“From Top to Toe”: Choosing the Appropriate Training Method

  • Horváth Ferenc
doi: 10.32561/nsz.2022.3.4


Education is an investment in the future. An investment is only good if it pays off, and education is only effective if the resources used to result in the necessary increase in knowledge and competence. It is easy to make the mistake of investing less energy than necessary in choosing the appropriate training methods, which ultimately fails to have the desired impact. It is especially important in professions where theoretical knowledge must be converted into practice, such as in national security activity. The present study proposes a method to help adult education providers assess the depth of training methods that need to be deployed to achieve a given type of training outcome to avoid wasting money and energy on training. The essence of the idea is that a form of training can only be truly successful if it works through all the physical and psychological processes that are relevant to the actual manifestation of the knowledge, skills and competencies to be acquired. In this paper, I will review which nervous system levels may be involved in information processing and which training methods can be used to involve them in the learning process. 


training methodology competence development situational learning learning


Atkinson, Rita L., Bem, Daryl J., Renner, Michael, Atkinson, Richard C., Smith, Edwin: Introduction to Psychology, 12th edition, Harcourt Press, 1996, ISBN10: 0155015540 ISBN13: 97801550155489780155436886.

Carroll, John B. (ed.): Language, Thought, and Reality. Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1956.

Damasio, Antonio R. – Daniel Tranel – Hanna C. Damasio: Somatic Markers and the Guidance of Behavior: Theory and Preliminary Testing. In Harvey S. Levin – Howard

M. Eisenberg – Arthur L. Benton (eds.): Frontal Lobe Function and Dysfunction. Oxford – New York, Oxford University Press, 1991. 217–229.

Damasio, Antonio R.: Descartes’ Error. New York, Avon Books, 1994. ISBN 0-380-72647-5

Forgács, József P.: A társas érintkezés pszichológiája. Budapest, Kairosz, 1996.

Greene, Joshua D. – Leigh E. Nystrom – Andrew D. Engell – John M. Darley – Jonathan D. Cohen: The Neural Bases of Cognitive Conflict and Control in Moral Judgment. Neuron, 44, no. 2 (2004). 389–400. Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09.027

MacLean, Paul D.: Man and His Animal Brains. Modern Medicine, 32 (1964). 95–106.

MacLean, Paul D.: Alternative Neural Pathways to Violence. In Larry Ng (ed.): Alternatives to Violence. New York, Time-Life Books, 1968. McMillan, Beverly: Illustrated Atlas of the Human Body, Weldon Owen Pty Ltd, Sydney, 2008, ISBN 10:1740896483, ISBN 13:9781740896481.

Mérő, László: Észjárások. A racionális gondolkodás korlátai és a mesterséges intelligencia. Budapest, Tericum, 1997.

Mérő, László: Észjárások – Remix. A racionális gondolkodás ereje és korlátai. Budapest, Tericum, 2008.

Mérő, László: Az érzelmek logikája. Budapest, Tericum, 2010.

Osgood, Charles E. – William H. May – Murray S. Miron: Cross-Cultural Universals of Affective Meaning. Urbana, IL, University of Illinois Press, 1975.

Panksepp, Jaak: Affective Neuroscience. The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford – New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.

Schachter, Stanley – Jerome Singer: Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State. Psychological Review, 69, no. 5 (1962). 379–399. Online: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0046234

Scharle, Péter: A kognitív pszichológia sémafogalma és a többciklusú felsőoktatási képzés szintjei. Magyar Tudomány, 49 (111), no. 7 (2004). 743–753.


Letölthető adat még nem áll rendelkezésre.