Pro Publico Bono – Public Administration <p>Pro Publico Bono is a peer-reviewed journal four-monthly published by the University of Public Service, Budapest. It covers researches based on public law, social and political sciences as well as interdisciplinary approach that explore future alternatives for fostering sustainable and innovative societies, good governance and for strengthening nation states as well as the European and transatlantic cooperation facing technological, ecological and cultural disruption in the increasingly complex and ambiguous 21<sup>st</sup> century.</p> Ludovika University Press en-US Pro Publico Bono – Public Administration 2063-9058 The Institutionalisation of Smart Villages and Smart Rural Development in Hungary <p>The aim of this study is to describe and evaluate the institutionalisation process of the so-called smart approach to rural development, i.e. the implementation of “smart villages” in Hungary. Using the methodological tool of discourse analysis, it argues that an overemphasis on a critical approach, which would mainly interpret the institutionalisation of the smart village discourse on the basis of its role in the (re)production of domination, is a rather one-sided approach. In Hungary, local actors and/or grassroots initiatives have played a decisive role in shaping the meaning of the smart village concept right from the beginning. On the other hand, it seems that even at a later phase of the smart village discourse, when the power centre, i.e. the administration would gradually take matters into their hands, it is not appropriate to focus on asymmetric power relations. The analysis of the Hungarian Digital Village Programme launched in 2020 shows that the administration’s aim is still to encourage rural municipalities interested in smart approaches to actively participate in the process of meaning construction.</p> Buskó Tibor László Copyright (c) 2023 Buskó Tibor László 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 11 3 3 28 10.32575/ppb.2023.3.1 Soft TQM Elements for Digital Transformation in the Public Sector <p>The digital transformation of the public sector requires not only advanced modern technology but also good strategy and effective use of human factors. Additionally, quality management plays a crucial role in improving the performance and service quality of government organisations. This raises the question of how quality management could benefit digitalisation efforts and help the government to adapt in the era of digital technologies. However, the extant literature mostly focuses on the practice of quality management and the antecedents of digital transformation from the context of a private organisation, and only rarely from a public sector perspective. Therefore, this research seeks to understand and identify the soft TQM elements that can be applied in a public organisation to propel its digital transformation. The analysis was conducted based on a review of relevant papers published in this field. Deductive thematic analysis was employed to identify appropriate themes for this study. The findings identify five soft TQM elements: top management commitment and leadership, training and education, employee involvement, citizen focus and continuous improvement, all of which could positively impact a public organisation’s digitalisation initiatives. The study aims to provide novel and relevant insights to assist government organisations in planning and carrying out digital transformations.</p> Abdul Wahi Nur Syuhaini Berényi László Copyright (c) 2023 Abdul Wahi Nur Syuhaini, Berényi László 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 11 3 29 48 10.32575/ppb.2023.3.2 The Role of Finance in EU Climate Resilience <p>This paper examines the essential financial instruments as the pillars of the climate resilience of the European Union. The research is based on qualitative methodology, i.e. the analysis of relevant policy documents, budgetary documents and legal sources, as well as the review of relevant literature. In order to emphasise the importance of the issue discussed, first of all the relevant terms and definitions such as climate risk and climate resilience are set out, and the whole issue of climate change is briefly outlined. After that, the two main sections of the article are structured as follows. First the role of the budgetary tools of the EU is discussed – including the latest facilities such as the 2021–2027 MFF, NextGenerationEU and RRF. The second main point is established around the role of the central bank system – including the European Central Bank and the central banks of the member states – in climate resilience. The last chapter before the final discussion briefly sketches the experimental co-financing tools – mostly pilot projects – which are aimed at the energy efficiency of the infrastructure.</p> Teleki Bálint Copyright (c) 2023 Teleki Bálint 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 11 3 49 68 10.32575/ppb.2023.3.3 The Consequences of the Pandemic in the Hungarian Penitentiary System <p>The Covid-19 epidemic put significant pressure on national penitentiary services all over the world to control the impacts of the pandemic on closed prison environments. The prison services of the member states of the Council of Europe responded with incredible speed and effectiveness with preventive and administrative measures to prevent the spread of the virus. The objective of the Council of Europe, EuroPris and other international organisations, was to support the member states’ responses to the situation in prisons by facilitating the exchange of information and best practices. The present study examines and analyses the statements and recommendations of the most important bodies and committees of the Council of Europe, in parallel with measures and solutions implemented in Hungary, in the light of international recommendations.<br />The paper is based on a descriptive analysis of the Council of Europe expectations and recommendations and their applicability in the Hungarian prison system. Hungary has successfully processed and incorporated almost all of the expectations of the international parties, in fact, the country took further steps to make the pandemic’s outreached contacts of prisoners and relatives more colourful and active.