Patterns and Actors of Disinformation: Analysis of Debunked Hoaxes in Spain in 2022

  • Blanco-Herrero David
  • Castillo-Abdul Bárbara
  • Rodríguez Luis Miguel Romero
doi: 10.17646/KOME.of.3


This research examines the patterns followed by disinformation in Spain through the fact-checking activities of, the leading fact-checking organisation in Spain. We sought to answer three research questions: 1. What are the predominant topics of the hoaxes debunked by 2. Who is responsible for the creation and dissemination of these hoaxes? and 3. In what formats and platforms are these hoaxes generally distributed? For this purpose, we conducted a quantitative content analysis of 729 hoaxes fact-checked in 2022 by Maldito Bulo. 40.7% of the debunked hoaxes were related to social issues, while 37.2% focused on political affairs. Regarding those responsible for the creation and dissemination, most of the hoaxes came from unidentified sources, although when the identity is known, the most frequent contributors are social media accounts, alternative and partisan pseudo-media and journalists. These results explore the general disinformation scenario in Spain, using fact-checking as an approximation and discussing its implications.


disinformation misinformation confirmation journalism social media political information

How to Cite

Blanco-Herrero, D., Castillo-Abdul, B., & Rodríguez, L. M. R. (2023). Patterns and Actors of Disinformation: Analysis of Debunked Hoaxes in Spain in 2022. KOME, 11(2), 49–67.


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