Conceptual Difficulties in the Transformation of Human Rights to the Realm of Artificial Intelligence

doi: 10.32566/ah.2024.2.8


Artificial intelligence has been seeping into various fields of international law for some time, affecting fields such as international humanitarian law – especially regarding the legality of autonomous weapon systems, but also intellectual property law and the legal profession as a whole. A conflicting zone encompassing many subfields is human rights, where an already sensitive subject that is open to debates and interpretation is met with rough questions. For instance, should and could human rights norms be transferred into pre-programmed entities? What relevance can human rights have to a non-human being that has been created, programmed and assembled by humans? Vast regional differences exist between the European, African and Inter-American systems with a lack of coherent structure in the Asia-Pacific region. Our understanding of human rights has also developed substantially over the decades, especially regarding norms on slavery, free speech, the prohibition of discrimination and the rights of women, of disabled persons and indigenous peoples to name a few examples. Furthermore, a vast array of international documents on human rights are political manifestos utilising expressions such as “respecting” and “ensuring” human rights as obligations for members of the international community. Since these provisions deliberately leave a lot of room for interpretation, it seems almost an impossible task to translate them to “binary code”, to a format that is digestible for an artificial entity. The article aims to answer these questions by analysing the abovementioned line of thought and combining it with various attempts at international regulation by states, international organisations as well as non-governmental organisations and think-tanks. The fundamental focus of this paper is to ascertain whether human rights and AI can be made compatible under the current framework of international law at today’s level of development.


artificial intelligence human rights international regulation transfer compatibility

Hogyan kell idézni

Hárs, A. (2024). Conceptual Difficulties in the Transformation of Human Rights to the Realm of Artificial Intelligence. Acta Humana – Emberi Jogi Közlemények, 12(2), 123–135.


ALI, Shaheen Sardar (2007): A Comparative Perspective of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Principles of Islamic Law: Law Reform and Children’s Rights in Muslim Jurisdictions. In Protecting the World’s Children. Impact of the Convention of the Rights of the Child in Diverse Legal Systems. UNICEF – Cambridge University Press, 142–208. Online:

ALETRAS, Nikolaos – TSARAPATSANIS, Dimitrios – PREOŢIUC-PIETRO, Daniel – LAMPOS, Vasileos (2016): Predicting Judicial Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights: A Natural Language Processing Perspective. PeerJ Computer Science, 24 October, 2016. Online:

ALOTABI, Hajed E. (2021): The Challenges of Execution of Islamic Criminal Law in Developing Muslim Countries: An Analysis Based on Islamic Principles and Existing Legal System. Cogent Social Sciences, 7(1), 1–13. Online:

ALSTON, Philip – MÉGRET, Frédéric (2020): Appraising the United Nations Human Rights Regime. In ALSTON, Philip – MÉGRET, Frédéric (eds.): The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Online:

AUST, Anthony (2007): Handbook of International Law. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.

BOSTROM, Nick (2005): A History of Transhumanist Thought. Journal of Evolution and Technology 14(1), 1–30. Online:

BROADBENT, Meredith (2021): What’s Ahead for a Cooperative Regulatory Agenda on Artificial Intelligence? Center for Strategic and International Studies. Online:

BRYSON, Joanna J. – DIAMANTIS, Mihailis E. – GRANT, Thomas D. (2017): Of, For, and By the People: The Legal Lacuna of Synthetic Persons. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 25, 273–291. Online:

BURRI, Thomas (2017): International Law and Artificial Intelligence. German Yearbook of International Law, 60, 91–108. Online:

CAHAI (2019): Council of Europe Ad Hoc Committee on Artificial Intelligence, CM(2019)131 from 11 September 2019 to 31 December 2021. Online:

CATALETA, Maria Stefania (2021): Humane Artificial Intelligence – The Fragility of Human Rights Facing AI. Humane Artificial Intelligence, Working Paper No 2.

