Public Governance, Administration and Finances Law Review

About journal

Public Governance, Administration and Finances Law Review (PGAF LR) is a peer-reviewed journal committed to the facilitation of an interdisciplinary discourse on matters appertaining to Central and Eastern European public administration, public policy, and political sciences broadly conceived. The Journal publishes articles on all facets of public administration, public policy, and public management both within the region and with other parts of the world


object(Publication)#937 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(27) { ["id"]=> int(5919) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-12-01 12:19:22" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7245) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["submissionId"]=> int(5795) ["status"]=> int(1) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3619) "Brems, E. et al. (2014). The Belgian “burqa ban” confronted with insider realities. In E. Brems (Ed.), The Experiences of Face Veil Wearers in Europe and the Law (pp. 77–114). Cambridge University Press. Online: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415591 Edwards, S. S. M. (2014). No Burqas We’re French! The Wide Margin of Appreciation and the ECtHR Burqa Ruling. Denning Law Journal, 26, 246–260. Online: https://doi.org/10.5750/dlj.v26i0.931 Gabriel, S. (2014, May 14). Unsere politischen Konsequenzen aus der Google-Debatte. FAZ. Giles, B. (2017, August 23). Legislator to draft law to unmask protesters he compares to Ku Klux Klan. Arizona Capitol Times. Online: https://bit.ly/3kOWtok Johnson, J. H. (2001). Versailles, meet Les Halles: Masks, carnival, and the French Revolution. Representations, (73), 89–116. Online: https://doi.org/10.1525/rep.2001.73.1.89 Judkis, M. (2017, August 14). Charlottesville White Nationalist Demonstrator Loses Job at a Libertarian Hot Dog Shop. The Washington Post. Online: https://wapo.st/3DsRe5b Kahn, R. (2019a). The Long Road Back to Skokie: Returning the First Amendment to Mask Wearers. Brooklyn Journal of Law and Policy, 28 (1), 71–149. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3451477 Kahn, R. (2019b). Mask bans as expressions of memory politics in the United States. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3434689 Kahn, R. (2020). Masks, culture wars, and public health expertise: Confessions of a mask “expert”. University of St. Thomas Legal Studies, Working Paper, No. 20-08. Online: https://bit.ly/32i35W4 Kahn, R. (2021). “My face, my choice?” Mask mandates, bans, and burqas in the COVID age. New York University Journal of Law and Liberty, 14 (3), 651–708. Kahn, R. A. (2011). Are Muslims the new Catholics? Europe’s headscarf laws in comparative political perspective. University of St. Thomas Legal Studies, Working Paper, No. 20-08. Kashmir, J. (2020, January 18). The secretive company that may end privacy as we know it. The New York Times, updated 18 March 2021. Online: https://nyti.ms/32gMQbP Lawrence, C. V. et al. (2020). Masking up: A COVID-19 face-off between anti-mask laws and mandatory mask orders for black Americans. California Law Review, 11, 479–516. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3695257 Mastrangelo, D. (2021, April 27). Tucker Carlson: “Contact child protective services” if you see kids wearing masks outdoors. The Hill. Online: https://bit.ly/3nuKk9U Mechoulan, S. (2018). The case against the face-veil: A European perspective. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 16 (4), 1267–1292. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/moy099 Michaels, R. (2018). Banning burqas: The perspective of postsecular comparative law. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 28, 213–245. Mitsutoshi H. (2014). Why Do the Japanese Wear Masks. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies, 14 (2). Shakargy, S. (2020). You name it: On the cross-border regulation of names. American Journal of Comparative Law, 68 (3), 647–688. Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcl/avaa026 Skinner-Thompson, S. (2017). Performative privacy. University of California Davis Law Review, 50 (4), 1673–1740. Solove, D. J., & Schwarz, P. M. (Eds.) (2017). Information Privacy Law. Aspen. Strucke, J. (2006, October 6). Straw: “I’d rather no one wore veils”. The Guardian. Online: https://bit.ly/3qSsTlK Westin, A. (1967). Privacy and Freedom. Atheneum. Whitman, J. Q. (2004). The two Western cultures of privacy: Dignity versus liberty. Yale Law Journal, 113, 1151–1221. Online: https://doi.org/10.2307/4135723" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "1-14" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.2" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(922) "

