Causes and Effects of Uruguay’s Contribution to the United Nations’ Peace Operations

  • Hárs András
doi: 10.32565/aarms.2022.3.4


Latin American States have been ardent defenders of international peace and security for several decades. Preeminent among them is the state of Uruguay, which has contributed a substantial amount of military and police personnel to United Nations peace operations to a degree that cannot be explained by its territory, economic potential, military might or political power. The country was lauded for its efforts in the international community by subsequent secretaries-general of the United Nations. Illustrated by the fact that the small country has provided several force commanders and thousands of personnel, Uruguay is a virtual giant when it comes to contributions to peace operations. The study aims at finding answers to three fundamental questions. Firstly, what kind of tendencies can be observed regarding the contribution of Latin American States and how Uruguay’s actions can be compared to other states in the region. Secondly, what are the causes for such a robust presence. Last but not least, could large-scale contributions also have adverse effects in the form of misconduct and crimes committed by peacekeepers and if that is the case, how can such occurrences be remedied.


Uruguay United Nations peace operations Latin America contribution

How to Cite

Hárs, A. (2023) “Causes and Effects of Uruguay’s Contribution to the United Nations’ Peace Operations”, AARMS – Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science. Budapest, 21(3), pp. 71–83. doi: 10.32565/aarms.2022.3.4.


Abdenur, Adriana Erthal – Giovanna Kuele – Ariane Francisco: Enhancing Peacekeeping Training through Cooperation Lessons from Latin America. Brasilia, Igarapé Institute, 2018.

Al-Jazeera: Uruguay Apologises over Alleged Rape in Haiti. Al-Jazeera, 07 September 2011. Online:

Avezov, Xenia: The New Geopolitics of Peace Operations: A Dialogue with Emerging Powers: South America Regional Dialogue. Journal of International Peacekeeping, 17 (2013). 162–170. Online:

Bellamy, Alex J. – Paul D. Williams: Broadening the Base of United Nations Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries. New York, International Peace Institute, 2012.

Bryson, Joanna J. – Mihailis E. Diamantis – Thomas D. Grant: Of, For, and By the People: The Legal Lacuna of Synthetic Persons. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 25 (2017). 273–291. Online:

Cachanosky, Nicolás – Alexandre Padilla: Latin American Populism in the Twenty-First Century. The Independent Review, 24, no. 2 (2019). 209–226.

Coleman, Katharina P. – Benjamin Nyblade: Peacekeeping for Profit? The Scope and Limits of ‘Mercenary’ UN Peacekeeping. Journal of Peace Research, 55, no. 6 (2018). 726–741. Online:

El Páis: Gobierno anunció el retiro de Uruguay de la Unasur y el reingreso al TIAR [Government Announces Uruguay’s Withdrawal from Unasur and Re-entry into TIAR]. El Páis, 10 March 2020. Online:

Esparza, Diego – Santiago Arca Henon – Hope Dewell Gentry: Peacekeeping and Civil–Military Relations in Uruguay. Defence and Security Analysis, 36, no. 3 (2020). 314–334. Online:

Guyer, Julián González: Punching above Its Weight. Uruguay and UN Peace Operations. In Kai Michael Kenkel (ed.): South America and Peace Operations. Coming of Age. London, Routledge, 2013. 111–131. Online:

Guyer, Julian Gonzalez – Nicole Jenne: Controlling Blue Berets: The Consequences of Political Neglect in the Case of Uruguay’s Participation in Peacekeeping. Armed Forces and Society, 20 (2019). 1–22. Online:

Human Rights Watch: Latin America: Alarming Reversal of Basic Freedoms. 2022. Online:

Kenkel, Kai Michael: Stepping out of the Shadow: South America and Peace Operations. International Peacekeeping, 17, no. 5 (2010). 584–497. Online:

Kernic, Franz – Lisa Karlborg: Dynamics of Globalization and Regional Integration: South America and Peace Operations. International Peacekeeping, 17, no. 5 (2010). 723–736. Online:

Michael, Kobi – Eyal Ben-Ari: Contemporary Peace Support Operations: The Primacy of the Military and Internal Contradictions. Armed Forces and Society, 37, no. 4 (2011). 657-679. Online:

PeaceWomen: Haiti: U.N. “Outraged” at Sexual Abuse by Peacekeepers. IPS, 23 January 2012. Online:

Peláez, Amílcar Andrés: Country Survey XX: Defence Spending and Peacekeeping in Uruguay. Defence and Peace Economics, 18, no. 3 (2007). 281–302. Online:

Phillips, Tom: Bolsonaro Should Be Charged with Crimes against Humanity, Covid Inquiry Finds. The Guardian, 20 October 2021. Online:

Ramalho, Antonio Jorge: Predictable Evolutions, Normative Engagements, and their Implications for South American Countries’ Engagement in Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding Operations. In Eduarda P. Hamann – Robert Muggah (eds.): Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: New Directions for International Peace and Security? Brasilia, Igarapé Institute, 2013. 77–84.

Trinkunas, Harold A.: Crafting Civilian Control of the Military in Venezuela. A Comparative Perspective. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 2011. Online:

United Nations: Charter of the United Nations. San Francisco, 26 June 1945.

White, Hannah: Indigenous Peoples, the International Trend Toward Legal Personhood for Nature and the United States. American Indian Law Review, 43, no. 1 (2018). 129–165.


Download data is not yet available.