<br />Prevention and control measures adopted in a timely manner were effective both in Hungary and in other Council of Europe member states. This study highlights the critical importance of rapid and appropriate actions by international control bodies and the open and cooperative response of the national prison services.</p> Czenczer Orsolya Copyright (c) 2023 Czenczer Orsolya 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 11 3 69 82 10.32575/ppb.2023.3.4 The EU׳s Regional Refugees Approach <p>The European Union has drawn on its migration policy in the Middle East and North Africa as a method of region-building that takes resilience as its “Governing Principle” when responding to crises. The central theme of resilience is to keep refugees closer to their home instead of flowing into Europe. This approach might be promising, yet it has both positive and negative effects. In the absence of adequate resources, resilience building may exacerbate the economic, political and social vulnerabilities already existing in these countries. In addition, resilience does not seem to put an end to the refugees’ suffering which, in turn, leads to increasing demands for better services, which could ultimately lead to violent riots that endanger the security of these states. Hence, resilience may seem to jeopardise rather than safeguard the security of these hosts. However, considering the case of displacement from Syria, the article focuses on the EU’s approach to refugees in its neighbourhood, and attempts an in-depth analysis of the EU’s refugee cooperation with Jordan, one of the key regional hosts, to argue that while resilience might be an approach with opposing effects, the EU and Jordan are working to make it a promising one. Their focus is to maintain a balance between the interests of refugees and of local communities. More importantly, the role of resilience in preserving Jordan’s economic and social stability and its social cohesion makes it a more promising approach than simply providing humanitarian assistance.</p> Aleassa Lina Copyright (c) 2023 Aleassa Lina 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 11 3 83 114 10.32575/ppb.2023.3.5 A Review on Global Homelessness: <p>This paper examines global perspectives on homelessness and contributes to scientific knowledge in this area. The work is motivated by my academic and research background particularly my doctoral dissertation. It examines the concept, nature and theories of homelessness from a global perspective to create an understanding of the phenomenon in the Nigerian context. The study reflects the conceptual complexity of homelessness in the light of the criteria that are used to define adequate housing worldwide. It reflects different theoretical dimensions of the study of homelessness including homelessness as a personal pathology, homelessness as a structural dysfunctionality and homelessness as a combination of both. It emphasises the importance of field, recognition<br />and structuration theories in understanding homelessness. It also highlights the importance of the five structures of ‘relational model’ and ‘critical realism’ in understanding the mechanism of the emergence of homelessness in Nigeria and concludes with some relevant facts and findings.<br />The study examines homelessness in global and local contexts to examine the conceptualisation and theoretical framework of homelessness along with related findings in a multifaceted sense to understand the phenomenon from different perspectives. The literature is reviewed considering the relevant conceptual background, applied theories, arguments and relevant findings. The study reveals the conceptual and theoretical diversity and reflects on the complexity, heterogeneity and dynamics of the phenomenon around the globe. The conceptual diversity of the phenomenon is a factor of the dynamic theoretical frameworks. They range from personal pathologies to structural<br />dysfunctionalities to new orthodox and critical realism. In Nigeria, the problem is more structurally influenced than personally influenced. The duality of agency in structuration theory, the (4) model structure and the field of structural relations expand the understanding of the causes of homelessness in Nigeria.</p> Famous Joseph Aigbolosimon Copyright (c) 2023 Famous Joseph Aigbolosimon 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 11 3 115 135 10.32575/ppb.2023.3.6 Control of the Black Sea Straits: The Kerch Incident <p>This article addresses regional security in the EU’s South-Eastern neighbourhood. The current Russia–Ukraine relations represent a critical point within the historical power competition over the Black Sea straits between Russia–Türkiye and Russia–NATO. The Black Sea has three geopolitically significant straits. Two are controlled by Türkiye – the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. One is currently controlled by Russia – the Kerch Strait, connecting the Black Sea and the Azov Sea. The unresolved regional security crises include the Kerch Strait incident from 2018, in which Russian vessels implemented military action against Ukrainian vessels.<br />This study is inductive. It addresses the Kerch Strait incident as a security crisis of two contrasting perspectives – first, that of maritime security and international law, and second, the psychological drama triangle – a model of interpersonal dependency, which I apply to international relations. These two approaches lead to a better understanding of ongoing processes. First, the maritime law perspective shows the inapplicability of international maritime law due to opposing vital security interests of the participants. Second, the psychological perspective suggests an alternative explanation of recurring crises in international relations. The findings suggest two solutions. First, based on international maritime law, the Kerch incident could be resolved only if Russia and Ukraine agree on the ownership of Crimea and its territorial waters. However, their differing perception of security threats is an obstacle to such resolution. Second, the drama triangle of human interaction examines interpersonal conflict in which the victim has to interrupt the cycle of victimisation. Applying this psychological model to IR suggests that Ukraine, if in the victim role, should aim self-empowerment to minimise dependencies on dominant international actors.</p> Kirilova Neli Copyright (c) 2023 Kirilova Neli 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 11 3 137 160 10.32575/ppb.2023.3.7