Pro Publico Bono – Public Administration <p>Pro Publico Bono is a peer-reviewed journal four-monthly published by the University of Public Service, Budapest. It covers researches based on public law, social and political sciences as well as interdisciplinary approach that explore future alternatives for fostering sustainable and innovative societies, good governance and for strengthening nation states as well as the European and transatlantic cooperation facing technological, ecological and cultural disruption in the increasingly complex and ambiguous 21<sup>st</sup> century.</p> Ludovika University Press en-US Pro Publico Bono – Public Administration 2063-9058 Theoretical Problems of Personality Tests Used as Selection Tools <p>The paper provides a concise analysis of the epistemological problems of trait psychology and, especially, those of personality tests widely used as selection tools. These fundamental issues are largely unknown to experts using these tests. The main objective of the article is to provide a clear articulation of these problems.</p> Makay Mátyás Copyright (c) 2021 Makay Mátyás 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 4–15 4–15 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.1 Value for Money (VFM) Principle Based Public Procurements <p>Because of the efficiency focus in the public sector, all public spending is now expected to comply with the “value for money” principle, along with fair competition, transparency and publicity and other public procurement principles. Due to the domestic implementation of the Public Procurement Directive 2014/24/EU of the European Parliament and Council, the new Hungarian public procurement law (Act CXLIII of 2015 on Public Procurement) contains the “value for money” principle as one of the possible contract award criteria. With this, the possibility of purchasing based on the “value for money” principle has been established in Hungary, as well.<br />However, the MEAT (most economically advantageous tender criteria) is only a part of the overall concept. The aim of the article is to show the diversity of the principle, the possibilities and limitations of its application into the procurement practice through the available guidelines.</p> Erdei-Derschner Katalin Copyright (c) 2021 Katalin Erdei-Derschner 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 16–25 16–25 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.2 The Growing Influence of China in the World Economy <p>Without doubt, China has become an essential player of the 21st century world order. In the past decade, Beijing has demonstrated an increasingly stronger involvement in global politics, with a clear intention to shape processes and striving for a leadership position, in economic as well<br />as political terms. The present paper examines the strategy followed by China with a view to strengthen its economic and geopolitical position. An essential instrument of China’s geopolitical strategy is the Belt and Road Initiative launched in 2015, which is also presented in the study,<br />together with the international institutions aiming to fulfil the ambitions of Beijing to become a superpower. In addition to analysing the impacts of the above-mentioned measures, the paper also examines certain key factors that can hinder China achieving superpower status.</p> Bihari Katalin Copyright (c) 2021 Bihari Katalin 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 26–35 26–35 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.3 Contradictions of the Theoretical Models Examining Taxpayers’ Behaviour <p>There are several economic models in the literature that seek to correlate between human behaviour and tax evasion. Based on the classical approach, taxpayers’ behaviour depends on the income levels, the rate of tax rates, the probability of control and the degree of punishment. The assumed direction of the influence of variables is based on reasonable theoretical considerations, yet the results of empirical tests that experimentalise the theory sometimes do not point to the expected direction and often contradict each other. The purpose of this study is to explore these contradictions through interviews and questionnaires.</p> Dobos Piroska Takácsné György Katalin Copyright (c) 2021 Dobos Piroska, Takácsné Prof. Dr. György Katalin 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 36–49 36–49 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.4 The Mapping of Educational Build of Procurement <p>This study presents a research result, the main objective of which was to map the procurement and public procurement educational networks, primarily in universities in the United Kingdom, including educational institutions, departments, curriculum structure, compulsory and<br />recommended reading, related lecturers, their relationship and research activities. The importance of the database lies in the fact that there is a great demand on the part of<br />companies and organisations for procurement specialists with higher education background, therefore the educational potential of procurement can be considered great. The research covers 53 trainings of 31 universities. The importance of the database lies on the fact, that there is a great demand on the part of companies and organizations for procurement specialists with higher education background, therefore high educational potential can be considered in procurement. The research covers 31 universities and 53 trainings.