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The digitisation of public sector ICT is driven by a number of factors: Increased self- service via the Internet, the Internet of Things (IoT), real-time business intelligence  and the advent of integrated information systems as the “backbone” of  organisational ICT. This is accentuated by the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper  presents an implemented university level teaching programme that covers the  topics of integrated information systems for the environment described above. The  paper also deals with the research question of how to embed such a programme in a conventional, public sector-oriented university course  programme. It details the didactic specificities and analyses the feedback from the  roll out and the prior knowledge required from students and the changes in other  elements of a public administration course programme necessitated by digitisation  orientation. It finally summarises the experience made and illustrates  the necessity for further research. 

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PDF
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The digital divide of developing countries vis-à-vis developed countries is also reflected in the level of e-Government development. Developing countries face the  challenges of e-Government with reduced capacities and resources but also strong  incentives for growth prospects. Developing e-Government as a complex  phenomenon involves multidisciplinary efforts: the development of electronic  communications infrastructures and data infrastructures, the transformation of  internal business processes of government, increased democracy, education, as  well as a sustained economic level, and so on. The research analyses the level of e- Government development in the Republic of Moldova in a regional context of a  group of developing countries. It is an attempt to find particularities and  similarities in the evolution of e-Government in this space and to identify the  development potential and opportunities and to overcome the gap in this area. The study also addresses the prospect of alignment with European standards on e- Government development, especially with regard to the single digital market, the  European Interoperability Framework and others, as levers and drivers for  increasing the socio-economic level of Moldova, and building an open, participative  and performing government. 

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PDF
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In this paper, we explore how Civilization, and – in a more general approach – computer games can enhance public administration (PA) education for interpreting technology-society concepts (or Science Technology Studies). We pose the research question, how computer games at the early stage of PA studies aligned with  systematic curriculum design make educational experiences and the learning  process more sensitised to system complexity, creativity and understanding the  role of technology. The paper shows an educational experiment where Sid Meier’s  Civilization series is used at the University of Public Service in Budapest. Civilization  is one of the most famous turn-based strategy games, illustrating the complex  causalities of economic development, geographical expansion, technology  innovation, government structure and warfare. The players experience historical  development through the ages of human Civilization – starting to build simple  ancient huts to modern space exploration – and choosing different strategies to  guide their Civilization through the challenges of allocating resources, managing  conflicts, or deploying technological innovations. Civilization has been used in  several classroom experiences for teaching history and complex system analysis.  

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PDF
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Social media platforms are mainly characterised by private regulation. However, their direct and indirect impact on society has become such (fake news, hate  speech, incitement to terrorism, data protection breaches, impact on the viability of professional journalism) that private regulatory mechanisms in place (often opaque and not transparent) seem to be inadequate. In the present paper, I would  first address the problem of the legal classification of these services (media service provider vs. intermediary service provider), since the answer to this question is a  prerequisite for any state intervention. I would then present the regulatory  initiatives (with a critical approach) at the EU and national level which might shape the future of ‘social media platform’ regulation. 

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One of the most important focal points of the complex processes taking place in  the world has been created by highly diverse urbanisation zones, which face the  challenges of digital transition and smart development. At the same time, for  historical, economic, cultural and geopolitical reasons, each settlement needs an  approach that is tailored to its specific characteristics and needs. However,  relatively little attention has been paid to developing the elements of a supportive  environment, the process of planning and capacity-building needed to manage a  smart city, and exploring concrete cases and best practices. This study examines  initiatives supporting the conditions for smart city solutions within the framework  of the Digital Success Programme launched in Hungary, with particular focus on  the operation of smart city marketplace as an emerging info-communication  platform for supporting the planning process.  

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Computerisation and digitisation are an engine of social and economic change.  Implementation and coordination of both work and leisure activities are already  unthinkable without computers and smart devices. The benefits of computerisation are available immediately in the forms of faster problem solving, cost-saving, or  the environmental impacts of using less paper in administration. However, the fact  that we spend more and more time in front of computers also raises health issues. Harmful effects of bad sitting posture, short lightning or other factors conveniently fade into the background. An important reason for this is that their representation  differs in time. The human body can adapt flexibly to various external factors; the  formation of irreversible changes requires a relatively long time, which gradually  evolves. Because of this asymmetry, a notice of preliminary signals and a preventive approach is highly advised. This paper contributes to the ergonomic  knowledge base by exploring the opinions about the early warning signs of the problems among higher education students. The analysis is based on the responses of 591 students to a voluntary online survey. The sample structure by age and job experience points to the increase of problems, drawing attention to necessary development actions. 

