The Role of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: A Civil–Military Cooperation (CIMIC) Perspective
Copyright (c) 2023 Effendi Stephanus Yusuf Tri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The copyright to this article is transferred to the University of Public Service Budapest, Hungary (for U.S. government employees: to the extent transferable) effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.
The author warrants that this contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors.
An author may make an article published by University of Public Service available on a personal home page provided the source of the published article is cited and University of Public Service is mentioned as copyright holder
This paper scrutinises the assimilation of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia – TNI) into civilian structures to shape a harmonised civil–military cooperation (CIMIC) in post-conflict peacebuilding initiatives. Acting as a crucial state apparatus, the TNI confronts a spectrum of threats, upholds national integrity, and follows Law No. 34/2004 by promoting soft power in non-combative military operations. Notwithstanding concerns raised by peace activists regarding potential human rights breaches during armed interventions, peacebuilding heavily depends on trust-building, which is a key catalyst for stakeholder cooperation. In contradiction to activists’ apprehensions, 2022 surveys reveal an impressive public trust level of around 93% towards the TNI. This robust public confidence sets a promising stage for the active engagement of the TNI in peacebuilding. To ensure effective participation, the TNI must demonstrate human rights commitment and adaptability to civilian protocols and guarantee non-repressive methodologies in peace missions. Leveraging its soft power, the TNI can cultivate productive alliances with civil institutions via joint ventures under civilian supremacy within a regulated CIMIC construct. The theory of change offers a unique perspective on the intertwined dynamics of civil–military collaboration, public trust and soft military power in peacebuilding, steering state policy outcomes. These are shaped by the government’s ability to reshape military duties devoid of military overreach. In conclusion, civilian control over the military materialises through shared accountability in peacebuilding endeavours, encapsulated within the CIMIC framework.
How to Cite
Antara (2022): TNI Must Maintain Professionalism, Public Trust. Antara News, 06 October 2022. Online: https://en.antaranews.com/news/253589/tni-must-maintain-professionalismpublic-trust
Barakat, Sultan – Zyck, Steven A. (2009): The Evolution of Post-Conflict Recovery. Third World Quarterly, 30(6), 1069–1086. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590903037333
Berger, Peter L. – Luckma nn, Thomas (1966): The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Doubleday & Company.
Bland, Douglas L. (1999): A Unified Theory of Civil–Military Relations. Armed Forces and Society, 26(1), 7–25. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X9902600102
Bryden, Alan – Hänggi, Heiner eds. (2005): Security Governance in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).
Burk, James (2002): Theories of Democratic Civil–Military Relations. Armed Forces and Society, 29(1), 7–29. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X0202900102
Caspersz, D. – Wallis, J. (2006): The Role of the Military in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: What Does the ‘New Agenda’ Mean for Inter-Agency Cooperation. Journal of Peace, Conflict, and Development, 8, 1–26.
De Coning, Cedric (2017): Peace Enforcement in Africa: Doctrinal Distinctions between the African Union and United Nations. Contemporary Security Policy, 38(1), 145–160. Online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2017.1283108
De Groot, Tom – Regilme, Salvatore S. F. (2022): Private Military and Security Companies and the Militarization of Humanitarianism. Journal of Developing Societies, 38(1), 50–80. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0169796X211066874
Feaver , Peter D. (1999): Civil–Military Relations. Annual Review of Political Science, 2(1), 211–241. Online: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.2.1.211
Finer, Samuel E. (2002): The Man on Horseback. The Role of the Military in Politics. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Franke, Volker (2006): The Peacebuilding Dilemma: Civil–Military Cooperation in Stability Operations. International Journal of Peace Studies, 11(2), 5–25.
Galtung, Johan (1975a): Essays in Peace Research. Volume 1. Peace: Research – Education – Action. Copenhagen: Ejlers.
Galtung, Johan (1975b): Three Approaches to Peace: Peacekeeping, Peacemaking, and Peacebuilding. In Essays in Peace Research. Volume II. Peace, War and Defense. Copenhagen: Ejlers. 282–304.
Galtung, Johan (1997): Peace by Peaceful Means. Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute. Online: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446221631
Glasl, Friedrich (1999): Confronting Conflict. A First-Aid Kit for Handling Conflict. Stroud: Hawthorn Press.
Haspeslagh, Sophie – You suf, Zahbia eds. (2015): Local Engagement with Armed Groups. In the Midst of Violence. Online: https://rc-services-assets.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/Local_engagement_with_armed_groups_in_the_midst_of_violence_Accord_Insight_2.pdf
Hernawan, Budi J. – Indarti , Poengky (2008): The Practice of Torture in Aceh and Papua, 1998–2007: With an Annex on the Situation of Human Rights in Timor Leste. Report. Jakarta: SKP Jayapura.
Human Rights Watch (2006): Too High a Price: The Human Rights Cost of the Indonesian Military’s Economic Activities. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Huntington, Samuel P. (1985): The Soldier and the State. The Theory and Practice of Civil–Military Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Janowitz, Morris (1964): The Military in the Political Development of New Nations. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Kingma, Kees (1997): Demobilization of Combatants after Civil Wars in Africa and Their Reintegration into Civilian Life. Policy Sciences, 30(3), 151–165. Online: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004215705156
Koonings, Kees – Kru ijt, Dirk eds. (2002): Political Armies. The Military and Nation Building in the Age of Democracy. London: Zed Books.
Laksmana, Evan (2011): Indonesian Military Reform, 1998–2011: A Retrospective. Security Challenges, 7(2), 63–83.
Major, David M. (1999): From Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding: Theory, Cases, Experiments and Solutions. Online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262423503_From_Peacekeeping_to_Peacebuilding_Theory_Cases_Experiments_and_Solution/link/00b7d537b5a60edc2c000000/download
Mietzner, Marcus (2006): The Politics of Military Reform in Post-Suharto Indonesia: Elite Conflict, Nationalism, and Institutional Resistance. Washington, D.C.: East–West Center. NATO Standard AJP-3.19 (2018): Allied Joint Doctrine for Civil–Military Cooperation. Brussels: NATO Standardization Office (NSO).
Pugh, Michael – Cooper, Neil – Goodhand, Jonathan (2004): War Economies in a Regional Context. Overcoming the Economic and Social Legacies of Conflict. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Rigby, Andrew (2006): Is There a Role for the Military in Peacebuilding? Online: https://www.c-r.org/downloads/review32.pdf
Rukavishnikov, Vladimir O. – Pugh, Michael (2003): Civil–Military Relations. In Caforio, Giuseppe (ed.): Handbook of the Sociology of the Military. New York: Kluwer Academic. 131–150. Online: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-34576-0_8
Schiff, Rebecca L. (1995): Civil–Military Relations Reconsidered: A Theory of Concordance. Armed Forces and Society, 22(1), 7–24. Online: https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X9502200101
Schulze , Kirsten E. (2007): Mission Not So Impossible. The Aceh Monitoring Mission and Lessons Learned for the EU. Stockholm: International Policy Analysis.
Tadjbakhsh, Shahrbanou – Chenoy, Anuradha M. (2007): Human Security. Concepts and Implications. London – New York: Routledge. Online: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203965955
Wall, James A. (1985): Negotiation: Theory and Practice. Glenview, IL: Pearson Scott Foresman.