Pro Publico Bono – Public Administration <p>Pro Publico Bono is a peer-reviewed journal four-monthly published by the University of Public Service, Budapest. It covers researches based on public law, social and political sciences as well as interdisciplinary approach that explore future alternatives for fostering sustainable and innovative societies, good governance and for strengthening nation states as well as the European and transatlantic cooperation facing technological, ecological and cultural disruption in the increasingly complex and ambiguous 21<sup>st</sup> century.</p> en-US (Dúl János szerkesztőbizottsági titkár/secretary of the editorial board) (Gilián Mária (Ludovika Egyetemi Kiadó Iroda)) Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 TEACHING REQUIREMENTS OF A DIGITISED PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION <p>The digitisation of public sector ICT is driven by a number of factors: Increased self- service via the Internet, the Internet of Things (IoT), real-time business intelligence&nbsp; and the advent of integrated information systems as the “backbone” of&nbsp; organisational ICT. This is accentuated by the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper&nbsp; presents an implemented university level teaching programme that covers the&nbsp; topics of integrated information systems for the environment described above. The&nbsp; paper also deals with the research question of how to embed such a programme in a conventional, public sector-oriented university course&nbsp; programme. It details the didactic specificities and analyses the feedback from the&nbsp; roll out and the prior knowledge required from students and the changes in other&nbsp; elements of a public administration course programme necessitated by digitisation&nbsp; orientation. It finally summarises the experience made and illustrates&nbsp; the necessity for further research.&nbsp;</p> Müller-Török Robert, Prosser Alexander Copyright (c) 2021 Müller-Török Robert, Prosser Alexander Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC GAP ON THE LEVEL OF E-GOVERNMENT IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA <p>The digital divide of developing countries vis-à-vis developed countries is also reflected in the level of e-Government development. Developing countries face the&nbsp; challenges of e-Government with reduced capacities and resources but also strong&nbsp; incentives for growth prospects. Developing e-Government as a complex&nbsp; phenomenon involves multidisciplinary efforts: the development of electronic&nbsp; communications infrastructures and data infrastructures, the transformation of&nbsp; internal business processes of government, increased democracy, education, as&nbsp; well as a sustained economic level, and so on. The research analyses the level of e- Government development in the Republic of Moldova in a regional context of a&nbsp; group of developing countries. It is an attempt to find particularities and&nbsp; similarities in the evolution of e-Government in this space and to identify the&nbsp; development potential and opportunities and to overcome the gap in this area. The study also addresses the prospect of alignment with European standards on e- Government development, especially with regard to the single digital market, the&nbsp; European Interoperability Framework and others, as levers and drivers for&nbsp; increasing the socio-economic level of Moldova, and building an open, participative&nbsp; and performing government.&nbsp;</p> Grecu Mihai, Dicusar Ion Copyright (c) 2021 Grecu Mihai Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 INTERPRETING THE CONCEPTS OF TECHNOLOGY-SOCIETY TO PUBLIC POLICY: THE POTENTIALS OF SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND COMPUTER GAMES <p>In this paper, we explore how Civilization, and – in a more general approach – computer games can enhance public administration (PA) education for interpreting technology-society concepts (or Science Technology Studies). We pose the research question, how computer games at the early stage of PA studies aligned with&nbsp; systematic curriculum design make educational experiences and the learning&nbsp; process more sensitised to system complexity, creativity and understanding the&nbsp; role of technology. The paper shows an educational experiment where Sid Meier’s&nbsp; Civilization series is used at the University of Public Service in Budapest. Civilization&nbsp; is one of the most famous turn-based strategy games, illustrating the complex&nbsp; causalities of economic development, geographical expansion, technology&nbsp; innovation, government structure and warfare. The players experience historical&nbsp; development through the ages of human Civilization – starting to build simple&nbsp; ancient huts to modern space exploration – and choosing different strategies to&nbsp; guide their Civilization through the challenges of allocating resources, managing&nbsp; conflicts, or deploying technological innovations. Civilization has been used in&nbsp; several classroom experiences for teaching history and complex system analysis.