The “living together” concept poses a puzzle. Why did Europeans decide that life in a modern democracy requires showing one’s face? One explanation is opposition to Muslims and Islam. But the enforcement of face veil bans against non-religious mask wearing raises doubts. This essay poses an alternative explanation. What if the face veil bans persist because of European conceptions of privacy? Von Hannover v. Germany held that one be private in public. Given this, why wear a mask? What is there to hide? To explore this idea, the essay turns to the United States, where one cannot be “private in public” and mask wearing has been opposed on narrow grounds such as public security and the content of specific masks. At the same time, the United States respects the decisional privacy of someone to wear a mask even for “irrational” reasons, something the “living together” idea tends to ignore.

" } ["copyrightHolder"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(11) "Robert Kahn" } ["subtitle"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(35) "What’s Privacy Got to Do with It?" } ["title"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(47) "Masks, Face Veil Bans and “Living Together”" } ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["authors"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(Author)#930 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(7245) ["email"]=> string(19) "rakahn@stthomas.edu" ["includeInBrowse"]=> bool(true) ["publicationId"]=> int(5919) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["userGroupId"]=> int(286) ["country"]=> string(2) "US" ["orcid"]=> string(37) "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7246-9252" ["url"]=> string(0) "" ["affiliation"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(23) "Saint Thomas University" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["biography"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" ["hu_HU"]=> string(0) "" } ["familyName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(4) "Kahn" ["hu_HU"]=> string(4) "Kahn" } ["givenName"]=> array(2) { ["en_US"]=> string(6) "Robert" ["hu_HU"]=> string(6) "Robert" } ["preferredPublicName"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(0) "" } ["submissionLocale"]=> string(5) "en_US" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } ["keywords"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> array(5) { [0]=> string(5) "masks" [1]=> string(10) "face veils" [2]=> string(16) " living together" [3]=> string(7) "privacy" [4]=> string(23) "Von Hannover v. Germany" } } ["subjects"]=> array(0) { } ["disciplines"]=> array(0) { } ["languages"]=> array(0) { } ["supportingAgencies"]=> array(0) { } ["galleys"]=> array(1) { [0]=> object(ArticleGalley)#924 (7) { ["_submissionFile"]=> NULL ["_data"]=> array(9) { ["submissionFileId"]=> int(20637) ["id"]=> int(4739) ["isApproved"]=> bool(false) ["locale"]=> string(5) "en_US" ["label"]=> string(3) "PDF" ["publicationId"]=> int(5919) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["urlPath"]=> string(0) "" ["urlRemote"]=> string(0) "" } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(true) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) } } } ["_hasLoadableAdapters"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataExtractionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_extractionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) ["_metadataInjectionAdapters"]=> array(0) { } ["_injectionAdaptersLoaded"]=> bool(false) }
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object(Publication)#928 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(5918) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["datePublished"]=> string(10) "2021-11-30" ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-11-30 15:13:28" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7244) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["submissionId"]=> int(5794) ["status"]=> int(1) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(2891) "Aougab, T. et al. (2020). Letter to American Mathematics Society Notices: Boycott collaboration to police. Online: https://bit.ly/312vLls Calo, R. (2018). Artificial Intelligence Policy: A Primer and Roadmap. University of Bologna Law Review, 3 (2), 180–218. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3015350 Chalmers, D. (2010). The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17 (9–10), 7–65. Davidson, R. (2019, August 8). Automated Threat Detection and the Future of Policing. US FBI Bulletin. Deeks, A. S. (2018). Predicting Enemies. Virginia Law Review, 104 (8). First Report of the Axon Artificial Intelligence and Policing Technology Ethics Board, June 2019. Franke, K. & Srihari, S. N. (2007, August 29–31). Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security. Online: https://doi.org/10.1109/IAS.2007.84 Gotterbarn, D., Miller, K. & Rogerson, S. (1997). Software engineering code of ethics. Communications of the ACM, 40 (11), 110–118. Online: https://doi.org/10.1145/265684.265699 Gouvernement de France (2020, June 17). Launch of the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence. Online: https://bit.ly/3r6jxTz Keneally, E. et al. (2012, August 3). The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communication Technology Research. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2445102 Makker, S. R. (2017). Overcoming “Foggy” Notions of Privacy: How Data Minimization Will Enable Privacy in the Internet of Things. UMKC Law Review, 85 (4), 895–915. Office of the Inspector General (2019, June 12). Review of Selected Los Angeles Police Department Data-Driver Policing Strategies. Online: https://bit.ly/3cIfEvJ O’Neil, C. (2016). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Crown Publishing. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2020, June 15). OCED to host Secretariat of new Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence. Online: https://bit.ly/3l89BFl Uberti, D. (2020, June 1). Algorithms Used in Policing Face Policy Review. Artificial Intelligence Daily, Wall Street Journal. Yampolskiy, R. V. (2012a). Leakproofing the Singularity Artificial Intelligence Confinement Problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19 (1–2), 194–214. Yampolskiy, R. V. (2012b). Artificial Intelligence Safety Engineering: Why Machine Ethics Is a Wrong Approach. In V. C. Müller (Ed.), Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence (pp. 389–396). Springer. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31674-6_29 Yampolskiy, R. V. & Fox, J. (2013). Safety Engineering for Artificial General Intelligence. Topoi, 32 (2), 217–226. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11245-012-9128-9 Yemini, M. (2018). The New Irony of Free Speech. Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, 20 (1). Online: https://doi.org/10.7916/stlr.v20i1.4769" ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "1-14" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.3" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(566) "

Pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence offer tremendous opportunities for efficient operations, management and governance. They can optimise processes for object, text, graphics, speech and pattern recognition. In doing so the algorithmic processing may be subject to unknown biases that do harm rather than good. We examine how this may happen, what damage may occur and the resulting ethical/legal impact and newly manifest obligations to avoid harm to others from these systems. But what are the risks, given the Human Condition?

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object(Publication)#910 (6) { ["_data"]=> array(26) { ["id"]=> int(5920) ["accessStatus"]=> int(0) ["lastModified"]=> string(19) "2021-12-01 12:38:15" ["primaryContactId"]=> int(7246) ["sectionId"]=> int(31) ["seq"]=> int(0) ["submissionId"]=> int(5796) ["status"]=> int(1) ["version"]=> int(1) ["categoryIds"]=> array(0) { } ["citationsRaw"]=> string(3919) "American Civil Liberties Union (2021). 2019 Proved We Can Stop Face Recognition Surveillance. Online: https://bit.ly/3oHLNJB Amsterdam, A. G. (1974). Perspectives on the Fourth Amendment. Minnesota Law Review, 58, 349–477. Basha, R. M. (2003). Kyllo v. United States: The Fourth Amendment triumphs over technology. Brandeis L. J., 41, 939. BBC (2010, October 13). 7 July bombers spotted on CCTV after exhaustive hunt. Online: www.bbc.com/news/uk-11534951 Bennett, W. C. (2014). Civilian drones, privacy, and the federal-state balance. The Brookings Institution. Online: https://brook.gs/3cv40UM Blakley, A. F., Garrie, D. B., & Armstrong, M. J. (2005). Coddling spies: Why the law doesn’t adequately address computer spyware. Duke Law & Technology Review, 25 (1). Broberg, J. (2001). From CALEA to Carnivore: How Uncle Sam Conscripted Private Industry in Order to Wiretape Digital Telecommunications. North Dakota Law Review, 77 (4), 795–825. CB Insights (2020, January 9). 38 ways drones will impact society: From fighting war to forecasting weather, UAVs change everything. Online: https://bit.ly/3kTEDR8 CNN (2020, June 18). 7 July 2005 London Bombings Fast Facts. Online: https://cnn.it/3qQOI5f Collins, T. (2019, December 23). Facial recognition: Do you really control how your face is being used? USA Today. Electronic Privacy Information Center (s. a.). Next Generation Identification – FBI. Online: https://epic.org/privacy/fbi/ngi.html Foley, J. (2007). Are Google searches private? An originalist interpretation of the Fourth Amendment in online communication cases. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 22 (1), 447–475. Greenberg, A. (2010, September 9). Scanner vans allow drive-by snooping. Forbes. Online: https://bit.ly/3cvMlMV Harwell, D., & Timberg, C. (2021, April 2). How America’s surveillance networks helped the FBI catch the Capitol mob. The Washington Post. Online: https://wapo.st/3qRN57j Higgins, H. (2020, January 20). Search and rescue teams use drone to help injured hiker in Southern Utah. Fox 13. Online: https://bit.ly/3cpiq98 Human Rights Watch (s. a.). Mass Surveillance in China. Online: https://bit.ly/3DywxVw IFSEC Global (2021). Role of CCTV Cameras: Public, Privacy and Protection. Online: https://bit.ly/3kQ5VYN Kelly, H. (2013, April 26). After Boston: The pros and cons of surveillance cameras. CNN Business. Online: https://cnn.it/2Z0xff4 Laperruque, J., & Janovsky, D. (2018, September 25). These police drones are watching you. Project on Government Oversight. Online: https://bit.ly/30EaWw8 O’Brien, S. (2020, March 