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Studies

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The European integration has had a major impact on the institutional systems of the Member States. The case study  traces some of the characteristics of the institutional  changes brought about by EU-membership through the  example of Hungary. The study concludes that rather than being subject to Europeanisation, there has been an  institutional adaptation in the government’s handling of  European affairs in Hungary over the last 20 years. It also  affirms, that close policy cooperation does not  automatically lead to a single institutional model at EU  level. 

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The concept of sovereignty is a discourse element encompassing many disciplines, and is also a subject of public debate. In order to better understand the processes of Hungarian public life, the present study examines the changes in the content of discourse concerning the concept of sovereignty in Hungary between 1990 and 2021. It  focuses on two fields of law, namely international law (and  the theory of international relations) and constitutional law.  While in the 1990s and 2000s professional and public  dialogue were characterised by a discourse which followed  Western patterns in seeking to transcend traditional  notions of sovereignty, the early 2020s have so far been  characterised by a return to the classical concept, and a  diversification of positions can likewise be observed in the  academic discourse on sovereignty in Hungary. 

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This essay adapts Norbert Elias’s transition theory – presented in The Civilizing Process – to Hungarian politics,  specifically to the period between 1989–1990, following the  change of regime. The first part of the essay summarises  what figurational sociology meant for Norbert Elias and outlines how the analysis will be based on these two terms.  The second part explores the limits of “condition” centred  political science in the period following 1990 and comes to  the conclusion that there is a strong relation between the  mainstream teleological approach to democracy and “condition” centred political science. In the third part, the  author introduces the concept of an open-ended transition  as the key element of post-regime change figurational  political science and outlines a figurational approach to  political science. The essay ends with a short summary which states that, following the post-transitology era, new  approaches need to be applied when describing Hungarian  politics. 

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The aim of this study is to trace the three-decade-long market economy transition that has replaced the socialist  planned economy in Hungary, a process which is divided  into two parts by the author. He begins by outlining the  harsh, neoliberal methodology of the transition, and the  Hungarian fiscal practice which developed from it, built on  the application of non-conventional instruments of active  government regulation and fundamentally based on the  Fundamental Law (Hungary’s constitution) adopted in 2011,  particularly its chapter on Public Finances and the  cardinal laws pertaining to public finances. The study is a  journey through time, encompassing three decades, demonstrating that the Achilles heel of the transition was  its dependence on the basic conditions of the socialist  planned economic system, which still exert an effect today.  It provides an outline of the taxonomical elements of three,  significantly different yet interrelated economic eras taking place in a Central European country in less than a century,  and draws a macro-economic conclusion. The purpose of  the study of more than three decades is to provide a  historic set and, based on this, an outlook for the future for  prognosis, which is especially important now at the time of  Covid-19 problems. 

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George Schöpflin’s latest monograph provides a unique understanding of the politics of contemporary Europe in  two ‘interconnected essays’. The first part focuses on a  comprehensive interpretation of the EU’s political  community, the European polis. The author argues that  political innovation has slowed considerably in the last  decade, particularly after the Lisbon Treaty entered into  force and the EU was gradually transformed into a punitive  polis. The second part of the book focuses on the  relationship between Central Europe and the European  Union. Central Europe is European, but differently  European. The shortcomings of the Eastern enlargement,  Central Europe’s misadventure in the European Union and  the unseen and unintended consequences of the 2004–2007–2011 enlargement waves all contributed to the  development of a troubled relationship between the EU and  its new members. The volume combines both  theoretical and practical aspects, making it a relevant  contribution to European Studies literature. 

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Outlook

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a new method for efficiently and cost-effectively assisting human activities as  science and technology have progressed in the fourth  industrial revolution. It has been argued that Artificial  Intelligence works in two ways. It can both create and eliminate jobs. Based on present technological capabilities,  AI has sparked speculative discussions concerning its  implications for morality and law. This article argues that AI  is a technological advancement that will help businesses  grow in the fourth industrial revolution. The controller determines its effects hence it can be put to either good or  bad use. As a result, for AI to benefit the prosperity and  well-being of humanity to the greatest degree, morals must be embedded in its use, and the law must be enacted to  ensure that human commitment to using AI wisely in business processes is consistent. 

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(11) "Arifin Saru" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(89) "ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE WORKPLACE: HOW SHOULD MORAL AND LEGAL ISSUES BE ADDRESSED?" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#725 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(6916) ["email"]=> string(27) "saruarifin@mail.unnes.ac.id" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5687) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(116) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Arifin" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Arifin" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(4) "Saru" ["hu_HU"]=> string(4) "Saru" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(23) "Artificial Intelligence" [1]=> string(20) "economic development" [2]=> string(3) "job" [3]=> string(3) "law" [4]=> string(8) "morality" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#738 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(22192) ["id"]=> int(4888) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5687) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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object(Publication)#183 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(27) { ["id"]=> int(5921) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-02-25" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-02-25 12:20:12" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7247) ["sectionId"]=> int(110) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(5797) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(458) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "110-123" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(21) "10.32575/ppb.2021.4.7" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1135) "

Relocation to small cities is becoming more and more widespread. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, people are  trying to escape from perceived danger and as an  alternative, they are considering short-term or long-term  relocation to smaller cities or towns. Purpose: in this paper,  the author gathers the experiences of people constituting a creative class, who relocated from capitals and  metropolises to small cities during the Covid-19 pandemic and before, recording and defining certain motives for their  move. Methodology: both primary and secondary  sources were used for content analysis. As a primary  source, ten in-depth interviews were conducted, whereas  secondary sources include blogs and online published  interviews. This article investigates three questions about  relocation: 1. Why do people move from bigger cities to  small ones? 2. What does the creative class pay attention to  before choosing a settlement for permanent or temporary  relocation? 3. How can the administration of the small cities reinforce their attractiveness for potential residents and tourists from the creative class? 

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object(Publication)#116 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(27) { ["id"]=> int(5907) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2022-02-25" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2022-02-25 12:20:12" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7228) ["sectionId"]=> int(110) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(5783) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2022) ["issueId"]=> int(458) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "124-141" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(21) "10.32575/ppb.2021.4.8" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1462) "

With the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, the issue of data protection has become more important than  ever before. There is no doubt that data, and especially  personal data, has significant commercial value. Data  protection also raises major issues for the legal profession. With the increasing significance of data protection, the  question arises as to whether law students have sufficient  knowledge of privacy literacy. Based on the results of  empirical research, this study set out to examine the  attitudes of current law students to personal data and to  determine how seriously they take data protection, particularly how it works in practice, when, for example,  they use various kinds of social network sites, as well as to  gauge their knowledge of data protection guarantees. The  aim of this study is to provide a brief insight, based on the  results of in-depth interviews, into the reasons behind the  specific privacy literacy gaps revealed by the findings of the  preliminary quantitative research. It is anticipated, it should  be emphasised, that law students will prove not to  be fully aware of how much personal data they may provide  about themselves on social network sites.  Moreover, identifying personal data through practical  examples causes difficulties for law students, such as cookie ID or data on their health. Consequently, the privacy  literacy of law students needs to be improved. 

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