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nemeslaki András, Molnár László, Nemeslaki Tas Steven Copyright (c) 2021 Nemeslaki András, Molnár László, Nemeslaki Tas Steven Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 REGULATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION <p>Social media platforms are mainly characterised by private regulation. However, their direct and indirect impact on society has become such (fake news, hate speech, incitement to terrorism, data protection breaches, impact on the viability of professional journalism) that private regulatory mechanisms in place (often opaque and not transparent) seem to be inadequate. In the present paper, I would first address the problem of the legal classification of these services (media service provider vs. intermediary service provider), since the answer to this question is a prerequisite for any state intervention. I would then present the regulatory initiatives (with a critical approach) at the EU and national level which might shape the future of ‘social media platform’ regulation. </p> Bartóki-Gönczy Balázs Copyright (c) 2021 Bartóki-Gönczy Balázs Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 EXTENDED FRAMEWORK FOR SMART CITY DEVELOPMENT: COMPLEMENTARY ELEMENTS OF A SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT <p>One of the most important focal points of the complex processes taking place in&nbsp; the world has been created by highly diverse urbanisation zones, which face the&nbsp; challenges of digital transition and smart development. At the same time, for&nbsp; historical, economic, cultural and geopolitical reasons, each settlement needs an&nbsp; approach that is tailored to its specific characteristics and needs. However,&nbsp; relatively little attention has been paid to developing the elements of a supportive&nbsp; environment, the process of planning and capacity-building needed to manage a&nbsp; smart city, and exploring concrete cases and best practices. This study examines&nbsp; initiatives supporting the conditions for smart city solutions within the framework&nbsp; of the Digital Success Programme launched in Hungary, with particular focus on&nbsp; the operation of smart city marketplace as an emerging info-communication&nbsp; platform for supporting the planning process.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kaiser Tamás Copyright (c) 2021 Kaiser Tamás Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF WORKING ON THE COMPUTER: WARNING SIGNS <p>Computerisation and digitisation are an engine of social and economic change.&nbsp; Implementation and coordination of both work and leisure activities are already&nbsp; unthinkable without computers and smart devices. The benefits of computerisation are available immediately in the forms of faster problem solving, cost-saving, or&nbsp; the environmental impacts of using less paper in administration. However, the fact&nbsp; that we spend more and more time in front of computers also raises health issues. Harmful effects of bad sitting posture, short lightning or other factors conveniently fade into the background. An important reason for this is that their representation&nbsp; differs in time. The human body can adapt flexibly to various external factors; the&nbsp; formation of irreversible changes requires a relatively long time, which gradually&nbsp; evolves. Because of this asymmetry, a notice of preliminary signals and a preventive approach is highly advised. This paper contributes to the ergonomic&nbsp; knowledge base by exploring the opinions about the early warning signs of the problems among higher education students. The analysis is based on the responses of 591 students to a voluntary online survey. The sample structure by age and job experience points to the increase of problems, drawing attention to necessary development actions.&nbsp;</p> Berényi László, Sasvári Péter Copyright (c) 2021 Berényi László Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 EFFECTIVE METHODS FOR SUCCESSFUL INFORMATION SECURITY AWARENESS <p>Information security awareness is becoming increasingly important these days. It is not enough to have a well-developed physical and logical protection of the&nbsp; system and stored data; the users of these systems have to keep up with&nbsp; technological development and have to be sufficiently aware or cautious when&nbsp; using these systems. Information Security Awareness Programs provide the most&nbsp; effective solution for the improvement of users’ information security knowledge&nbsp; and digital competencies. The aim of this study is to help organisations in finding&nbsp; and providing an effective way of knowledge transfer. The study identifies the key&nbsp; elements of the implementation of the awareness programs and highlights the&nbsp; importance of communication channels and methods. The essay summarises and&nbsp; shows the most effective techniques that experts can use in order to draw the user’s attention toward information security, like real-life simulation scenarios,&nbsp; interactive games, themed awareness videos and other gamification techniques.