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Outflow itself and the turnover of personnel are natural phenomena and occur in any organisation. The motivational factors influencing outflow can be classified as financial, medical and psychological factors. Compared with the two other factors, the psychological factor is the most complex one. In the research, the author examined these psychological factors among the soldiers of the HDF 93rd CBRN Battalion in 2008 and in 2018 and compared the differences. The author also analysed the relationship between salary-motivated outflow and age, defining a key amount that should be taken into consideration in order to prevent the mass outflow.

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Önmagában a kiáramlás mindne katonai szervezetél tapasztalható természetes jelenség. A kiáramlást befolyásoló motivációs tényezőket  pénzügyi-, egészségügyi- és pszichológiai terület szerint választhatjuk külön. A további két tényezővel összehasonlítva, a motivációs tényezőt tekinthetjük  legösszetettebbnek. A tanulmányban a szerző a pszichológiai tényezőket megvizsgálta 2008-ban illetve megismételte 2018-ban, valamint a felmerült különbségeket összehasonlította. Szintén elemzésre került az életkor és a fizetés motiválta kiáramlás kapcsolata, amelynek eredményeként meghatározásra került az az összeg, amelyet figyelembe kell venni a tömeges kiáramlás elkerülése érdekében. 

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(13) "Csóka Attila" } ["title"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(72) "Reducing the Outflow of CBRN Soldiers from the Perspective of Motivation" ["hu_HU"]=> string(58) "A kiáramlás csökkentése a motiváció szempontjából." } ["prefix"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#731 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(14) { ["id"]=> int(581) ["email"]=> string(22) "csoka.attila@yahoo.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(412) ["seq"]=> int(1) ["userGroupId"]=> int(82) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(36) "http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9873-0789" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(41) "NUPS Doctoral School of Military Sciences" ["hu_HU"]=> string(32) "NKE Hadtudományi Doktori Iskola" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(18) "

PhD student

" ["hu_HU"]=> string(19) "

doktorandusz

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Ethiopia is a multicultural and multilingual country. The Oromo and Somali communities are found in the same linguistic community, that is, the Cushitic language. Historically, Somalis and Oromo have a long tradition of co-existence and strong socio-cultural interactions, as well as antagonistic relationships and intermittent conflicts. Traditionally, the major sources of conflict between the two communities were competition over scarce resources, territorial expansion, livestock raids and counter raids, kidnapping for marriage purposes and the revenge tradition. However, this time the conflict took a different nature, form and bigger scale causing devastation never seen in the history of communal conflict in the country. The study has utilised primary and secondary data collection and employed narration and content analysis to realise the objective of the paper. The findings of this study reveal that the causes of the Oromo–Somali conflict are complex and dynamic. This urges the need to carry out a deeper investigation beyond the federal arrangement. Thus, fundamental and triggering factors including the involvement of internal and external forces, the collapse of social norms and prevalence of moral anarchism, socio-economic issues, competing interests among public and military officials, poor leadership and governance system, competing interests over resources, aspects of local cultural institutions in regulating inter-ethnic relationships are identified in fuelling ethnic conflict in the studied area. Since the conflict in the region is much more complex than the dominant narrative of resource scarcity and ethnic politicisation, open democratic dialogue, genuine consultation and negotiation at a different level with various interest groups, stakeholders and community representatives, militant groups operating in the area is of paramount importance to ease the increasing ethnic tension and political crisis in order to build sustainable peace in the region.

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object(Publication)#186 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(4104) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-09-20" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-09-20 10:02:19" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7116) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(3) ["submissionId"]=> int(3983) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(442) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "43-54" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2021.1.3" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(685) "

This paper investigates the possibility of establishing peace between Hamas and Israel, based on the politicisation model of armed groups that leads eventually to change the violent character of armed groups. The main question is: Can Israel and Hamas have a long-lasting peace to end the conflict in the Gaza Strip?
The main pillars of politicisation are the willingness of warring parties to conclude peace, the existence of a ‘hurting stalemate’, the narrowness of objectives and the ability to guarantee public support. The primary conclusion of this paper is that comprehensive peace is difficult to achieve, but a unique long-term truce ‘Hudna’ is attainable.

