Comparison of the Protection of Critical Healthcare Infrastructures in Germany and Hungary

doi: 10.32567/hm.2023.4.7


In 2008, the European Union regulated the basics of the protection of critical infrastructures in a directive. The Member States therefore had to ensure that – in addition to the freedom of the method and means of implementation – the provisions of the directive were transposed into their national legal order. Accordingly, some Member States may define different detailed rules. The detailed rules related to the protection of critical infrastructures (e.g. the designation thresholds) are not public in several Member States, but in Germany and Hungary they have been recorded at the legislative level. In my study, I compare the rules related to the protection of critical healthcare infrastructures, including inpatient care institutions, primarily based on legal sources and the experiences of my study tour in Germany, from the selection criteria system to crisis planning. The good practices resulting from the differences and similarities to be discovered can help to revise and standardise the rules and practices related to the protection of critical health infrastructures.


critical infrastructure vital system health crisis situation operator security hospital safety

Hogyan kell idézni

Mészáros, I. (2024). Comparison of the Protection of Critical Healthcare Infrastructures in Germany and Hungary. Hadmérnök, 18(4), 97–107.


Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe (BBK) (2020): Handbuch Krankenhausalarm- und -einsatzplanung (KAEP). Online:

Bundesministerium des Innern (2011): Schutz Kritischer Infrastrukturen – Risiko- und Krisenmanagement. Online:

Bundesministerium des Innern und für Heimat (2023): Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Umsetzung der CER-Richtlinie und zur Stärkung der Resilienz kritischer Anlagen. 28 June, 2023. Online:

CIMER, Zsolt et al. (2021): Application of Chemical Monitoring and Public Alarm Systems to Reduce Public Vulnerability to Major Accidents Involving Dangerous Substances. Symmetry, 13(8), 1528. Online:

Deutschen Krankenhausgesellschaft (2017): Krankenhäuser als kritische Infrastrukturen –Umsetzungshinweise der Deutschen Krankenhausgesellschaft. Online:

ÉRCES, Gergő et al. (2023): Fire Safety in Smart Cities in Hungary With Regard to Urban Planning. IDRiM Journal, 13(2), 104–128. Online:

KÁTAI-URBÁN, Lajos – MÉSZÁROS, István – VASS, Gyula (2019): Iparbiztonság, válsághelyzeti tervezés. In MAJOR, László (ed.): A katasztrófa-készenlét, a reagálás és a beavatkozásbiztonság egészségügyi alapjai. Budapest: Semmelweis, 48–83.

MÉSZÁROS, István (2023). The Evolution of the Normative Regulation in Hospital Safety and Security. Hadmérnök, 18(1), 43–57. Online:

Legal references

Act CLIV of 1997 on healthcare

Act CLXVI of 2012 on the identification, designation and protection of essetial systems and facilities

Act L of 2013 on the electronic information security of state and local government bodies

Act on the Federal Office for Information Security – BSIG

Commission of the European Communities (2005): Green Paper on the European Program for the Protection of European Critical Infrastructures. COM (2005) 576 final.

Decree for determining critical infrastructures according to the BSI-Act – BSI-KritisV

European Council Directive 2008/114/EC (December 8, 2008) on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection

European Parliament and Council Directive 2022/2557 on the resilience of critical organisations and the repeal of Council Directive 2008/114/EC (CER Directive)

Government Decree 65/2013 (8.III.) on the implementation of the Act CLXVI of 2012 on the identification, designation and protection of essential systems and facilities

Government Decree 521/2013 (30.XII.) on health crisis care

Government Decree 246/2015 (8.IX.) on the identification, designation and protection of essential healthcare systems and facilities

Decree 43/2014. (19.VIII.) of the Ministry of Human Resources on the content requirements of the health crisis plans of health institutions and on the amendment of certain ministerial decrees on health matters