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The key objective of this study is to try to find tangible relationships among economic performance, competitiveness and the so called “soft factors”, like the different elements of culture. Economists, especially those who follow the mainstream line believe that human beings and businesses make objective and rational decisions about economic issues. Therefore, economic performance is only influenced by objective, measurable facts, and therefore the causes and effects can be mathematically modelled and forecasted. Macroeconomic changes in today’s world, which are not at all easily predictable, do not verify this argument. It has been proved by many researchers—among them Nobel-prize winners—that decisions of people and businesses are also influenced by subjective elements, including soft factors, like cultural values and beliefs. This paper presents some of the most interesting arguments in the field, and suggests a research approach which can also consider some—from an economic point of view especially important—soft cultural factors which may influence economic performance and competitiveness. This way it is also possible to increase the range of hard and soft environmental factors which may have impact on economic performance and competitiveness. The importance of the subject can be proved by the fact that governance capabilities could also be improved by considering other factors than the typical hard, macro indicators while determining economic policies.

" ["hu_HU"]=> string(1504) "

The key objective of this study is to try to find tangible relationships among economic performance, competitiveness and the so called “soft factors”, like the different elements of culture. Economists, especially those who follow the mainstream line believe that human beings and businesses make objective and rational decisions about economic issues. Therefore, economic performance is only influenced by objective, measurable facts, and therefore the causes and effects can be mathematically modelled and forecasted. Macroeconomic changes in today’s world, which are not at all easily predictable, do not verify this argument. It has been proved by many researchers—among them Nobel-prize winners—that decisions of people and businesses are also influenced by subjective elements, including soft factors, like cultural values and beliefs. This paper presents some of the most interesting arguments in the field, and suggests a research approach which can also consider some—from an economic point of view especially important—soft cultural factors which may influence economic performance and competitiveness. This way it is also possible to increase the range of hard and soft environmental factors which may have impact on economic performance and competitiveness. The importance of the subject can be proved by the fact that governance capabilities could also be improved by considering other factors than the typical hard, macro indicators while determining economic policies.

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The study presents an aspect of a fair trial as an aspect of human rights and access to justice. However, it takes into account—not in a descriptive way—the economic and social changes that are taking place. As a result of globalization and mass production, changes in the market economy transform the traditional structure of legal relationships. In private law, the balance of power between the parties is overturned which requires public intervention. Traditional private law enforcing institutions are no longer fit to compensate for changes in economic and business life.

„Ubi jus ibi remedium.”
(Ahol az orvoslat, ott a jog.)

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The study presents an aspect of a fair trial as an aspect of human rights and access to justice. However, it takes into account—not in a descriptive way—the economic and social changes that are taking place. As a result of globalization and mass production, changes in the market economy transform the traditional structure of legal relationships. In private law, the balance of power between the parties is overturned which requires public intervention. Traditional private law enforcing institutions are no longer fit to compensate for changes in economic and business life.

„Ubi jus ibi remedium.”
(Ahol az orvoslat, ott a jog.)

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object(Publication)#185 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(25) { ["id"]=> int(2159) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2017-10-31" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2020-05-12 12:16:34" ["sectionId"]=> int(34) ["seq"]=> int(2) ["submissionId"]=> int(2040) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2020) ["issueId"]=> int(155) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "41–58" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(501) "

My research consists of three parts. The central theme is the law harmonization of the Hungarian prostitution law and the New York Convention. The legislation was tested from the top to the lowest level. The relationship between prostitution and the Hungarian law on offenses, and the rules for combating organized crime were the subject of the second part. The searching method (named) comparison helped me realize the differences and the similarities between this and the New York Convention.

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My research consists of three parts. The central theme is the law harmonization of the Hungarian prostitution law and the New York Convention. The legislation was tested from the top to the lowest level. The relationship between prostitution and the Hungarian law on offenses, and the rules for combating organized crime were the subject of the second part. The searching method (named) comparison helped me realize the differences and the similarities between this and the New York Convention.

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The Allied Powers started to negotiate the future of Germany even during World War II. After the capitulation of the Nazi Reich, the forced alliance among the Allies had weakened gradually and finally collapsed. The former allies became enemies at this time and the Cold War began. In the beginning, the occupation policies of the Allies were coordinated; however, the political standoff between the two political blocks resulted in cooperation decreasing to a minimum. The Allies made a widely separate policy in their own zones. The reestablishment of Germany proceeded variously in the occupation zones according to the conceptualization and interests of the Allies.