</p> Erdei-Derschner Katalin Copyright (c) 2021 Katalin Erdei-Derschner 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 50–67 50–67 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.5 THE MICROECONOMIC MODELS OF TAX EVASION, TAX AVOIDANCE AND TAX DENIAL – WHAT DOES THE PROFESSION STATE? <p><em>There are several economic models in the professional literature that seek to correlate between human behavior patterns, attitudes, tax evasion and their risk, and their institutional background. Among the theoretical models of tax behavior, the pioneer Allingham-Sandmo (1972) model further developed model of Becker (1968, 1976). Corchòn (1992) describes the coexistence norms of economic operators, the game of the ’cops and robbers’ of a citizen attempting to escape from the taxing state and its obligations. Ehrlich's model (Ehrlich 1973) - a choice between a curve and a straight path - that legitim activities provide stability and constancy, while more illegal activity may result in greater income. In my paper, I review international experiences that show that reducing the tax burden alone does not reduce the size of the hidden economy, in the long run; only improving the autonomy and motivation of actors can bring lasting results.</em></p> Dobos Piroska Copyright (c) 8 4 Settlement – Landscape – Country Image <p>This study reviews the administrative measures that took place in Hungary in 2017 and in 2018, through the concepts of Settlement – Landscape – Country Image marketing. It will be about Act LXXIV of 2016 on the protection of settlement images, the 3177+1 Settlement Image Manual<br />(TAK) and the significance of the Tokaj-Hegyalja, Vértes, Pilis, Fertő-Hanság, Southern Great Plain, Mecsek, Őrség-Vend Architectural Landscape Image Manual (ÉTAK). The study proposes that the topic of Settlement – Landscape – Country Image be included in the UPS Network Research<br />Challenges in Public Service and/or Good State Index (JÁX) Indicators (1. Security and Trust in Government 2. Community Prosperity 3. Financial Stability and Economic Competitiveness 4. Sustainability 5. Democracy 6. Set of Indicators for Efficient Public Administration).</p> Kasza Zsolt Copyright (c) 2021 Kasza Zsolt 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 68–93 68–93 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.6 Political Communication and Influence Through Twitter <p>Politicians are now learning that along with advertising on conventional media, they need to invest in online applications in order to get the attention of voters, particularly the youths. Among various microblogging services, Twitter is an essential part of popular culture. Today, Twitter is widely utilised not only to distribute information, but also political views and opinions.<br />Therefore, politicians have turned to social media, particularly to Twitter, as a new form of political communication. The article attempts to capture the ways of using the potential of Twitter in communication strategies. It argues that in some occasions, Twitter plays a specific role in allowing politicians to monitor current political affairs and to interact with people, but in others, it is often employed as a personal branding strategy and not only during the election campaigns. It concludes with an insight that sentiment may impact the political opinion-making process which may lead to electoral intervention.</p> Seitkazin Ruslan Copyright (c) 2021 Seitkazin Ruslan 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 94–105 94–105 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.7 Arab Youth Migration to European Union <p>Migration from Arab countries to European countries started many decades ago. It has been driven by a variety of push–pull factors. The two main factors are economic deterioration and political instability. Many young people migrated to escape unemployment, poverty and poor<br />working conditions. Others fled the effects of war and conflicts. This paper reviews Arab youth migration to European countries, its drivers, and the way it impacts the origin countries, host countries and the immigrants. Despite some negative implications of migration on the origin countries such as education cost and deprivation of the country from the potential capacity of skilled people, the benefits of these countries are rather clear and include remittances, knowledge and experience transfer. However, mitigation of Arab youth migration challenges is not an easy task; it needs new governmental approaches to reduce unemployment rates, as well as the active involvement of youth in economic and political life.</p> Saqer Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2021 Sulaiman Khalil 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 106–121 106–121 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.8 Can Chiefs Be the Problem of Ghana's Democratic Political Space <p>The 1992 Constitution of Ghana gives unfettered privileges to chiefs and their roles with regard to customs and their usages in the country. A whole chapter in the constitution has been dedicated to the chieftaincy institution which clearly indicates their mandates with a caveat that they cannot actively take part in politics. This arrangement, not only makes them feel alienated from the dayto-day-political discourse of the nation, but also leaves them with a sense of loss of their former position. However, since the institution is revered and forms part of the cultural heritage of the country, comments from these chiefs have in most cases shaped the political discussions of the nation positively or negatively. This paper looks at three major statements by some chiefs, the controversies these statements generated and the conclusions drawn. The paper is a desk research and the researcher relied on secondary data.</p> Essel Emmanuel Abeku Copyright (c) 2021 Essel Emmanuel Abeku 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 8 4 122–133 122–133 10.32575/ppb.2020.4.9