Authors’ Styleguides for the Journals Published by Ludovika University Press


I Essential principles

1 The publication should be of benefit to its readers.

2 We do not engage in redundant publication.

3 Authors must take responsibility for the content, equity, accuracy and style of their paper.

4 We consider submissions which are sent according to this guideline.


II General requirements

1 Proposals should be submitted with an abstract, up to ten key-words, as well as author’s affiliation and e-mail address.

2 Only relevant and well-formatted tables and figures can be used, and must be sent in separate files and at the right resolution. If the submitted material contains any table or figure that has not been originated by the author(s) of the proposal, you must get permission to use it from the copyright holder, and have to refer to it.


III Style guide and examples

A Formatting

The proposal must be formed with Times New Roman font type (the body of the text at 12 point font size, footnotes at 10 point), normal margins, single space and justified in a standard, single-column format.

B Structuring

Text should contain a logical sequence of main sections, preceded by a heading. To use sections and sub-sections, you should have at least two of them at any level. Keep headings and sub-headings short. Use sentence-style capitalization.

Praesent ad accumsan velit

John Doe


I          Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet: Consectetur adipiscing elit

Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.1 Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi aliquip ex commodo consequat . . .


A         Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit2


In voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum . . .


(i)        Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis


Iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae sunt . . .


a) Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem


Quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt . . .


b) Integer condimentum mauris ut lacus facilisis iaculis


Praesent sed fermentum neque. Proin porta sagittis tortor sit amet luctus. Suspendisse ut gravida sem. Quisque vestibulum et neque condimentum, vitae efficitur dolor pretium . . .


(ii)       Neque porro quisquam est


Qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem . . .


B         Suspendisse vulputate consectetur nunc vitae suscipit


Quisque efficitur vestibulum pellentesque. Phasellus tempor massa purus, vitae viverra orci ultricies at. Morbi nibh nisi, molestie id rutrum eu, efficitur ut arcu . . .



II         Nunc nec ex interdum, blandit lacus imperdiet, bibendum ex


Nullam lobortis, nulla sed accumsan ornare, est arcu scelerisque nisi, sed malesuada mi turpis in purus. Morbi scelerisque dui fringilla volutpat ultricies . . .


1 Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur?

2 Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur?




Punctuation follows the closing quotation mark, unless the whole sentence is a quotation. The footnote marker comes last. If you add emphasis to a quotation, put ‘(emphasis added)’ into the footnote.

Incorporate quotations of up to five lines into the text, within single quotation marks. Quotations longer than five lines should be in indented paragraphs; leave additional line spacing above and below indented quotes. For quotations within short quotations, use double quotation marks.


Either directly or indirectly citing any source, put the reference in footnote. Do not use endnotes.

David Hume, in the section Of the Origin of Our Ideas of A Treatise of Human Nature, wrote that


All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions: and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul.1


Shortly after this definition, starting to prove the precedency of our impressions or ideas,2 he put that ‘our ideas are images of our impressions, so we can form secondary ideas, which are images of the primary’.2 Arguing that […]


1 David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature (London: John Noon, 1739), 1.

2 Ibid. 6 (emphasis added).


First note:

1 John Dewey, Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (New York: Henry Holt, 1938).

2 Jean-Pierre Changeux and Paul Ricoeur, Ce qui nous fait penser – la nature et la règle (Paris: Odile Jacob, 1998), 14–34.

3 Klaus Wettig (ed.), »Ich wohne nicht in stehenden Gewässern«. Der politische Günter Grass (Göttingen: Steidl, 2018), 120–21.

4 Christoph E Düllmann et alii (eds), Nuclear Physics A: Special Issue on Superheavy Elements (Oxford: Elsevier 2015), 13, 23, 79–101.


Subsequent notes:

11 Dewey, Logic, 123.

12 Changeux and Ricoeur, Ce qui nous fait penser.

13 Düllmann, Nuclear Physics A, 74–76.

Chapters and other parts of edited books:

First note:

1 Clinton Tolley, ‘Hegel’s Conception of Thinking in His Logics’, in Logic from Kant to Russell: Laying the Foundations for Analytic Philosophy, ed. by Sandra Lapointe (New York: Routledge, 2019).


Subsequent notes:

7 Tolley, ‘Hegel’s Conception of Thinking’, 84.

Journal articles:

First note:

1 Louis D Brandeis and Samuel D Warren, ‘The Right to Privacy’, Harvard Law Review 4, no 5 (1890), 193–220.

2 Karl Schlieker, ‘Lufttaxis gewinnen an Flughöhe’, Allgemeine Zeitung, November 29, 2019.


Subsequent notes:

4 Brandeis and Warren, ‘The Right to Privacy’, 201.

5 Schlieker, ‘Lufttaxis’.

Online works:

First note:

1 Sophia Chen, ‘Physicists Take Their Closest Look Yet at an Antimatter Atom’, Wired, February 19, 2020,


Subsequent notes:

2 Chen, ‘Physicists’.

If a paper you are linking to has an associated Digital Object Identifier (DOI), please use the address to link to it instead of the publisher's address.


Citing cases in the body text, at first, use the ‘Doe v Wade’ form, later on, an unambiguous short version is enough (‘in Wade’). In footnotes, when it is first mentioned, give the name of the case in full – thereafter it may be shortened, but provide a cross-citation in brackets to the footnote in which the full citation can be found. Do not forget to give the law report and page or paragraph number.

1 Virginia v Black 538 US 343 (2003).

. . .