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The Allied Powers started to negotiate the future of Germany even during World War II. After the capitulation of the Nazi Reich, the forced alliance among the Allies had weakened gradually and finally collapsed. The former allies became enemies at this time and the Cold War began. In the beginning, the occupation policies of the Allies were coordinated; however, the political standoff between the two political blocks resulted in cooperation decreasing to a minimum. The Allies made a widely separate policy in their own zones. The reestablishment of Germany proceeded variously in the occupation zones according to the conceptualization and interests of the Allies.

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A Kúria gyakorlatából

Berkes Bálint
75–91.
object(Publication)#112 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(25) { ["id"]=> int(2164) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2017-10-31" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2020-10-12 16:04:13" ["sectionId"]=> int(34) ["seq"]=> int(4) ["submissionId"]=> int(2045) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2020) ["issueId"]=> int(155) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(7) "75–91" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(939) "

Between 1 June and 1 October 2017, the adjudicating panels of the Curia of Hungary examined the implementation of the following fundamental rights issues: the right to have access to information of public interest [Article VI, paragraph (2) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary], the right to freedom of peaceful assembly (Article VIII of the Fundamental Law of Hungary), the right to freedom of expression [Article IX, paragraph (1) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary), prohibition of discrimination [Article XV, paragraphs (1) and (2) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary], the right to have one’s affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time by the authorities [Article XXIV, paragraph (1) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary], the right to a fair trial [Article XXVIII, paragraph (1) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary], and the right to seek remedy [Article XXVIII, paragraph (7) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary].

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Between 1 June and 1 October 2017, the adjudicating panels of the Curia of Hungary examined the implementation of the following fundamental rights issues: the right to have access to information of public interest [Article VI, paragraph (2) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary], the right to freedom of peaceful assembly (Article VIII of the Fundamental Law of Hungary), the right to freedom of expression [Article IX, paragraph (1) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary), prohibition of discrimination [Article XV, paragraphs (1) and (2) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary], the right to have one’s affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time by the authorities [Article XXIV, paragraph (1) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary], the right to a fair trial [Article XXVIII, paragraph (1) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary], and the right to seek remedy [Article XXVIII, paragraph (7) of the Fundamental Law of Hungary].

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In its Opinion delivered on 26 July 2017 (in Case Opinion 1/15), the Court declared that the agreement envisaged between the European Union and Canada on the transfer of Passenger Name Record (PNR) data may not be concluded in its current form. Although the Court found that the systematic transfer, retention and use of all passenger data, as provided for by the draft agreement, are, in essence, permissible; however, it reached the conclusion that several provisions of this draft agreement do not meet requirements stemming from the fundamental rights of the European Union. First, the Court set out that the provisions on the transfer of sensitive data to Canada and on the processing and retention of such data are incompatible with the fundamental rights. Second, the Court ruled that the use by the Canadian authorities of PNR data during the air passengers’ stay in Canada is not adequately regulated by the draft agreement, which fails to provide for guarantees capable of preventing abuses. Likewise, the continued storage of the PNR data of all air passengers after their departure from Canada which the draft agreement permits is not limited to what is strictly necessary to fight terrorism and serious transnational crimes. Third, the Court considered that a series of other provisions of the draft agreement are incompatible with fundamental rights unless the agreement is revised in order to better delimit and define the interferences. These provisions concern, in particular, definition of PNR data, regulation of automatic treatment of these data, disclosure of PNR data by the Canadian authorities to the government authorities of a non-EU country and information of passengers of the use and disclosure of their data.

