Tribal Conflict over Natural Resources on the Sudan – South Sudan Border: The Case of the Abyei Territory
This paper explores the major causes, processes and consequences of natural resource conflicts between tribes across the Sudan – South Sudan border region, with the main emphasis on the Abyei territory. Data for the study have been gathered from primary and secondary sources. The research revealed that the conflict over ownership of Abyei’s renewable and non-renewable resources has evolved as a contentious issue between Sudan and South Sudan. The situation was complicated by the relationship of the Humr Misseriya and Ngok Dinka and their governments, respectively. Moreover, lack of agreement about who should be considered a resident of Abyei derailed a referendum on the territory’s status. The government of Sudan and Humr Misseriya have not yet accepted all proposals and agreements for resolving the conflict. Despite the fact that there are new and positive political developments between the two countries, mainly in 2019–2020, these have not been extended to the settlement of the final status of Abyei. For a durable peace in the Abyei region and its environment, both governments need to work toward realising mutual benefits based on the agreed principles and proposals stipulated in the Abyei Protocol of 2004–2005 and the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel of 2012.