/12/20/amlo-cierra-su-primer-ano-con-34-579-homicidios-dolosos-4-cada-hora Zona Franca, ‘Crimen organizado está infiltrado en siete municipios de Guanajuato’, 15 October 2019. Online: https://zonafranca.mx/seguridad/crimen-organizado-esta-infiltrado-en-siete-municipios-de-guanajuato/" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(452) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "53-66" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(27) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.ksz.4" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1250) "

Guanajuato became Mexico’s most dangerous entity in 2019. It used to be a peaceful state in the 1990s, but with the evolution of criminal groups and organised crime, Guanajuato became a strategic region because of its geographical location, road network, economic development and fuel pipelines. The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that brought Guanajuato to the first place in terms of homicides in 2019 nationwide. The hypothesis states that violence in the entity was the result of an invasion of the CJNG and its fight against the CSRL to dominate the theft of gasoline. To prove this hypothesis, we use a multiple regression model to correlate homicides taking place from 2015 to 2019 between the most dangerous municipalities of Guanajuato with those occurring in Jalisco and Michoacán. The correlation parameters which also take into account the road network were significant for Leon, (Guanajuato) vs. San Pedro de Tlaquepaque (Jalisco), Tlajomulco de Zúñiga (Jalisco), Tonalá (Jalisco), Zamora (Michoacán) and El Salto (Jalisco); Irapuato vs. Guadalajara (Jalisco) and San Pedro de Tlaquepaque (Jalisco) and Salamanca vs. Guadalajara (Jalisco), Tonalá (Jalisco), Zamora (Michoacán) and Lagos de Moreno (Jalisco).

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Dean of the Business Faculty

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Online: https://emad.defensa.gob.es/prensa/noticias/2020/05/listado/200518-balance-balmis.html?__locale=es Estado Mayor de la Defensa, ‘Operation ‘Balmis’ deploys more than 2.500 troops in 172 cities to control COVID-19’. 24 March 2020. Online: https://emad.defensa.gob.es/en/prensa/noticias/2020/03/listado/200324-Continuacion-Operacion-Balmis.html Estado Mayor de la Defensa, ‘Jefe de Estado Mayor de la Defensa’, 2021. Online: https://emad.defensa.gob.es/emad/?__locale=es European Organisation of Military Associations and Trade Unions, ‘Armed forces and COVID-19’, 2020. Online: http://euromil.org/armed-forces-and-covid-19/ European Parliament, ‘The role of armed forces in the fight against coronavirus’, April 2020. Online: www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2020/649401/EPRS_BRI(2020)649401_EN.pdf Global Firepower, ‘2021 Military Strength Ranking’, 2021. 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Online: www.defensa.gob.es/Galerias/defensadocs/LO-4-1981-estados-alarma.pdf ‘Ley Orgánica 9/2011, de 27 de julio, de derechos y deberes de los miembros de las Fuerzas Armadas’. Online: www.boe.es/buscar/pdf/2011/BOE-A-2011-12961-consolidado.pdf Martínez, Rafael C Martínez, ‘Las fuerzas armadas en España: ¿último bastión del franquismo?’ Revista Prolegómenos – Derechos y Valores 14, no 28 (2011), 103–120. Online: https://doi.org/10.18359/prole.2381 Ministerio de Defensa, ‘Ejército de Tierra’, 2021. Online: www.defensa.gob.es/fuerzasarmadas/et/# Ministerio de Defensa, ‘Estadística de Personal Militar de Carrera de las FAS’, 2019. Online: https://publicaciones.defensa.gob.es/media/downloadable/files/links/e/s/estad_stica_de_personal_militar_de_carrera_2019.pdf Ministerio de Defensa, ‘Estado Mayor de la Defensa’, 2020. Online: www.defensa.gob.es/fuerzasarmadas/emad/ Ministerio de Defensa, ‘Unidad Militar de Emergencia’, 2020. 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Online: www.lamoncloa.gob.es/covid-19/Paginas/estado-de-alarma.aspx ‘Real Decreto 416/2006, de 11 de abril, por el que se establece la organización y el despliegue de la Fuerza del Ejército de Tierra, de la Armada y del Ejército del Aire, así como de la Unidad Militar de Emergencias’. Online: www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-2006-7168 ‘Real Decreto 521/2020, de 19 de mayo, por el que se establece la organización básica de las Fuerzas Armadas’. Online: www.defensa.gob.es/Galerias/ministerio/organigramadocs/RD-521-2020-organizacion-basica-fuerzas-armadas.pdf Revista Española de Defensa, ‘Operación Balmis Misión: Salvar vidas’, May 2020. Online: www.defensa.gob.es/Galerias/gabinete/red/2020/05/RED372.pdf Revista Española de Defensa, ‘Misión Baluarte: una defensa contra el COVID-19’, October 2020. Online: www.defensa.gob.es/Galerias/gabinete/red/2020/10/p-6-13-red-376-rastreadores.pdf ‘Spanish National Security Strategy’, 2017. Online: www.dsn.gob.es/sites/dsn/files/2017_Spanish_National_Security_Strategy_0.pdf Statista, ‘Número total de personas fallecidas a causa del coronavirus en España entre el 6 de marzo y el 4 de diciembre de 2020’, 2020. Online: https://es.statista.com/estadisticas/1104277/fallecidos-a-causa-de-covid-19-por-dia-espana/ The World Factbook, ‘Spain’. United States Central Intelligence Agency, 2021. Online: www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sp.html ‘United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security’. Online: www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/wps/ World Health Organization, ‘WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19’, 11 March 2020. 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Similarly to other European countries, the Spanish Government decided to take extensive measures against the spread of the Covid-19 virus in the country with the announcement of special legal order, curfews and the deployment of the armed forces. The ‘Fuerzas Armadas Españ olas’, the FAS, have had an active role in the fight against the pandemic ever since executing a wide variety of tasks on a daily basis, including disinfecting critical infrastructure, and supporting the detection and the monitoring of infected citizens. Besides summarising the role of the Spanish Armed Forces in the fight against Covid-19 in the first year of the pandemic, the present paper explores other aspects of the deployment, such as civil–military relations and the attitude of the society towards military personnel.