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object(Publication)#188 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(29) { ["id"]=> int(4519) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-09-20" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-09-20 10:02:19" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(5171) ["sectionId"]=> int(5) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["submissionId"]=> int(4398) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["issueId"]=> int(442) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(5) "55-65" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(23) "10.32565/aarms.2021.1.4" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(979) "

Ghana spends a large number of its public resources on the acquisition of goods, works and services with most of them being sourced through Public Procurement. The country in its quest to ensure transparency and efficiency in its public transaction established the Public Procurement Authority (PPA) and clothed it with powers by an Act of Parliament to discharge the given responsibilities. However, since 2003 when the 4th Republican rule was instituted, not a single government regime has exited from office without recourse to irregularities associated with the procurement processes as reported by the Auditor General’s Annual Reports or reports by Civil Society Organisations (CSOs). The goal of this paper is to look at the consequences of these irregularities in the procurement process posed to Ghana’s development. The methodology used in carrying out this study centred mainly on secondary data, and some recommendations have been offered for consideration.

" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(20) "ESSEL EMMANUEL ABEKU" } ["title"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(81) "The Consequences of Public Procurement and Its Associated Irregularities in Ghana" ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "English" } ["prefix"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#762 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(5171) ["email"]=> string(16) "abeabi@yahoo.com" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(4519) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["userGroupId"]=> int(82) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8500-7505" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(64) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:38:"National University of Public Service ";}" ["hu_HU"]=> string(64) "a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:38:"National University of Public Service ";}" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(5) "ESSEL" ["hu_HU"]=> string(5) "ESSEL" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(14) "EMMANUEL ABEKU" ["hu_HU"]=> string(14) "EMMANUEL ABEKU" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(11) "procurement" [1]=> string(14) "irregularities" [2]=> string(12) "consequences" [3]=> string(10) "government" [4]=> string(10) "corruption" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#745 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(19282) ["id"]=> int(4608) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(4519) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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Passive radars are popular because without the expensive, high-power-rated RF components, they are much cheaper than the active ones, nevertheless, they are much harder to detect from their electromagnetic emission. Passive radars produce so-called RV matrices in an intermediate signal processing step. Although accurate RV matrices are found in DVBT-based passive radars, the characteristics of the FM signals are not always suitable for this purpose. In those situations, further signal processing causes false alarms and unreliable plots, misleads the tracker, and consumes power for processing unnecessarily, which matters in portable setups. Passive radars also come with the advantage of a possible MIMO setup, when multiple signal sources (broadcast services for example) are reflected by multiple targets to the receiver unit. One common case is the stealth aircraft’s which form is designed to reflect the radar signal away from the active radar, but it could also reflect the signals of the available broadcast channels. Only one of these reflected signals could reveal the position of the target.