&nbsp;</p> Legárd Ildikó Copyright (c) 2021 Legárd Ildikó Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 SUPPORT OF EDUCATION IN CYBERSECURITY <p>Cybersecurity depends heavily on education. The paper addresses the support of education as the smartest investment in cybersecurity. To define priorities, an early estimate of the state of cybersecurity in Moldova by an online survey has been completed. A wide range of aspects related to cybersecurity education are&nbsp; elucidated within three basic periods: initial (school), transit (university) and&nbsp; reinforcement (implementation and use at workplace). Referred to in these are: formation of an ‘informational’ culture, target professions, curricula content,&nbsp; competences, cooperation with companies, digital education, e-learning platforms,&nbsp; information services, risks associated with human resources, etc. Also, conceptual&nbsp; aspects regarding the creation of a cybersecurity polygon in support of training in&nbsp; the field are described: basic objectives, main functions, structural components,&nbsp; the technological platform and methodological issues of creating the system of&nbsp; cybersecurity models for application as needed.&nbsp;</p> Bolun Ion, Bulai Rodica, Ciorbă Dumitru Copyright (c) 2021 Bolun Ion, Bulai Rodica, Ciorbă Dumitru Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 BOOK REVIEW: THE 21ST CENTURY PUBLIC MANAGER BY ZEGER VAN DER WAL <p>Zeger van der Wal’s latest book entitled ‘The 21st Century Public Manager:&nbsp; Challenges, People and Strategies’ published in 2017 is in many ways a unique and&nbsp; milestone work, truly global in scope and ambition, both in its mapping of the&nbsp; complex 21st century landscape of public administration, and in offering a clear&nbsp; perspective for practitioners, while also inspiring them on their journeys. Along these lines, the value of the book is in its basic premise that “public management&nbsp; matters” and that of the demanding rethinking of the roles, responsibilities, skills&nbsp; and strategies of purposeful public servants while navigating in the ever-changing&nbsp; VUCA world – one characterised by volatility, uncertainty, complexity and&nbsp; ambiguity. The book was intended to serve as a practical manual and indeed is an&nbsp; extremely useful guide, being an asset for professionals, students and educators who wish to follow a logical framework in understanding contemporary public policy challenges.&nbsp;</p> Bata-Balog Amadea Copyright (c) 2021 Bata-Balog Amadea Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EVIDENCE-BASED POLICIES IN THE ERA OF DIGITALISATION <p>Digital transformation speeds up and strengthens an already growing demand for a well-functioning public administration with e-governmental services. The outbreak of the global Covid-19 pandemic edged such actions forward even more. Public administration with embedded institutions enables the formulation of a competitive environment. The implication of digital services can decrease the negative effects of an economic crisis. Evidence-based policy-making is a component of good governance next to transparency, sustainability, efficiency, integrity and an approach of being people-centric. Digitalisation brings new challenges for public service and governments are taking various measures in response to them. There is an evolving need for citizen-centric electronic public administration services. National performance can be expansively analysed in a globalised world – with international comparisons. The paper conducts an international comparative analysis about the developments of citizen-centric digital transformation in public administration after 2014 with special focus on Hungary and selected reference countries.</p> Bojtor András, Bozsó Gábor Copyright (c) 2021 Bojtor András, Bozsó Gábor Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 E-GOVERNMENT SERVICE ADOPTION THROUGH THE LENS OF THE KNOWLEDGE GAP <p>The aim of the paper is to raise some issues in relation to the technology adoption-based e-government acceptance models and that the knowledge gap theory can&nbsp; be applied to the use of online public administration services: higher status equals not only wider and more sophisticated usage of ICT tools, but also more&nbsp; knowledge about public administration procedures themselves, which can result in various channel-preferences and routines among the users of different public services. Using data from the multivariable Good State Public Administration&nbsp; Opinion Survey, the paper shows that the knowledge gap clearly exists in terms of&nbsp; public administration-related knowledge. Based on this finding, the paper&nbsp; recommends that the currently marginally used ‘necessary knowledge about&nbsp; public administration procedures’ factor should be more widely incorporated in e- government adoption models, as it can have a significant effect on adoption, or alter the effect of other constructs in these models.&nbsp;</p> Csótó Mihály Copyright (c) 2021 Csótó Mihály Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200