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Online: www.armyrecognition.com/august_2019_global_defense_security_army_news_industry/chinese_soar_dragon_hale_uav_unmanned_aerial_vehicle_used_to_spy_us_navy_uss_antietam.html ATSB Transport Safety Report, ‘In-flight break-up involving Airbus Zephyr unmanned aerial vehicle’, 28 September 2020. Online: www.atsb.gov.au/media/5778702/ao-2019-056_final.pdf Bauk, Sanja, Nexhat Kapidani, Žarko Lukšić, Filipe Rodrigues and Luís Sousa, ‘Review of Unmanned Aerial Systems for the Use as Maritime Surveillance Assets’. IEEE 2020 24th International Conference on Information Technology (IT), February 2020. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/IT48810.2020.9070718 Bauk, Sanja, Nexhat Kapidani, Luis Sousa, Žarko Lukšić and Agim Spuža, ‘Advantages and Disadvantages of Some Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Deployed in Maritime Surveillance’. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament de Ciència i Enginyeria Nàutiques, September 2020. Online: https://upcommons.upc.edu/handle/2117/329709 ‘Bayraktar AKINCI System’, s. a. Online: https://baykardefence.com/uav-14.html Candido, Salvatore, ‘Drifting Efficiently Through the Stratosphere Using Deep Reinforcement Learning’, 02 December 2020. Online: https://blog.x.company/drifting-efficiently-through-the-stratosphere-using-deep-reinforcement-learning-c38723ee2e90 Clarke, Arthur C, ‘Extra-terrestrial relays’. Wireless World, October 1945. Online: http://clarkeinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/ClarkeWirelessWorldArticle.pdf David, Leonard, ‘Sky Trek To The ‘Near Space’ Neighborhood’. Space.com, 09 November 2005. Online: www.space.com/1761-sky-trek-space-neighborhood.html De Dios, Gonzalo, High-Throughput Satellites Technology Trends. Lima, Peru: ITU Regional Radiocommunication Seminar 2017 for the Americas (RRS-17-Americas), 2017. Online: www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/seminars/rrs/RRS-17-Americas/Documents/Forum/2_Intelsat%20Gonzalo%20de%20Dios.pdf FAA, ‘Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Chapter 15: Airspace’. Online: www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/phak/media/17_phak_ch15.pdf Gavan, J, S Tapuchi and D Grace, ‘Concepts and Main Applications of High Altitude Platform Radio Relays’. The Radio Science Bulletin no 330 (2009). Online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7909716 ‘Introduction to Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)’. Skybrary, s. a. Online: www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Introduction_to_Remotely_Piloted_Aircraft_Systems_(RPAS) Kurt, Gunes Karabulut, Mohammad G Khoshkholgh, Safwan Alfattani, Ahmed Ibrahim, Tasneem S J Darwish, Md Sahabul Alam, Halim Yanikomeroglu and Abbas Yongacoglu, ‘A Vision and Framework for the High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) Networks of the Future’. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials 23, no 2 (2021). Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2021.3066905 Mohammed, Abbas, Asad Mehmood, Fotini-Niovi Pavlidou and Mihael Mohorcic, ‘The Role of High-Altitude Platforms (HAPs) in the Global Wireless Connectivity’. Proceedings of the IEEE 99, no 11 (2011). Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2011.2159690 ‘Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 Foxbat’, s. a. Online: www.fighter-planes.com/info/mig25_foxbat.htm Page, Lewis, ‘Airbus Zephyr: The eternal high-altitude surveillance sun-drone’, 18 February 2016. Online: https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2016/02/the-amazing-eternal-sun-drone-will-the-zephyr-shine-or-burn/ Shatri, Enis A A, High Altitude Platforms: Opportunities and Legal Challenges. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2019. Spencer, Michael, Pseudosatellites Disrupting Air Power Impermanence. Canberra: Air Power Development Centre, 2019. 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High Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS)3, or pseudo satellites, are atmospheric, specifically, stratospheric Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS).4 These systems can provide services comparable to outer space satellite systems, however, they can be operated without the need of an orbital launch capability. While their geographical coverage is limited compared to space satellites, they can provide persistent coverage over a given area for a long time, weeks or even months. Pseudo satellites can carry Earth observation or radiocommunication payloads, just like satellites.
In this article I will provide an overview of HAPS capabilities and potential applications, based on an imaginary operational scenario, namely, the reconnaissance support of a law enforcement operation to defend offshore gas facilities from a planned attack by an eco-terrorist group near Venezuela. At the same time, HAPS can support any defence, emergency response or natural resource observation operation.
The complex air–sea operation scenario will be presented using a simulation generated with the AGI Systems ToolKit multi-domain mission simulator software. My article contains maps and pictures of the operation, and the videos will be presented via the https://horvath.space website.