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Information security awareness is becoming increasingly important these days. It is not enough to have a well-developed physical and logical protection of the  system and stored data; the users of these systems have to keep up with  technological development and have to be sufficiently aware or cautious when  using these systems. Information Security Awareness Programs provide the most  effective solution for the improvement of users’ information security knowledge  and digital competencies. The aim of this study is to help organisations in finding  and providing an effective way of knowledge transfer. The study identifies the key  elements of the implementation of the awareness programs and highlights the  importance of communication channels and methods. The essay summarises and  shows the most effective techniques that experts can use in order to draw the user’s attention toward information security, like real-life simulation scenarios,  interactive games, themed awareness videos and other gamification techniques. 

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PDF

SUPPORT OF EDUCATION IN CYBERSECURITY

Bolun Ion, Bulai Rodica, Ciorbă Dumitru
doi: 10.32575/ppb.2021.1.8
128-147.
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Cybersecurity depends heavily on education. The paper addresses the support of education as the smartest investment in cybersecurity. To define priorities, an early estimate of the state of cybersecurity in Moldova by an online survey has been completed. A wide range of aspects related to cybersecurity education are  elucidated within three basic periods: initial (school), transit (university) and  reinforcement (implementation and use at workplace). Referred to in these are: formation of an ‘informational’ culture, target professions, curricula content,  competences, cooperation with companies, digital education, e-learning platforms,  information services, risks associated with human resources, etc. Also, conceptual  aspects regarding the creation of a cybersecurity polygon in support of training in  the field are described: basic objectives, main functions, structural components,  the technological platform and methodological issues of creating the system of  cybersecurity models for application as needed. 

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PDF
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Zeger van der Wal’s latest book entitled ‘The 21st Century Public Manager:  Challenges, People and Strategies’ published in 2017 is in many ways a unique and  milestone work, truly global in scope and ambition, both in its mapping of the  complex 21st century landscape of public administration, and in offering a clear  perspective for practitioners, while also inspiring them on their journeys. Along these lines, the value of the book is in its basic premise that “public management  matters” and that of the demanding rethinking of the roles, responsibilities, skills  and strategies of purposeful public servants while navigating in the ever-changing  VUCA world – one characterised by volatility, uncertainty, complexity and  ambiguity. The book was intended to serve as a practical manual and indeed is an  extremely useful guide, being an asset for professionals, students and educators who wish to follow a logical framework in understanding contemporary public policy challenges. 

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Digital transformation speeds up and strengthens an already growing demand for a well-functioning public administration with e-governmental services. The outbreak of the global Covid-19 pandemic edged such actions forward even more. Public administration with embedded institutions enables the formulation of a competitive environment. The implication of digital services can decrease the negative effects of an economic crisis. Evidence-based policy-making is a component of good governance next to transparency, sustainability, efficiency, integrity and an approach of being people-centric. Digitalisation brings new challenges for public service and governments are taking various measures in response to them. There is an evolving need for citizen-centric electronic public administration services. National performance can be expansively analysed in a globalised world – with international comparisons. The paper conducts an international comparative analysis about the developments of citizen-centric digital transformation in public administration after 2014 with special focus on Hungary and selected reference countries.

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The aim of the paper is to raise some issues in relation to the technology adoption-based e-government acceptance models and that the knowledge gap theory can  be applied to the use of online public administration services: higher status equals not only wider and more sophisticated usage of ICT tools, but also more  knowledge about public administration procedures themselves, which can result in various channel-preferences and routines among the users of different public services. Using data from the multivariable Good State Public Administration  Opinion Survey, the paper shows that the knowledge gap clearly exists in terms of  public administration-related knowledge. Based on this finding, the paper  recommends that the currently marginally used ‘necessary knowledge about  public administration procedures’ factor should be more widely incorporated in e- government adoption models, as it can have a significant effect on adoption, or alter the effect of other constructs in these models. 

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