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In its Opinion delivered on 26 July 2017 (in Case Opinion 1/15), the Court declared that the agreement envisaged between the European Union and Canada on the transfer of Passenger Name Record (PNR) data may not be concluded in its current form. Although the Court found that the systematic transfer, retention and use of all passenger data, as provided for by the draft agreement, are, in essence, permissible; however, it reached the conclusion that several provisions of this draft agreement do not meet requirements stemming from the fundamental rights of the European Union. First, the Court set out that the provisions on the transfer of sensitive data to Canada and on the processing and retention of such data are incompatible with the fundamental rights. Second, the Court ruled that the use by the Canadian authorities of PNR data during the air passengers’ stay in Canada is not adequately regulated by the draft agreement, which fails to provide for guarantees capable of preventing abuses. Likewise, the continued storage of the PNR data of all air passengers after their departure from Canada which the draft agreement permits is not limited to what is strictly necessary to fight terrorism and serious transnational crimes. Third, the Court considered that a series of other provisions of the draft agreement are incompatible with fundamental rights unless the agreement is revised in order to better delimit and define the interferences. These provisions concern, in particular, definition of PNR data, regulation of automatic treatment of these data, disclosure of PNR data by the Canadian authorities to the government authorities of a non-EU country and information of passengers of the use and disclosure of their data.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["title"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(142) "Opinion of the Court of Justice on the Agreement Envisaged between the European Union and Canada on the Transfer of Passenger Name Record Data" ["hu_HU"]=> string(174) "Az Európai Bíróság véleménye az Európai Unió és Kanada között kötendő, a légi utasok adatainak továbbításáról és kezeléséről szóló megállapodásról" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "hu_HU" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#794 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(2373) ["email"]=> string(19) "noreply@ludovika.hu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(2168) ["seq"]=> int(5) ["userGroupId"]=> int(235) ["country"]=> string(2) "HU" ["orcid"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(9) "Lehóczki" ["hu_HU"]=> string(9) "Lehóczki" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(7) "Balázs" ["hu_HU"]=> string(7) "Balázs" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "hu_HU" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(2) { ["hu_HU"]=> array(4) { [0]=> string(19) "Európai Bíróság" [1]=> string(14) "Európai Unió" [2]=> string(6) "Kanada" [3]=> string(22) "légi utasok adatainak" } ["en_US"]=> array(4) { [0]=> string(16) "Court of Justice" [1]=> string(14) "European Union" [2]=> string(6) "Canada" [3]=> string(26) "Transfer of Passenger Name" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#788 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(6706) ["id"]=> int(1329) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "hu_HU" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(2168) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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object(Publication)#779 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(25) { ["id"]=> int(2170) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2017-10-31" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2020-05-12 12:41:26" ["sectionId"]=> int(34) ["seq"]=> int(6) ["submissionId"]=> int(2051) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2020) ["issueId"]=> int(155) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(8) "99–110" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(1012) "

In the period between 15 March and 31 May 2017 the European Court of Human Rights closed three Hungarian cases with judgment. One of them concerned a lengthy pre-trial detention, the other the parental contact rights after divorce and the third one the just satisfaction awarded to a church deprived of its former full legal status. The review also presents a Chamber inadmissibility decision concerning a complaint about the alleged unavailability of cannabis-based medication in Hungary. As regards the cases against other countries, the subject matters covered by this review are quite various. They include the right to life (in particular in the context of the 2004 Beslan school siege), the prohibition of forced labour, the right to access to a lawyer, mentally disabled persons’ right to selfdetermination, the conditions of changing sexual identity, the obligations to investigate racially motivated crimes and, lastly, the obligations concerning elections and post-voting stages in particular.

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In the period between 15 March and 31 May 2017 the European Court of Human Rights closed three Hungarian cases with judgment. One of them concerned a lengthy pre-trial detention, the other the parental contact rights after divorce and the third one the just satisfaction awarded to a church deprived of its former full legal status. The review also presents a Chamber inadmissibility decision concerning a complaint about the alleged unavailability of cannabis-based medication in Hungary. As regards the cases against other countries, the subject matters covered by this review are quite various. They include the right to life (in particular in the context of the 2004 Beslan school siege), the prohibition of forced labour, the right to access to a lawyer, mentally disabled persons’ right to selfdetermination, the conditions of changing sexual identity, the obligations to investigate racially motivated crimes and, lastly, the obligations concerning elections and post-voting stages in particular.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["title"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(73) "Fundamental Rights Cases—the European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg" ["hu_HU"]=> string(70) "Alapjogi jogesetek – a strasbourgi Emberi Jogok Európai Bírósága" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "hu_HU" ["authors"]=> array(0) { } ["keywords"]=> array(2) { ["hu_HU"]=> array(3) { [0]=> string(18) "Alapjogi jogesetek" [1]=> string(33) "Emberi Jogok Európai Bírósága" [2]=> string(10) "Strasbourg" } ["en_US"]=> array(3) { [0]=> string(24) "Fundamental Rights Cases" [1]=> string(30) "European Court of Human Rights" [2]=> string(10) "Strasbourg" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#792 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(6708) ["id"]=> int(1330) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "hu_HU" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(2170) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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object(Publication)#793 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(25) { ["id"]=> int(2171) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2017-10-31" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2020-05-14 08:14:57" ["sectionId"]=> int(34) ["seq"]=> int(7) ["submissionId"]=> int(2052) ["status"]=> int(3) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2020) ["issueId"]=> int(155) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(49) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(9) "111–136" ["abstract"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(2083) "