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Online: www.ssqi.com/breakthroughs/whitepaper-pdfs/Project_selection_WP.pdf Steff, Reuben, Joe Burton and Simona R Soare, Emerging Technologies and International Security. Routledge, 2020. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367808846 Taylor, James, Project Scheduling and Cost Control: Planning, Monitoring and Controlling the Baseline. J Ross Publishing, 2018. Van der Vecht, Bob, Frank Dignum, John-Jules Ch Meyer, Martijn Neef, ‘A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy’, in International Workshop on Coordination, Organizations, Institutions, and Norms in Agent Systems III, ed. by Jaime Simão Sichman, Julian Padget, Sascha Ossowski and Pablo Noriega. Springer, 2007, 83–96. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79003-7_7 Van der Waldt, Gerrit, The Project Administrator: Perspectives to Project Support Services. New York: Nova, 2020. Online: https://doi.org/10.52305/TETP8786 Varju, Márton, ‘5G Networks, (Cyber)Security Harmonisation and the Internal Market’. European Law Review 45, no 4 (2020), 471–486. Veynberg, Roman R, Nikita A Moiseev and Sofja M Sakharova, ‘Applying project management standards in IT industry: PRINCE2 PMBоK’. Vestnik of the Plekhanov, Russian University of Economics 17, no 1 (2020), 56–66. Online: https://doi.org/10.21686/2413-2829-2020-1-56-66 Vonsée, Bram, Wina Crijns-Graus and Wen Liu, ‘Energy technology dependence – A value chain analysis of geothermal power in the EU’. Energy 178 (2019), 419–435. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.04.043 Voss, Axel, ‘Digital autonomy’. The Parliament Magazine, 17 March 2020. Online: www.theparliamentmagazine.eu/news/article/digital-autonomy" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(452) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(6) "95-110" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(27) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.ksz.7" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1569) "

There was a time when military technology reinforced and provided added value and expertise to business and government organisations. There are a number of technologies, specific military applications and solutions such as the Internet, GPS or sunglasses, and methodologies like strategic planning and negotiation systems that were developed in the past within military domains and later evaluated and implemented, which brought increases in speed and added business value. There are now many diverse digital transformation projects being implemented in several business domains – ranging from small and medium businesses like an Italian family restaurant to the global oil and gas companies such as Shell or British Petroleum or even executive branches of the European Union/European Commission. All these organisations use different technologies to optimise processes, innovate faster, collaborate efficiently and deliver more value with less effort. Economic defence – like never before – means national security. For that reason, Cyber Security initiatives associated with digital transformations include a “testing mode” period, along with Cyber Autonomy functions that aim to support business critical infrastructures. Different methodologies are in place to optimise for the new data-driven economy and support digital transformation. It is the responsibility of the business to adopt best practices and techniques to reinforce national security and offer effective tool support for effective Cyber Autonomy with digital transformation projects.