9). Time to face up to Big Brother. New Haven Independent. Online: https://bit.ly/3qQBe9C Orwell, G. (1949). Nineteen Eighty-Four. Secker & Warburg. Peters, J. (2020, June 8). IBM will no longer offer, develop, or research facial recognition technology. The Verge. Online: https://bit.ly/3x13Q0S Plautz, J. (2019, September 23). Six US cities top list of world’s most surveilled. Smart Cities Dive. Online: https://bit.ly/3x4zo5X Romero, D. (2018, December 4). NYPD to deploy drone fleet, stoking fears of Big Brother. U.S. News. Online: https://nbcnews.to/3Hy3gN4 Slobogin, Ch. (2002). Public Privacy: Camera Surveillance of Public Places and the Right to Anonymity. Mississippi Law Journal, 72, 213–299. Online: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.364600 Sullivan, G. P. (2013, July 9). Big Brother’s tracking shines light on emerging facial recognition technology. Forbes. Online: https://bit.ly/3oIp7sx Temple-Raston, D., & Smith, R. (2007, July 8). U.S. Eyes U.K.’s Surveillance Cameras. National Public Radio. Online: https://n.pr/3cufOqo Weaver, R. L. (2019). From Gutenberg to the Internet: Free Speech, Advancing Technology and the Implications for Democracy. 2nd ed. Carolina Academic Press. Weaver, R. L. (2011). The James Otis Lecture: The Fourth Amendment, Privacy and Advancing Technology. Mississippi Law Journal, 80, 1131–1227." ["copyrightYear"]=> int(2021) ["licenseUrl"]=> string(43) "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" ["pages"]=> string(4) "1-13" ["pub-id::doi"]=> string(24) "10.53116/pgaflr.2021.2.5" ["abstract"]=> array(1) { ["en_US"]=> string(1043) "

Over the centuries, new forms of surveillance technology have emerged. At the founding of the U.S., the government did not have sophisticated spying and surveillance technologies at its disposal. In the eighteenth century, the police might have tried to eavesdrop on their fellow citizens in taverns or other public settings, or they might have listened outside a suspect’s window. However, without the advanced technologies that exist today, the opportunities for successful eavesdropping were very limited. Today, surveillance technologies have gone high tech, creating Orwellian possibilities for snooping. As one commentator observed as far back as 1974, “rapid technological advances and the consequent recognition of the ‘frightening paraphernalia which the vaunted marvels of an electronic age may visit upon human society’ have underlined the possibility of worse horrors yet to come”. This article examines how the U.S. courts are dealing with three different types of technology: CCTV, facial recognition and drones.

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The most significant project of governmental HRM after 2010 has been the “Strategic Support for Succession Planning in a Competitive Civil Service”. The name of the project underlines the focus placed on enhancing competitiveness and ensuring a sustainable, continuous supply of the workforce. Neither can be pursued without data-driven HR planning, so having an HRM decision support system in place is a critical element of the improvement. This study aims to address the issue of optimal headcount with regard to both domestic and foreign context, emphasise the importance of strategic HR planning and explore its results abroad. It suggests that by establishing the new HRM system, Hungary may become a country at the forefront of public service HRM and digitalisation.

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6. Volume, 1. Number | 2021