COULSON, Noel (1994): A History of Islamic Law. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Online:

ÇALI, Başak – MADSEN, Mikael Rask – VILJOEN, Frans (2018): Comparative Regional Human Rights Regimes: Defining a Research Agenda. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 16(1). Online:

CHESTERMAN, Simon (2020): Artificial Intelligence and the Limits of Legal Personality. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 69(4), 819–844. Online:

European Commission (2021): Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Laying Down Harmonized Rules on Artificial Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence Act) and Amending Certain Union Legislative Acts. Brussels, 21 April 2021, COM(2021) 206 final, 2021/0106(COD). Online:

FJELD, Jessica – ACHTEN, Nele – HILLIGOSS, Hannah – NAGY, Adam Christopher – SRIKUMAR, Madhulika (2020): Principled Artificial Intelligence: Mapping Consensus in Ethical and Rights-based Approaches to Principles for AI. Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society Research. Online:

FLORIDI, Luciano – COWLS, Josh – BELTRAMETTI, Monica – CHATILA, Raja – CHAZERAND, Patrice – DIGNUM, Virginia – LUETGE, Christoph – MADELIN, Robert – PAGALLO, Ugo – ROSSI, Francesca – SCHAFER, Burkhard – VALCKE, Peggy – VAYENA, Effy (2018): AI4People – An Ethical Framework for a Good AI Society: Opportunities, Risks, Principles, and Recommendations. Minds and Machines, 689–707. Online:

FRANKE, Ulrike (2019): Harnessing Artificial Intelligence. European Council on Foreign Relations. Online:

FUKUDA-PARR, Sakiko – GIBBONS, Elizabeth (2021): Emerging Consensus on ‘Ethical AI’: Human Rights Critique of Stakeholder Guidelines. Global Policy, 12(s6), 32–44. Online:

GROMOVA, Elizabeta A. – KONEVA, Natalia S. – TITOVA, Elena V. (2022): Legal Barriers to the Implementation of Digital industry (Industry 4.0) Components and Ways to Overcome them. The Journal of World Intellectual Property, 25(1), 186–205. Online:

HÁRS, András (2022): AI and International Law: Legal Personality and Avenues for Regulation. Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies, 62(4), 320–344. Online:

LIVINGSTON, Steven – RISSE, Mathias (2019): The Future Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Humans and Human Rights, Ethics and International Affairs, 33(2), 151–153. Online:

MEDVEDEVA, Masha – VOLS, Michel – WIELING, Martijn (2020): Using Machine Learning to Predict Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 28, 237–266. Online:

NASH, Lesley (2019): Advancing Artificial Intelligence and Global Society: International Law’s Role in Governing the Advance of Artificial Intelligence. Kentucky Law Journal, 108, 1–15. Online:

OECD (2019): OECD Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence, OECD/LEGAL/0449, 22 May 2019. Online:

OPDERBECK, David W. (2021): Artificial Intelligence, Rights and the Virtues. Washburn Law Journal, 60(3), 470–472.

SANTOW, Edward (2020): Can Artificial Intelligence be Trusted with Our Human Rights? Australian Quarterly, 91(4), 10–17.

SHAW, Malcolm (2003): International Law. Fifth Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

UNESCO (2021): UNESCO Recommendation on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence, No. 61910, 23 November 2021. Online:

United Nations (1948): Universal Declaration of Human Rights. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 217 A (III), Paris, 10 December 1948.

United Nations (1966a): International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Preamble, New York, 16 December 1966, UNTC Reg. No. 14668.

United Nations (1966b): International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Art. 6, New York, 16 December 1966, UNTC Reg. No. 14531.

XU, Ni – WANG, Kung-Jeng (2019): Adopting Robot Lawyer? The Extending Artificial Intelligence Robot Lawyer Technology Acceptance Model for Legal Industry by an Exploratory Study. Journal of Management and Organization, 27(5), 867–885. Online:


Roe v. Wade 410 U.S. 113 (1973) and Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization No. 19-1392 (2022).


Letölthető adat még nem áll rendelkezésre.