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Transnational illicit activities, in addition to the unbridled greed for mineral resources, strongly impact Amazonian territories extending from the Orinoco Mining Arc in Venezuela to northern Brazil, aggravating problems of environmental impacts and border security, due to groups of the armed forces that protect mineral explorers. In Venezuela, megabandas joined the political elite that controls gold mining, as well as members of the Colombian Armed Forces (FARC) and armed military groups representing institutionalised violence, placing Venezuela in second place for murder among South American countries in 2020, with a rate of 45.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. In turn, Brazil reached ninth place, with 19.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Violent deaths in the North and Northeast regions increased up to a great extent due to clashes between the Red Command and Northern Family factions against the largest group, the First Command of the Capital (PCC), which has more and more Venezuelan members, modifying the criminal modus operandi on the Brazil–Venezuela border. Therefore, Security and Border Defence Plans are indispensable.

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Online: https://revistas.uexternado.edu.co/index.php/oasis/article/view/2459/2094 Ashton, Nigel, ‘Harold Macmillan and the ‘Golden Days’ of Anglo–American relations revisited, 1957–63’. Diplomatic History 29, no 4 (2005), 691–723. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7709.2005.00511.x Brooks, Stephen and William Wohlforth, ‘Hard Times for Soft Balancing’. International Security 30, no 1 (2005), 72–108. Online: https://doi.org/10.1162/0162288054894634 Brown, Rebekah, ‘History of the Anglo–American Special Relationship’. Ashbrook Statesmanship Thesis, 2012. Online: https://ashbrook.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/ShermanBrown-Printable.pdf Cladi, Lorenzo and Andrea Locatelli, ‘Keep Calm and Carry On (Differently): NATO and CSDP after Brexit’. Global Policy 11, no 1 (2020), 5–14. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12747 Dabène, Olivier, ‘La cuarta ola de regionalismo’, in Los desafíos del desarrollo en América Latina, ed. by Carlos Quenan and Sébastian Velut. Paris: Institut des Amériques, 2014, 64–95. Online: www.afd.fr/es/ressources/los-desafios-del-desarrollo-en-america-latina-dinamicas-socioeconomicas-y-politicas-publicas EFE, ‘Colombia notifica a la Unasur que deja el bloque por no denunciar la crisis venezolana’, 28 August 2018. Online: www.efe.com/efe/america/portada/colombia-notifica-a-la-unasur-que-deja-el-bloque-por-no-denunciar-crisis-venezolana/20000064-3731560 El Universo, ‘A Ecuador y Brasil les preocupa la relación Colombia–OTAN, comentario del ministro de defensa brasileño’, 07 June 2013. Online: www.eluniverso.com/noticias/2013/06/07/nota/999936/preocupa-relacion-colombia-otan Flemes, Daniel and Rafael Castro, ‘Institutional Contestation: Colombia in the Pacific Alliance’. Bulletin of Latin American Research 35, no 1 (2016), 78–92. Online: https://doi.org/10.1111/blar.12411 Flemes, Daniel and Leslie Wehner, ‘Drivers of strategic contestation: The case of South America’. International Politics 52, no 2 (2015), 163–177. 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Independent Task Force Report, Washington: Atlantic Council, 2019. Online: www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/untapped-potential-us-colombia-partnership Valášek, Tomáš, ‘European defense vs. NATO: Not the right fight’. Politico, 19 February 2018. Online: www.politico.eu/article/european-defense-vs-nato-not-the-right-fight Weiffen, Brigitte, Leslie Wehner and Detlef Nolte, ‘Overlapping regional security institutions in South America: The case of OAS and UNASUR’. International Area Studies Review 16, no 4 (2013), 370–389. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/2233865913503466" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(452) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "121-139" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(27) "10.32565/aarms.2021.2.ksz.9" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1550) "

This paper explores how Britain’s and Colombia’s privileged relations with the United States (U.S.) influenced their journey through the European Community (EC) and the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR). The Anglo–American Special Relationship (AASR) was compatible with British participation in the European Single Market, but not with adherence to creating the EC’s common currency, nor with leadership in building a European defence structure autonomous from NATO. Thus, since the start of the Iraq war, Britain played a rather obstructive role in what later was called European Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The US–Colombia Partnership (USCP), based on a longstanding military association reinforced under Plan Colombia, naturally discouraged any meaningful Colombian participation in UNASUR’s South American Security Council (CDS), a regional cooperative security project, promoted by Brazil. Cherished projects of the liberal CAP – such as triangular cooperation (to export Colombian security expertise to Central America with U.S. co-financing and oversight) and NATO partnership – also distracted Colombia’s interest from UNASUR, diminishing the latter’s relevance collaterally. A role for UNASUR – alongside the Organization of American States (OAS) – in South American security management was compatible with the liberal CAP, but not with the neoconservative CAP. Even a lopsided complementation – such as the one between NATO and the CSDP – proved unviable between the OAS and UNASUR.

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