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A passzív radarok népszerűek, mivel nem tartalmaznak nagy-teljesítményű, drága RF alkatrészeket, valamint sokkal nehezebb őket az elektromágneses kisugárzásuk alapján felderíteni. A passzív radarok egy úgynevezett RV mátrixot adnak eredményül egy közbülső jelfeldolgozási lépésben. Habár pontos RV mátrixokkal találkozhatunk DVB-T alapú megoldásokban, az FM jelek karakterisztikája nem mindig alkalmas ezek előállítására. Ezen esetekben a további jelfeldolgozási lépések vaklármákat és pontatlan megjelenítést okozhatnak, félrevezethetik a céltárgykövetőt, valamint fölöslegesen használnak fel teljesítményt a számításokra, ami hordozható rendszerekben hátrány. A passzív radarok előnye továbbá, hogy MIMO rendszerként is tudnak működni, ekkor több jelforrás (például műsorszóró adó) is visszaverődik a céltárgyakról a vevőbe. A lopakodó repülőket például úgy tervezik, hogy az őket érő jeleket elverje a megvilágító testtől (például aktív radartól), azonban egyes műsorszóró adók jelet épp ezen tulajdonsága miatt tudja a passzív radarhoz törni, ami már elegendő lehet a helyzetének felfedésére.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(27) "Kiss Ádám, Dudás Levente" } ["title"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(61) "A Tracking Method in FM Broadcast-based Passive Radar Systems" ["hu_HU"]=> string(74) "Céltárgykövetés FM műsorszóró rendszereken alapú passzív radarban" } ["prefix"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(2) { [0]=> object(Author)#772 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7117) ["email"]=> string(24) "kiss.adam@simonyi.bme.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5192) ["seq"]=> int(5) ["userGroupId"]=> int(82) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2597-7953" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(4) "Kiss" } ["givenName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Ádám" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } [1]=> object(Author)#763 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7118) ["email"]=> string(24) "dudas.levente@vik.bme.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5192) ["seq"]=> int(5) ["userGroupId"]=> int(82) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9050-6061" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Dudás" } ["givenName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Levente" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(2) { ["hu_HU"]=> array(4) { [0]=> string(14) "Passzív radar" [1]=> string(31) "bisztatikus céltárgykövetés" [2]=> string(17) "FM passzív radar" [3]=> string(10) "RV mátrix" } ["en_US"]=> array(4) { [0]=> string(13) "Passive radar" [1]=> string(17) "bistatic tracking" [2]=> string(16) "FM passive radar" [3]=> string(9) "RV matrix" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#766 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(19390) ["id"]=> int(4609) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5192) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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The goal of this study is to explore security threats and challenges of digitisation. Digitisation as one of the key technological factors has a significant impact on the development of today’s modern world. Beyond general security circumstances, this impact touches upon economic, financial, social, technological, medical, educational, defence and military issues, as well all over the world.
The argument of this study is that the modernisation of defence systems is an essential key to successfully responding to new security challenges in our digital explosion era. Therefore, it is a must that government organisations, including defence and military systems fundamentally upgrade their own technical, structural and operational capabilities and accept digitisation as the driving factor of future defence and military development.
In light of the above, the study first examines digitisation as a global security challenge and then presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between hybrid warfare and cybersecurity. Finally, before drawing conclusions, it takes stock of the military policy relevance of the cybersecurity challenges relevant to Hungary.
Overall, it can be stated that digitisation and digital transformation are present all over the world as a result of globalisation. Developed nations, including Hungary must be connected to digitisation and by digitisation to each other’s various systems and technologies. This system has to be integrated, but independent at the same time, as well as connected but separable in order to be able to be involved in the whole cyberspace and get the benefits of it or get separated from it to defend threats or direct attacks coming from the outside. The Hungarian Defence Forces has a key role in this very important process.

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Tibor Babos is the Founding Director of Szent István Security Research Center, as well as he is an Associate Professor of the Faculty  of  Mechanical Engineering,  at the Hungarian Agricultural and Life Sciences University. He is also the Founding Director of the Security Science Center, Founding Director of the Security Science  College, a Thesis   Supervisor and a Professor at the Doctoral School of Security Sciences, and a Honorary Professor of  the University of Óbuda. Tibor Babos is also a Honorary Professor, a lecturer and a Thesis Supervisor at the  Doctoral  School  of  Military  Sciences  and  the Doctoral  School  of  Public  Administration at the National University of Public Service. As aColonel of the Hungarian Defense  Forces,  he  is  a  Chief  Military Advisor and a Ministerial Commissioner for U.S.-Hungarian Defense Cooperation at the Ministry of Defense. Hs reseach field is security, defense and military policy, transatlantic relations, as well as critical infrastructure protection.

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Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a set of evidence-based practices of hospital epidemiology aiming to prevent and control healthcare-associated infections. The aim of the present study was two-fold. First, we estimated the costs of IPC in the Medical Centre of the Hungarian Defence Forces (MCHDF) in Hungary using a bottom-up microcosting approach. Second, we analysed how the involvement of the MCHDF in Covid-19 care changed the occurrence of multidrug-resistant infections in the hospital. Our results showed that depending on the type of ward, the daily costs of standard care ranged between 3,809–8,589 HUF, while the costs of isolation were between 9,203–11,200 HUF. Daily costs were highest in the intensive care unit (ICU). Total costs per patient ranged between 20,875–78,904 HUF for standard care and 79,996–282,892 HUF for isolation with highest values in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The incremental isolation cost per patient compared to standard care ranged between 20,363–158,216 HUF. When the MCHDF became a Covid-19 care centre, the incidence of introduced Clostridium difficile and multidrug resistant cases increased by nearly 200 per cent and 40 per cent, respectively. Our results can be used as basic input data for the economic evaluation of IPC strategies and highlights an important IPC aspect to be considered for the redistribution of hospital capacities during the Covid-19 pandemic.

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