The Constitutional Court (CC) made 157 decisions between 1 April and 31 August. From these 157 decisions, there were 38 that examined the petitions on the merits. The CC found legal provisions or ordinary court’s decisions unconstitutional in 8 cases. The CC made 2 decisions in posterior norm control, 18 in judicial initiatives for norm control in concrete cases, and 137 in constitutional complaints. Most of the constitutional complaints submitted to the CC (109 cases) were against judicial decisions. In Decision 7/2017. (IV. 18.) AB, the CC ruled on the petition of the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights, and found a local government decree unconstitutional. The reviewed local government decree banned the religious activities of muezzins, the wearing of burqa, chador, niqab, and any propaganda against traditional marriage. The CC stated that the rules relating to fundamental rights and obligations shall be laid down in Acts. This issue cannot be regulated in local government decrees according to Article I para. 1 of the Fundamental Law. For this reason, the CC found the local government decree unconstitutional. In another case, the CC reviewed the new act on Judicial Enforcement. Provisions of the Act CVII of 2015 prescribed new criteria for bailiffs. According to the new act, bailiffs i.a. should obtain a law degree and can only serve for a specified period of time. This regulation was challenged by 40 complainants, but in Decision 3076/2017. (IV. 28.) AB, the CC rejected all constitutional complaints, and found the provisions to be in accordance with the Fundamental Law. In Decision 12/2017. (VI. 19.) AB, the CC ruled on the petition of the President of the Curia, and found the new provisions of the Act on the National Security Services unconstitutional. The reviewed and annulled provisions stated that professional judges can be subjects of national security check. The CC came to the conclusion that this regulation violated the principles of the separation of powers [Article C) para. 1.] and judicial independence (Article 26 para. 1.).

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The Constitutional Court (CC) made 157 decisions between 1 April and 31 August. From these 157 decisions, there were 38 that examined the petitions on the merits. The CC found legal provisions or ordinary court’s decisions unconstitutional in 8 cases. The CC made 2 decisions in posterior norm control, 18 in judicial initiatives for norm control in concrete cases, and 137 in constitutional complaints. Most of the constitutional complaints submitted to the CC (109 cases) were against judicial decisions. In Decision 7/2017. (IV. 18.) AB, the CC ruled on the petition of the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights, and found a local government decree unconstitutional. The reviewed local government decree banned the religious activities of muezzins, the wearing of burqa, chador, niqab, and any propaganda against traditional marriage. The CC stated that the rules relating to fundamental rights and obligations shall be laid down in Acts. This issue cannot be regulated in local government decrees according to Article I para. 1 of the Fundamental Law. For this reason, the CC found the local government decree unconstitutional. In another case, the CC reviewed the new act on Judicial Enforcement. Provisions of the Act CVII of 2015 prescribed new criteria for bailiffs. According to the new act, bailiffs i.a. should obtain a law degree and can only serve for a specified period of time. This regulation was challenged by 40 complainants, but in Decision 3076/2017. (IV. 28.) AB, the CC rejected all constitutional complaints, and found the provisions to be in accordance with the Fundamental Law. In Decision 12/2017. (VI. 19.) AB, the CC ruled on the petition of the President of the Curia, and found the new provisions of the Act on the National Security Services unconstitutional. The reviewed and annulled provisions stated that professional judges can be subjects of national security check. The CC came to the conclusion that this regulation violated the principles of the separation of powers [Article C) para. 1.] and judicial independence (Article 26 para. 1.).

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