14 Virginia (n 1) 345.

Citing sources of law, use full forms in the body text (for example, Article 8 and Section 9(1)(a) of Human Rights Act 1998), and abbreviations in footnotes (Human Rights Act 1998, art. 8 and s. 9(1)(a)).

R v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2000] AC 115

Connolly v Director of Public Prosecutions [2007] EWHC 237

Hill v Great Tey Primary School [2013] ICR 691

Smith Kline & French Laboratories (Australia) Ltd v Secretary to the Department of Community Services and

London Artists Ltd v Littler [1969] 2 All ER 193

Rofe v Smith’s Newspapers Ltd [1924] 25 SR (NSW) 4

Australian Broadcasting Corp. v O’Neill [2006] HCA 46

Abrams v. United States 250 US 616 (1919)

Lingens v Austria (1986) 8 EHRR 407

Health (1990) 22 FCR 73

Burnett v National Enquirer, Inc. 144 Cal. App. 3d 991 (1983)


Schenck v United States 249 US 47, 52 (1919)

R (on the application of ProLife Alliance) v British Broadcasting Corporation [2003] UKHL 23, [91]


Case C-154/19 Kypriaki Kentriki Archi v GA (ECLI:EU:C:2019:888)


Von Hannover v Germany no 59320/00

Von Hannover v Germany (No 2) nos 40660/08 and 60641/08


Arrêt n°1113 du 19 décembre 2019 (18-25.113)

BVerfGE 120

Cass. civ. 13 aprile 2000, n. 4790



Footnotes can be a form of citation or can provide relevant additional information. Indicate footnotes with a superscript number which should appear after the relevant punctuation in the text – for the clarity, it can also be put directly after the word or phrase to which it relates. If a subsequent citation immediately follows, use ‘Ibid.’ Separate citations with semi-colons. Pinpoints to pages come at the end of the citation. If the page numbers have the same hundreds or thousands digit, do not repeat it when listing the final page in the range. Close footnotes with a full stop. Italicise titles of books – all other titles should be within single quotation marks and in roman. Capitalise the first letter in all major words in a title. Footnotes must contain all available data of the cited sources. Do not insert ‘at’, ‘page’, ‘p’ or ‘pp’, and avoid ‘ff’. Use ‘Press’ referring to university publishing houses (for example, Edinburgh University Press).

1 Henry Petroski, To Engineer Is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design (New York: St. Martin’s, 1985); Henry Petroski, Design Paradigms: Case Histories of Error and Judgment in Engineering (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994); Tom Jackson (ed.), Engineering: An Illustrated History from Ancient Craft to Modern Technology (New York: Shelter Harbor, 2016).

2 Simon Winchester, The Perfectionists: How Precision Engineers Created the Modern World (New York: Harper Perennial, 2019).

3 Ibid. 74.

4 Petroski, Design Paradigms, 122–34.

5 Petroski, To Engineer Is Human, 27.

6 Winchester, The Perfectionists, 76.



For laying emphasis on a word or some words, use italics. Avoid over-emphasis. Italicise foreign words and phrases as well, but not quotations and words that are in common usage in English. Referring to foreign terms, next to the English translation, provide the original expression in brackets.

The being-in-the-world (in der Welt-Sein) . . .

The expression ‘general rule’ (à la règle générale) . . .

Everyday autarky (αὐτάρκεια) in this context means . . .



Lists with less than five items preferably should be in paragraph format, and marked with numbers ((1); (2); (3); (4)). If necessary, use vertical lists with en dashes instead of bullets. Put  a  period  at  the  end  of  items  in  a  vertical  list  only  if  the  items  are  complete  sentences. Otherwise, omit terminal periods, even for the last item, and do not capitalise the first words.


Punctuation and abbreviation

Use as little punctuation as possible. Abbreviations and initials in authors’ names do not take full stops. Nevertheless, mentioning for the first time, full names should be used at first.

Cass R Sunstein, in his paper The Power of the Normal, analyses the stigmatisation by categorisation as well. He, like Erving Goffmann, uses these words . . .

Sunstein argues that . . .


The European Union (EU) is an international organisation comprising 27 European countries. Originally, the EU confined to western Europe . . .

Contractions ending with the same letter as the original word do not take terminal full stops (Mr, edn), but abbreviations where the last letter of the word is not included do (ch., ed.) – except the abbreviated forms of ‘versus’ and ‘note’. The abbreviations ‘etc.’, ‘i.e.’ and ‘e.g.’ should be replaced by ‘and so on’, ‘that is’ and ‘for example’.

article, articles                        art., arts

chapter, chapters                    ch., chs

number, numbers                   no, nos

paragraph, paragraphs           para., paras

part, parts                               pt, pts

section, sections                     s., ss

Commas should be omitted before the final ‘and’ and ‘or’ in lists unless they help understanding.

Introducing a span or range with words, do not use the en dash. Use en dash reporting contest scores or results, and between words representing conflict, connection or direction.

Omissions should be indicated by ellipsis, in which each dot should be separated from its neighbour by a non-breaking space (. . .). If the omission comes at the end of a sentence, use a full stop and an ellipsis.

Winston Churchill in his historic speech, ‘We Shall Fight on the Beaches’, said that

That was the prospect a week ago. . . . The King of the Belgians had called upon us to come to his aid. Had not this Ruler and his Government severed themselves from the Allies, who rescued their country from extinction in the late war, . . .  the French and British Armies might well at the outset have saved not only Belgium but perhaps even Poland.



Instead of using % symbol, write ‘per cent’.

Use & symbol only if it is a legacy, for example, in titles and names (William & Mary Quarterly, Simon & Schuster).