Navigation Warfare (NAVWAR)
Balancing the Position in Space between GPS and Galileo
In the concept of the Space Navigation Warfare (NAVWAR), balancing the position in space during the cold negotiations between the EU and the USA was the main aim in nullifying NAVWAR. Galileo, the new European navigational satellite system, will handle new potential operational fields and services, along with the existing U.S. navigational satellite system. However, the so-called U.S. NAVSTAR GPS system is operating in the same unified space, and it is currently the dominant and the standard navigational system in the world, therefore, it is considered a monopoly in this domain. Meanwhile, the Galileo system will share the GPS system in this single space, it will enhance both the performance and the accuracy, and it will also share its benefits with civilians. Furthermore, the Europeans will pursue the EU independency from the U.S. and the economic share as well. The objective of this article is to identify the justifications and rationale of both stakeholders, the EU and the U.S., in having their interests in space. Those interests started initially as two separated independent systems and ended up eventually after long negotiations as two competitive and intraoperative systems. Furthermore, the article will identify the positive technical efforts progress done by both sides in order to maintain the two systems competitive, modernised and dynamic to become one efficient system, similarly to the Internet worldwide. However, there will be less focus on other systems such as the Russian GLONASS system, the Chinese Beidou system, and other augmented systems for the reasons explained later in this article.